Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)

МИНУЛИЙ НЕОЗНАЧЕНИЙ ЧАС (THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE)

Минулий неозначений час вживається для повідомлення про регулярно повторювані у минулому дії, а також для опису послідовності дій, що відбувались у минулому. При цьому можуть вживатися такі обставини часу: yesterday, last month (year, night), two days ago.

У минулому неозначеному часі до основи правильних дієслів додасться закінчення -ed: work worked, helphelped.

Неправильні дієслова мають спеціальні форми минулого часу: соте — came, see saw, buybought.

Стверджувальна форма минулого неозначеного часу утворюється так:

l/you/he/she/it/we/they + V2 (Ved)

Наприклад:

We watched TV yesterday. He swam in the river last week. Утворюючи форму минулого неозначеного часу, слід дотримуватися таких правил правопису.

1) Якщо основа дієслова закінчується на -е, то додається тільки -d: love loved, dancedanced.

2) Якщо основа дієслова закінчується приголосним з попереднім наголошеним голосним, кінцевий приголосний подвоюється й додається -ed: stop stopped, preferpreferred.

3) Якщо основа дієслова закінчується на -у з попереднім приголосним, то -у змінюється на -і й додається -ed: study studied, crycried.

4) Якщо основа дієслова закінчується на -у з попереднім голосним, то додається -ed: play played, enjoy enjoyed.

5) Якщо основа дієслова закінчується на -І, то з додаванням закінчення -ed цей приголосний подвоюється: travel travelled.

Форми минулого часу для дієслова to be was/were: l/he/she/it — was, you/we/they — were.

1. Add -ed to the verbs and write them into the correct column.

To listen, to permit, to stay, to hate, to fry, to travel, to walk, to live, to rob, to carry, to save, to clean, to hurry, to slip, to answer, to bake, to empty, to prefer, to play, to like, to regret, to talk, to reply, to plan, to wait, to close, to tidy.

-ed

-d

-ied

Double Consonant + -ed

2. Complete the table with missing irregular verbs.

Present

Past

Present

Past

begin

broke

bought

build

catch

came

do

drank

ate

find

got

had

know

make

paid

run

see

swam

speak

take

told

think

understand

woke

wore

write

3. Choose irregular verbs and write their past forms.

To ask, to bring, to collect, to bathe, to sleep, to keep, to read, to complete, to reply, to grow, to show, to say, to fly, to put, to relax, to cook, to shake, to leave, to act, to give, to protect, to cost, to blow, to move, to meet, to order, to lose, to forget, to play, to feel.

4. Complete the poem with the past forms of the verbs in brackets.

A Bad Day

I... (to oversleep) and ... (to miss) my train,

... (to slip) on the sidewalk in the pouring rain,

... (to sprain) my ankle, ... (to skin) my knee,

... (to break) my glasses, ... (to lose) my keys,

... (to get) stuck in the elevator, it wouldn’t go,

... (to kick) it twice and ... (to stub) my toe,

... (to buy) a pen that... (to do) not write,

... (to take) it back and ... (to have) a fight,

... (to go) home angry, ... (to lock) the door,

... (to crawl) into bed, couldn’t take any more.

to sprain — розтягнути зв’язки

to skin — зідрати шкіру

to stub — вдарити    

to crawl — повзти

5. Complete the sentences with was or were.

It ... Sunday yesterday. The weather ... horrible and my parents and me ... at home. But I really ... happy to stay at home. My mother ... busy cooking a delicious dinner and my father and me ... fond of playing chess. First I ... not lucky, but then my father ... surprised with my success. When our tournament ... over, I ... proud of my victory. After dinner there ... an exciting show on TV. It... very funny. In the evening I... tired a bit. But I ... glad to spend the day with my parents.

6. Rewrite the sentences in the Past Simple Tense.

It is Monday. I get up at seven o’clock, brush my teeth, have a shower and go to the kitchen to have breakfast. My mother cooks breakfast for all the family and my elder sister washes the dishes after breakfast as she starts her work later. I leave home at eight o’clock. My lessons begin at half past eight and I have enough time to meet my friends. We go to school together and exchange the opinions about the weekend. After school I hurry home and have dinner. After a short rest I do my homework and tidy my room. Then I play computer games. When my parents come home we have supper and watch TV.     Complete the text with the verbs from the boxes, using them in the Past Simple.

An angry woman ... into the baker’s shop and ..., «I... my son for two pounds of cookies this morning but when I... them there ... only one pound. I suggest you to check your scales». The baker ... at the woman calmly and then ..., «Madam, I suggest you to weigh your son».

Заперечна форма минулого неозначеного часу утворюється додаванням допоміжного дієслова did (як для правильних, так і для неправильних дієслів) та заперечної частки not до дієслова-присудка без закінчення -ed (для правильних) або в першій формі (для неправильних).

l/you/he/she/if/we/they + did not (didn't) + V1

Наприклад:

He did not (didn't) work yesterday.

We did not (didn't) buy bread yesterday.

Якщо в реченні присудком є одна з форм дієслова to be, заперечна форма такого речення утворюється саме за допомогою цього дієслова.

l/he/she/it + was not (wasn't)

You/we/they + were not (weren't)

Наприклад:

I was not (wasn’t) at school yesterday.    

They were not (weren't) angry with me.

8. Make the sentences negative.

1) Sue danced a lot at the party yesterday. 2) We finished our project three days ago. 3) It was very cold yesterday. 4) They flew to Athens last week. 5) Our teacher told us about extinct animals at the last lesson. 6) The children were at the zoo last Sunday. 7) I met him many years ago. 8) Ted washed his car last week. 9) The train arrived five minutes ago. 10) You spoke to him yesterday. 11) Amanda and Polly travelled around Great Britain last summer. 12) We were very tired yesterday. 13) Henry bought this motor-bike a year ago. 14) She finished working late in the evening. 15) Our lesson began fifteen minutes ago.

9. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) Ron ... (not to break) that vase yesterday. 2) She ... (to try) to open the door, but it... (not to move). 3) Alan ... (to miss) the lessons yesterday and ... (not to know) the homework. 4) Mary ... (to be) busy with the cooking and ... (not to hear) the doorbell ringing. 5) I... (to ask) you a question but you ... (not to answer) it. 6) It... (not to be) windy yesterday and the Robinsons ... (to decide) to have a picnic. 7) You ... (not to feed) the cat and it... (to be) hungry. 8) Monica ... (not to read) the story and ... (to get) a bad mark at the Literature lesson last Thursday. 9) We ... (to wait) for you, but you ... (not to come). 10) I... (not to think) you ... (to be) interested in this job.

10. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the joke.

Two boys ... (to argue) when a man ... (to come up) to them. The man ... (to ask), «Why are you arguing?» One boy ... (to answer), «We ... (to find) a ten dollar bill and ... (to decide) to give it to whoever tells the biggest lie». «You should be ashamed of yourselves», ... (to say) the man. «When I... (to be) your age I .1. (not even to know) what a lie ... (to be)». The boys ... (to give) the ten dollars to the man.

Питальна форма минулого неозначеного часу (загальні запитання) утворюється таким чином: допоміжне дієслово did ставиться на початку речення перед підметом, причому основне дієслово вживається без -ed або в першій формі.

Did + l/you/he/she/if/we/they + V1?

Відповіді на такі запитання даються короткі, із використанням того самого допоміжного дієслова:

Did you cook dinner? — Yes, I did./No, I didn't.

Did she buy milk? — Yes, she did./No, she didn't.

Якщо в реченні до складу присудка входить форма дієслова to be, питальне речення та відповідь утворюються за його допомогою:

Was he tired yesterday? — Yes, he was./No, he wasn't.

Were they at the cinema? — Yes, they were./No, they weren't.

11. Make the sentences interrogative.

1) Andy showed me his new car yesterday. 2) Helen forgot about the meeting. 3) We ordered the dessert some minutes ago. 4) They watched a new thriller at the cinema. 5) The weather changed in the morning. 6) The girl swept the floor in the kitchen. 7) I found your note near my front door. 8) It was very cold in the evening. 9) Little Bob drank milk in the morning.

10) Fiona translated this text two days ago. 11) They were at the exhibition last Friday. 12) We saw a strange object in the sky. 13) The baby was frightened by a big dog. 14) You wrote a wonderful essay. 15) Borys put the money into his pocket.

12. Write short answers to the questions.

1)    Did Sam eat the chicken? — Yes, .... 2) Did Frank and Jack mend the bike yesterday? — No, ... . 3) Was Peter upset? — Yes, ... . 4) Did you understand the rule? — Yes, ... . 5) Were the children on the playground? — No, .... 6) Did the cat catch a mouse? — Yes,... . 7) Did you get a good mark for the test? — Yes, ... . 8) Was your mother at home in the evening? — Yes, ... . 9) Did Nick drive fast? — No, ... . 10) Were you busy yesterday? — No, ....

13. Make up sentences using the Past Simple Tense.

1) She/not to choose/the dress/for the party. 2) Alice/to go shopping/yesterday? 3) We/to speak/to our coach/yesterday. 4) Ben/not to agree/to help/me. 5) They/listen to music/in their room/in the evening? 6) Molly/to have lunch/half an hour ago. 7) You/to be/in a hurry/yesterday. 8) Fred/to pay/ the bill? 9) They/not to bring/me/the disc. 10) You/to be/in the hospital/yesterday? 11) Larry/totake/my wallet? 12) They/not to see/me/yesterday. 13) The bus/to depart/ten minutes ago. 14) It/to be/cold/yesterday? 15) Wendy/not to take/a shower/ in the evening.

14. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1)... you ... (to see) my hat? — Yes, I... . It... (to be) on the hat- stand yesterday. 2) ... Teddy ... (to buy) butter yesterday? — No, he ... . He ... (to leave) his wallet at home. 3)... Dolly ... (to water) the flowers yesterday? — No, she .... She ... (to water) them two days ago. 4)... it... (to snow) yesterday? — No, it... . The weather ... (to be) sunny but cold. 5) ... you ... (to be late) for the train? — No, I .... I ... (to catch) a taxi and ... (to be) just in time. 6)... David and Lora ... (to have) a good time at the seaside? — Yes, they .... They... (to stay) in a comfortable hotel and ... (to meet) a lot of new friends. 7) ... Samantha ... (to read) this article? — No, she ... . I ... (to give) her this magazine only some minutes ago. 8) ... you ... (to be happy) to win the cup? — Yes, I ... . I ... (to train) a lot to win this competition. 9) ... your watch ... (to cost) a lot? — No, it ... . I... (to buy) it on a sale. 10)... Kate ... (to wake up) late? — No, she .... She ... (to wake up) at seven o’clock.

15. Translate into English.

1) Учора була чудова погода. 2) Ми не отримали вашого повідомлення вчора. 3) Ви бачили цю п’єсу? — Так, я бачив її минулого місяця. 4) Вона прибрала квартиру та приготувала вечерю. 5) Вашому братові сподобалась вечірка? — Так. Він зустрів там багато цікавих людей. 6) Вчитель був задоволений моїми відповідями. 7) Вона зупинилась і подивилася на годинник. Було пів на восьму. 8) Стара жінка була рада побачити своїх онуків. 9) Я не був удома вчора. Я відвідував свого двоюрідного брата. 10) Ваша сестра залишилася вдома вчора? — Так. У неї боліла голова, і вона вирішила відпочити. 11) Вибачте, я не зрозумів вашого запитання. 12) Вони грали у волейбол на майданчику після уроків. 13) Ви писали диктант учора? — Ні. 14) Я не зателефонував вам, бо не знав вашого номера телефону. 15) Він приніс вам словник? — Так, він приніс його два дні тому.

Складаючи спеціальне запитання у минулому неозначеному часі, слова розташовують у такому порядку: питальне слово (Wh-word), допоміжне дієслово did, підмет, дієслово-присудок у першій формі або без закінчення -ed:

Wh-word + did + l/you/he/she/it/we/they + V1?

Наприклад:

When did you come home?

What did she cook?

Where did they meet you?

Запитання до підмета утворюється без допоміжного дієслова, і дієслово-присудок вживається у формі минулого часу:

Who visited you yesterday?

Who brought you the book?

Якщо в реченні є форми дієслова to be, спеціальні запитання утворюються за їх допомогою. Запитання до підмета утворюються лише за допомогою форми was:

Where were you yesterday?

Who was at the party?

16. Write questions to the sentences using the question words in brackets.

1) Alan was at the seaside last month. (Where? When?) 2) Mike sold his car a week ago. (What? When?) 3) I gave him this disc last week. (Who? Whom?) 4) They walked slowly along the street. (How?) 5) The children were at the exhibition yesterday. (Who? Where?) 6) His cousin made a model ship two days ago. (Whose? When?) 7) They were late because of the rain. (Who? Why?) 8) She bought two kilos of meat at the market yesterday. (What? How much?) 9) Max and Bob wanted to send you a postcard. (Who? Whom?) 10) We passed three exams last year. (When? How many?)

17. Write questions to the underlined words.

1) They played tennis in a new court last Sunday. 2) She translated two articles yesterday. 3) He was in the swimming-pool three days ago. 4) We sentуou the e-mail letter yesterday. 5) The pupils were in the gym half an hour ago.

18. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the joke.

A man ... (to buy) a parrot which could already talk. However, the man soon ... (to discover) that the parrot mostly ... (to know) bad words. At first he ... (to think) it ... (to be) funny, but then it... (to become) tiresome, and finally, when the man ... (to have) important guests, the bird’s bad words ... (to embarrass) him very much. As soon as the guests ... (to leave), the man angrily ... (to shout) at the parrot, «That language must stop!» But the bird ... (to continue) telling bad words. Now the man ... (to be) really angry. He ... (to grab) the parrot and ... (to put) it into the refrigerator. But it ... (to have) no effect. From inside the refrigerator, the parrot still ...(to say) nasty words. Then the man ... (to open) the door of the freezer, ... (to throw) the bird into it, and ... (to close) the door. This time there ... (to be) silence. After two minutes, the man ... (to open) the door and ... (to remove) the very cold parrot. Slowly the shivering parrot... (to walk) up the man’s arm, ... (to sit) on his shoulder and ... (to speak) into his ear, sounding very frightened, «I’ll be good, I promise... Those chickens in there... what... they... (to say)?»

19. Make up questions using the Past Simple and answer them. (Use the text of ex. 18.)

1) What parrot/the man/to buy? 2) When/the bird’s words/ to embarrass/the man? 3) Why/the man/to become angry? 4) Where/the man/to throw/the parrot? 5) Why/the parrot/to be frightened?

20. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) Where ... Susan ... (fo be) yesterday? — She ... (to go) to the birthday party.— Who ... 9to have) the party? — Angela ... (to have). She ... (to be) fifteen yesterday. 2) Who ... (to phone) a few minutes ago? — It ... (to be) your friend Eric. He ... (to want) to invite you to the cinema. 3) ... you ... (to watch) this film? — Yes, I .... I ... (to watch) it some days ago.— How ... you ... (to like) it? — Well, not very much. It ... (to seem) to be rather boring. 4) How many subjects ... she ... (fo study) last year? — She ... (to study) twelve subjects. She also ... (to attend) the Music Studio. 5) Where ... you (to be) during your last holidays? — My parents and me ... (fo go) to China. We ... (fo visit) some very interesting places. ... you ... (to enjoy) your trip? — Of course, we .... 6) ... your sister ... (to go) shopping yesterday? What ... she ... (fo buy)? — Well, she ... (fo go) to a new shopping centre and ... (to buy) a pair of nice shoes and a pretty hat there. 7) Why ... Dick (fo be) late for the lecture? — He ... (fo oversleep) and ... (fo miss) the bus. 8) When ... the concert ... (fo begin)? — It ... (fo begin) twenty minutes ago. 9) Who ... (to be) at the meeting yesterday? — Well, there ... (to be) a lot of people, but I ... (not to meet) anyone I know. 10) ... Bill... (fo repair) his mobile phone? — No, he ... . His parents ... (to promise) him to buy a new one.

21. Translate into English.

1) Що вона робила вчора? — Вона прибирала у кімнаті і саджала квіти в саду. 2) Де ви були минулого вівторка? — Ми водили дітей до театру. 3) Коли ви прийшли додому вчора? — Ми прийшли о восьмій вечора. Ми дуже втомились і не зателефонували вам. 4) Як вони провели вихідні? — Вони відвідували своїх родичів. 5) Вона повернула книги до бібліотеки? — Так, вона ходила до бібліотеки три дні тому. 6) Діти ходили на прогулянку вчора? — Ні. Вчора йшов дощ і діти дивились мультфільми по телевізору. 7) Куди він поклав мій фотоапарат? — Він був на письмовому столі вчора. 8) Який фільм ви дивилися вчора? — Це був захоплюючий пригодницький фільм. Він нам дуже сподобався. 9) Що вона хотіла розповісти мені? — Вона хотіла розповісти про свою подорож до Франції. 10) Скільки запрошень ви надіслали? — Учора ми надіслали сім запрошень.

Зверніть увагу на відмінності у вживанні теперішнього та минулого неозначених часів.

Теперішній неозначений час вживається для описання регулярної дії чи постійного стану.

Характерні обставини часу:

always, often, usually, every,

sometimes, seldom, - rarely, never.

Минулий неозначений час вживається для повідомлення про регулярно повторювані дії

у минулому, а також для опису послідовності дій, що відбувались у минулому.

Характерні обставини часу:

yesterday, last, ago.

22. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Past Simple Tense.

1) She likes reading. She often ...(to read) books in the evenings. 2) Yesterday she ... (to read) an article about a famous pop star. 3) I ... (to meet) Sandy some days ago. 4) I sometimes ... (to meet) them in the library. 5) It often ... (to rain) here in spring. 6) It ... (to rain) heavily yesterday. 7) We usually ... (to have) six lessons on Wednesdays. 8) Yesterday we ... (to have) five lessons. 9) Mark is a hardworking student. He rarely ... (to miss) classes. 10) Mark ... (to miss) school last Monday because he ... (to be) ill. 11) The children ... (to drink) fruit juice every day but yesterday they ... (to drink) milk. 12) They usually ... (to go) to the countryside every weekend. 13) It ... (to be) cold last Saturday and we ... (not to go) to the country. 14) Margaret ... (often not to get) messages from her friends. 15) Margaret... (to get) a message from you two days ago.

23. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Past Simple Tense.

1) What ... Diana ... (usually to do) in the evenings? — She usually ... (to go) for a walk with her friend. 2) What ... Ben ... (to do) yesterday? — He ... (to help) his father in the garage and then he ... (to play) football with other boys. 3)... Robert... (to call) his dentist last Tuesday? — No, he .... 4) Where ... you ... (usually to spend) your winter holidays? — We often ... (to go) to the mountains, but last winter we ... (to go) to Italy. 5) Where ... she ... (to spend) her last weekend? — She ... (to visit) her grandparents in the country. 6)... your Granny ... (to cook) jam every summer? — Yes, she ... . 7) Who ... (to give) you this note yesterday? — My neighbour. 8) When ... his training ... (to finish) yesterday? — It... (to finish) at half past seven. 9) When ... this TV show ... (usually to finish)? — It always ... (to finish) at seven o’clock. 10) Who ... (to phone) you every evening? — My friends.

24. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Past Simple Tense.

— Where ... you (to be) last Friday, Helen? I ... (to want) to invite you to a disco club, but your mother ... (to tell) me you ... (to have) some business.

— Quite right, Vicky. You know I... (to be) fond of gardening and there ... (to be) a flower exhibition last Friday. So I ... (to go) there to buy some seeds and flowers.

— ... you ... (to buy) anything, Helen?

— Yes, I .... I ... (to buy) the seeds of some rare roses and tulips.

— How often ... such exhibitions ... (to take) place in our town?

— Not often. They usually ... (to take) place twice a year. I always ... (to visit) them. It ... (to be) always a good chance for me to know more about plants. And ... you ... (to have) a good time at the disco club last Friday, Vicky?

— Yes, I ... , I ... (to meet) Jane and Tony there and we ... (to dance) a lot.

— ... you ... (to come) home late then?

— Oh, yes! My parents ... (to be) angry with me. But I ... (to promise) not to come home so late any more. So now everything ... (to be) all right.

25. Translate into English.

1) Щороку вони проводять два тижні у селі. 2) Минулого року вони не їздили у гори. 3) Вона іноді купує цей журнал. 4) Минулого тижня вона забула повернути мені диск. 5) Як часто твій друг відвідує тебе? — Ми зустрічаємося дуже часто. 6) Чому ти вчора не зателефонував мені? — Вибач, я був зайнятий. 7) Де вона зазвичай купує овочі? — Вона завжди купує овочі на ринку. 8) Де ти купив цю сорочку? — Я купив її вчора на розпродажі. 9) Кому вона вчора дала мою книжку? — Вона дала твою книгу двоюрідній сестрі. 10) Хто чекає на тебе щовечора? — Це мій друг.





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