Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)

ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ ДОКОНАНИЙ ЧАС (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE)

Теперішній доконаний час вживається, коли йдеться про події, що відбулися нещодавно, або якщо час у минулому, коли вони мали місце, не зазначено. Стверджувальна форма теперішнього доконаного часу утворюється додаванням допоміжного дієслова have/has до дієслова-присудка у третій формі (для неправильних дієслів) або із закінченням -ed (для правильних дієслів):

l/you/we/they + have + V3 (Ved)

He/she/it + has + V3 (Ved)

Наприклад:

You have just cleaned the flat.

He has already come home.

Неправильні дієслова мають спеціальні форми (третя форма неправильних дієслів у таблиці (Past Participle)): go gone, fly — flown.

1. Write the Past Participle of the following verbs.

To become, to break, to buy, to choose, to go, to drink, to drive, to find, to get, to grow, to have, to keep, to leave, to make, to see, to read, to sleep, to swim, to send, to take, to think, to wake, to write.

2. Choose irregular verbs and write their past participle.

To arrive, to give, to play, to understand, to blow, to prepare, to wash, to fall, to miss, to run, to know, to talk, to open, to do, to water, to teach, to iron, to brush, to pay, to say, to remember, to show, to speak, to gather.

3. Circle the correct item.

1) I have/has watched this film. 2) We have began/begun the work. 3) Den have/has done his homework. 4) Molly has break/ broken her toy. 5) Julia and Betty have/has cut the vegetables. 6)     He/we have paid for pizza. 7) You have/has ironed this dress. 8) Children have has/had supper. 9) I/she have switched off the light. 10) Martin has went /gone. 11) The girl has drew/drawn a nice picture. 12) You/he has returned from the trip. 13) They have/has gathered the harvest. 14) She/they has packed the things. 15) We have chose/chosen the present. 16) The train have/has arrived.

4. Make up sentences using the Present Perfect Tense.

1) You/to wash/the/dishes. 2) They/to buy/a/new/computer. 3) She/to wash/her/skirt. 4) I/to paint/the/fence. 5) The/dog/ to eat/a/piece/of/meat. 6) Sheila/and/Elsa/to make/a/cake. 7) My/father/to read/this/newspaper. 8) Henry/to order/a/ cup/of/coffee. 9) The/children/to buy/ice cream. 10) The/ rain/to stop. 11) Mrs Franks/to lose/her/key. 12) Sarah/to go/ to/the/supermarket. 13) We/to pass/thfe/exam/successfully. 14) Joe/to leave/this/book/at/home. 15) Nick/and/Alex/to see/this/film.

Обставини часу, характерні для теперішнього доконаного часу: just (щойно), already (вже), ever (коли-небудь), never (ніколи), recently (нещодавно, останнім часом), lately (нещодавно, останнім часом), yet (ще), since (з того часу як), for (протягом), today (сьогодні), this week (month, year) (цього тижня (місяця, року)), so far (поки що). Обставини часу в реченні, як правило, стоять між допоміжним дієсловом та дієсловом-присудком (just, already, ever, never...) або в кінці (today, yet, so far, this week...). Yetвживається тільки в заперечних та питальних реченнях. Наприклад:

I have already been there.    

She has never seen this film.

We have met her today.

He hasn't finished his work yet.

5. Make up sentences using the Present Perfect Tense.

1) We/to return/from the journey/just.

2) I/to see/my boss/today.

3) Helen/to decorate/her room/already.

4) My cousins/to be/to this cinema/never.

5) Max/to buy/а magazine/today.

6) You/to spend/а lot of money/this month.

7) Ian and Peter/to repair/the radio/already.

8) I/to drive/а car/never.

9) We/to get/some letters/this week.

10) The dog/to run away/just.

Прийменник since в обставинах часу вживається для позначення початку дії в минулому:

I have worked in this shop since last month.

Прийменник for в обставинах часу вживається для позначення періоду, протягом якого відбувалася дія до теперішнього часу:

Не has known ту brother tor three years.

6. Fill in since or for.

1) ... yesterday

2) ... two weeks

3) ... last month

4) ... 1998

5) ... five days

6)    ... last Friday

7)    ... a week

8)    ... four hours

9)    ... 5 o’clock

10) ... a year

7. Complete the sentences with tor or since.

1)    We have known each other ... six years. 2) Tina has worked as a nurse ... April. 3) My brother has had this car ... three months. 4) My grandparents have lived in this house ... 1987. 5) They have been here ... two hours. 6) Mr Jackson has worked at this hospital ... thirteen years. 7) Tom has had the driving licence ... he was twenty. 8) Monica has had a new job ... last month. 9) My sister has been a journalist... eight years.

Заперечна форма теперішнього доконаного часу утворюється додаванням допоміжного дієслова to have та заперечної частки not до дієслова-присудка (у третій формі для неправильних дієслів або із закінченням -ed для правильних):

l/you/we/they + have not (haven't) + V3(Ved)

He/she/it + has not (hasn't) + V3(Ved)

Наприклад:

We haven't read this book yet.

She hasn’t corrected all the mistakes.

8. Make the sentences negative.

1) She has found a wallet on the road. 2) We have tidied our country house. 3) The weather has changed. 4) Liz has left you a note. 5) They have moved to another hotel. 6) I have caught a big fish. 7) Pupils have learned this poem. 8) Mike has booked the tickets for us. 9) The plane has landed. 10) The doctor has prescribed some medicine.

9. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the jokes.

1) A son comes up to his father and asks, «Is it good to punish anybody for something this person ... (not to do)?» «Of course not, Bobby», answers his father. «Well, I ... (not to do) my homework, Dad».

2) Old doctor: You ... (to cure) your patient. What is there to worry about now?

Young doctor: I don’t know which of the medicines ... (to cure) him.

10. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) Carol and Sam ... (to play) two games of chess today. 2) Mary ... (already to set) the table for dinner. 3) The boys ... (not to return) from school yet. 4) Look! The sun ... (already to rise)! 5) Scott ... (not to tell) me about his voyage yet. 6) I ... (not to get) letters from her for two months. 7) Alice ... (just to buy) a pretty dress. 8) We ... (not to discuss) this question so far. 9) Sue ... (never to be) to this town. 10) The secretary ... (just to receive) this e-mail letter. 11) Helen ... (not to finish) cooking so far. 12) My classmates ... (never to do) such a difficult task. 13) The Bakers ... (just to go) to the football match. 14) I ... (never to hear) about this pop group. 15) We ... (not to meet) Alex this week.

11. David has made a list of things to do before going on holidays. Look at the list and write what he has already done or hasn't done yet.

Питальна форма теперішнього доконаного часу (загальне запитання) утворюється таким чином: допоміжне дієслово have/has розташовується на початку речення перед підметом, а присудок не змінює своєї форми.

Have + l/you/we/they + V3?

Has + he/she/it + V3?

Відповіді на такі запитання даються короткі, з використанням того самого допоміжного дієслова:

Have they had supper? — Yes, they have./No, they haven't.

Has he ever travelled by plane? — Yes, he has./No, he hasn't.

12. Make the sentences interrogative.

1) We have been to the theatre. 2) I have painted the walls in my bedroom. 3) Richard has turned on the radio. 4) They have explained this rule to me. 5) Amy and Ron have gone to play tennis. 6) Molly has made a cup of tea. 7) His parents have gone to the market. 8) Nelly has typed three letters. 9) The parrot has flown away. 10) The students have prepared for the exams.

13. Write short answers to the questions.

1) Has Jessica walked the dog today? — Yes, ... .

2) Have you read this novel? — No, ....

3) Has your brother ever been abroad? — Yes, ... .

4) Have James and Brian told you about the conference? — Yes, ... .

5) Has the show begun? — No, ... .

6) Have you ever ridden a horse? — No, ... .

7) Have your parents bought you a puppy? — Yes, ... .

8) Has Stuart taken the temperature? — No, ....

9) Has the ferry reached the port? — Yes, ... .

10) Have the students written the test? — No, ... .

14. Use the table to ask and answer the questions as in the example.

Jump with parachute

Visit New York

Win a competition

Drive a car

Nancy

+

-

+

+

Ron and Bill

+

+

-

+

You

Example: Has Nancy ever jumped with a parachute? — Yes. she has. Has Nancy ever visited New York? — No. she hasn't.

15. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) ... the Whites ... (to move) into their new flat? — No, they .... But they ... (already to buy) new furniture. 2) ... Adam ... (to pay) the electricity bill yet? — No, he .... He ... (not to get) his salary yet. 3)... you ... (to be) to the supermarket today? — No, I ... . My mother ... (not to tell) me what to buy so far. 4)... Kevin ... (to find) his driving licence? — No, he ... . But he ... (to find) the key he lost a month ago. 5) ... Sue ... (to speak) to her parents about starting her own business? — Yes, she ... . 6)... you ... (to cook) dinner? — Yes, I ... . And I... (already to set) the table. 7)... your brother ... (to watch) this film? — No, he ..., but his friends ... (just to invite) him to the cinema to watch it. 8)... Julia ... (ever to ski)? — No, she ... (never to ski). 9) ... Jeff and Olga ... (ever to be) to Prague? — Well, they ... (just to go) there. 10) ... you ... (to meet) our teacher today? — Yes, I ... .

Складаючи спеціальні запитання у теперішньому доконаному часі, слова розташовують у такому порядку: питальне слово (Wh-word), допоміжне дієслово to have, підмет, присудок (дієсловo із закінченням -ed або у третій формі):

Wh-word + have + l/you/we/they + V3 (Ved)?

Wh-word + has + he/she/it + V3 (Ved)?

Наприклад:

Where have they gone?

What has she done today?

Запитання до підмета утворюються тільки з допоміжним дієсловом has:

Who has cleaned the flat?

Запитання зі словом when не утворюються в теперішньому доконаному часі. Натомість використовується минулий неозначений час.

16. Write questions to the sentences using the question words in brackets.

1) They have been to Rome. (Who? Where?)

2) She has sold her old house. (What to do? What house?)

3) He has phoned your sister three times. (Whom? How many?)

4) Her parents have gone to the seaside. (Whose? Where?)

5) Dolly has bought a nice doll for her younger sister. (What doll? For whom?)

6) You have taken my dictionary. (Who? Whose?)

7) We have watered the flowers in front of the house. (What to do? Where?)

8) Alex has learned two poems. (What? How many?)

9) Linda has met her aunt in the park. (Whom? Where?)

10) The scientists have discovered a new planet. (Who? What to do?)

17. Write questions to the underlined words.

1) My father has built a big garage. 2) Elsa has swept the floor in the hall. 3) Our boss has made five calls since morning. 4) We have told her about the concert. 5) My brother has fallen from a big tree.

18. Make up sentences using the Present Perfect Tense.

1) My mother/to give/me/money/to buy/а bottle of milk.

2) The car/not to stop/at the traffic lights.

3) You/to see/this film/yet?

4) Where/they/to go?

5) They/not to leave/the house/yet.

6) What music/she/to choose/for the party?

7) Your parents/to return/from the tour/yet?

8) Mr Gate/to crash/his new car.

9) How many books/he/to buy?

10) Tony/to meet/his lawyer/today?

19. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the jokes.

1) The headmaster comes up to Johnny and says, «I ... (to hear) complaints about you, Johnny, from all your teachers. What ... you ... (to do)?» «Nothing, sir», answers Johnny. «Exactly», says the headmaster in a sad voice.

2) Father returns home from his work and asks his children, «What ... you ... (to do) today to help your mother?» «I ... (to dry) the dishes», says his son. «And I ... (to pick up) the pieces», adds his daughter.

20. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) Why is your hair wet? — I ... (just to wash) it. 2) How long ... your sister ... (to live) in this flat? — She ... (to live) here for three years. 3) ... Janet and Richard ... (to invite) you to their wedding party? — Yes, they.... But I... (not to choose) a present for them yet. 4) What ... Sally ... (to cook) for supper today? — She ... (to make) your favourite chicken salad. 5) Where ... they ... (to go)? — They ... (to go) to the Art exhibition. They ... (not to be) there yet. 6) ... Harry ... (to graduate) from university? — No, he .... 7) Can I buy a ticket for the train? — Sorry, your train ... (just to depart). 8) The manager ... (just to go) to the bank. 9) What... (to happen)? — Den ... (to break) your favourite cup. 10) What a smell! I hope you ... (not to burn) the meat.

21. Translate into English.

1) Мама щойно прийшла додому. 2) Я ще не прочитав вашу статтю. 3) Що вони зробили? — Вони щойно помили посуд. 4) Він знає моїх батьків уже десять років. 5) Вони живуть у нашому місті з 2001 року. 6) Де ти був? — Я щойно повернувся з ринку. 7) Хто зателефонував тобі? — Це мій друг. Ми не бачилися вже п’ять років. 8) Кому вона залишила записку? — Вона залишила записку батькам. 9) Ви коли-небудь були в цьому музеї? — Ні, я ніколи там не був. 10) Ти бачив свого двоюрідного брата сьогодні? — Ще ні.

Зверніть увагу на відмінності у вживанні минулого неозначеного й теперішнього доконаного часів.

Минулий неозначений час вживається у таких випадках.

Теперішній доконаний час вживається у таких випадках.

1) Якщо дія почалась і завершилась у певний момент у минулому:

She came home an hour ago.

2) Для описання станів у минулому:

Не left our town when he was a student.

3) Якщо дії відбувались у минyлому одна за одною:

I took the magazine, opened it and found that article.

1) Якщо дія відбулась у минулому, але немає точної вказівки на час:

She has соте home.

2) Якщо дія завершилася нещодавно і зараз є її наслідки:

Не has just painted the roof of the house.

3) Якщо дія почалась у минулому і триває зараз:

I have lived in this house for seven years. (And I still live here.)

22. Circle the correct item.

1) Samantha translated/has translated the article. 2) Samantha translated/has translated the article yesterday. 3) We just planned/have just planned our journey. 4) We planned/have planned our journey last Sunday. 5) They took/have taken the baby to the doctor. 6) They took/have taken the baby to the doctor half an hour ago. 7) Henry learned/has learned to ride a bike when he was six. 8) Mary saw/has seen you in the park two hours ago. 9) The bus arrived/has arrived at five o’clock. 10) We bought/have bought the tickets and went to the platform.

23. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the Past Simple or Present Perfect Tense.

Example: Jessica ... the fruit. She ... them five minutes ago. (to wash) — Jessica has washed the fruit.

She washed them five minutes ago.

1) My little brother ... a model plane. He ... it two days ago. (to make)

2) His cousins ... him. They ... him last Saturday. (to visit)

3) It... snowing. It... snowing an hour ago. (to stop)

4) Tony ... an essay. He ... it last Thursday. (to write)

5) Andy and Martin ... their driving test. They ... it a week ago. (to pass)

6) Her grandparents ... her a new computer. They ... it in October. (to buy)

7) Eric ... his arm. He ... it last Wednesday. (to break)

8) My father ... me to swim. He ... me to swim last summer. (to teach)

9) You ... in the Alps. You ... there during last winter holidays. (to be)

24. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Present Perfect Tense.

1) Mr and Mrs Grey ... (to go) to Spain. They ... (to fly) there a week ago.

2) I... (not to skate) since I... (to be) a schoolgirl.

3) The children ... (just to finish) decorating the New Year Tree. Our father ... (to bring) it yesterday.

4) ... you ... (to type) the letter? — Yes, I .... I ... (to type) it fifteen minutes ago and ... (to ask) Sarah to send it.

5) Where ... your parents ... (to be)? — They ... (just to return) from the cinema. They ... (to come) home twenty minutes ago.

6) Why ... Paul ... (to look) so happy yesterday? — He ... (to win) a big sum of money in the lottery. He ... (already to buy) a new mobile phone.

7) ... Sammy ... (to have) dinner yet? — No, he ... . He ... (to return) from school a few minutes ago.

8) ... Vicky ... (to vacuum) the carpet in your room yesterday? — No, she ....

9) When ... the lesson ... (to begin)? — It ... (to begin) at nine o’clock.

10) They ... (to have) a car accident. Their car ... (to crash) a tree by the road last Monday.

25. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Present Perfect Tense.

Dear Angela,

I... (just to find) a few minutes to write to you about my rest in the summer camp. I... (to be) here for five days already. Our group ... (to arrive) at the camp last Friday and we ... (to have) busy days since then. I ... (to meet) a lot of new friends here. On Sunday we ... (to go) boating on the lake. It ... (to be) fun! I ... (not to go) boating for two years and my friend ... (never to do) it before. So our boat ... (to turn) upside down and we ... (to get) completely wet. It’s luck we can swim! But our small adventure ... (not to make) us upset. I... (already to learn) some new songs. A boy from our group ... (to teach) me to sing them a few days ago. And yesterday we ... (to go) on an excursion to an ancient castle. It... (to be) very exciting trip! I... (already to prepare) a souvenir for you. But sorry, I have not much time. We are going to have a football match.

See you soon,

Nigel.

26. Translate into English.

1) Як давно ви знаєте Ганну? — Я знаю її вже вісім років.

2) Коли вона розповіла тобі цю історію? — Вона розповіла її минулого місяця.

3) Він уже зробив уроки? — Ні, він пообідав п’ять хвилин тому.

4) Ви вже були в цьому кінотеатрі? — Так, ми були там минулої неділі.

5) Боб уже повернувся з магазину? — Ще ні. Він пішов туди десять хвилин тому.

6) Що вона загубила? — Вона загубила свою кредитну картку.

7) Коли твій брат повернувся додому? — Він ще не повернувся.

8) Мій друг продав свій велосипед. Він продав його кілька днів тому.

9) Хто написав цю записку? — Ден.

10) Куди ви поклали мої фотографії? — Я щойно поклала їх на ваш письмовий стіл.





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