Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018
ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)
МИНУЛИЙ ТРИВАЛИЙ ЧАС (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Минулий тривалий час вживається для описання дій, які тривали у певний момент у минулому.
Стверджувальна форма минулого тривалого часу утворюється за допомогою допоміжного дієслова was/were та закінчення -іng, яке додається до основи дієслова-присудка.
l/he/she/it + was + Ving
You/we/they + were + Ving
The woman was cooking dinner at 2 o'clock yesterday.
They were watching TV all day yesterday.
1. Make up sentences using the Past Continuous Tense.
1) I/to go home/at 4 o’clock yesterday.
2) We/to play basketball/at 6 o’clock last Sunday.
3) She/to talk with her friend/for forty minutes yesterday.
4) You/to wash the window/in the afternoon yesterday.
5) Nick/to ride his bike/all the evening.
6) Sheila and Dora/to wait for a bus/for half an hour.
7) They/to prepare for the party/all day yesterday.
8) I/to learn the poem/for an hour.
9) Dick/to paint the walls in his room/from 2 to 6 o’clock last Wednesday.
10) Eve and Tony/to skate/all day last Saturday.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Continuous Tense.
1) Alison ... (to have) lunch at two o’clock yesterday. 2) Edward and Henry ... (to play) the guitar all the evening. 3) Ben ... (to run) in the park in the morning yesterday. 4) I ... (to speak) to the manager from three to half past five last Thursday. 5) My grandparents ... (to drive) to Poltava at this time yesterday. 6) Lucy ... (to iron) clothes from 4 to 6 o’clock last Saturday. 7) You ... (to sleep) for three hours in the afternoon. 8) Julia ... (to listen) to news at this time yesterday. 9) My mother ... (to dust) the furniture when I came home yesterday. 10) We ... (to play) on the playground all day last Sunday.
3. Look at the picture and write down what people were doing when the chief came into the office. Use the words from the boxes.
When the chief came into the office at noon Amy was speaking on the phone, ...
Показники часу, які вживаються з минулим тривалим часом: when, while, as.
While вживається, коли дві дії, названі в одному реченні, відбуваються одночасно:
While he was playing computer games his sister was speaking on the phone.
When та as вживаються, якщо одна дія, названа в реченні, триває, а інша її перериває:
The children were singing when (as) their parents entered the classroom.
3. Circle the correct item.
1) I was brushing my teeth when/while my sister was making tea. 2) He was riding a horse when/while the car drove to the stable. 3) Sue was walking along the path as/while it started to rain. 4) You were washing the dishes as/while I was drying them. 5) Kate was speaking to the doctor when/while her mobile telephone rang. 6) We were discussing the film as/while Mary was looking through some magazines. 7) The waiter was carrying the tray when/while he dropped a glass. 8) Sam was crossing the road when/while he saw his friend at the bus stop. 9) Lin and Wendy were preparing for the test as/while the postman knocked at the door. 10) The child was eating soup when/while his mother was making salad.
5. Match two parts of the sentences.
1) The sun was shining brightly
2) Pam was swimming
3) The dog was barking
4) We were writing a dictation
5) Betty was slicing a cucumber
6) I was vacuuming the carpet
a) while the cat was climbing a tree.
b) when she cut her finger.
c) as our headmaster came into the classroom.
d) when they set off for a picnic.
e) while my mother was doing the washing-up.
f) while her brother was diving.
6. Complete the sentences with when or while.
1) The boys were playing football... the ball flew into the window. 2) Ronny was painting the fence ... the bucket of paint turned over. 3) Denny was putting a tent... the girls were gathering wood for fire. 4) Rita was sleeping ... the alarm-clock rang. 5) Nelly was peeling potatoes ... her sister was cutting chicken into pieces. 6) Nigel was skiing ... he fell down and broke his leg. 7) They were arguing ... Mrs Elliot entered the room. 8)... my mother was watching her favourite show on TV, father was making coffee. 9) She was typing a letter ... she found some mistakes. 10) They were driving towards the village ... it started to snow.
Заперечна форма минулого тривалого часу утворюється за допомогою дієслова was/were та заперечної частки not, що ставляться перед дієсловом-присудком із закінченням -іng.
l/he/she/it + was not (wasn't) + Ving
You/we/they + were not (weren't) + Ving
I wasn't listening to music at that time.
They weren't dancing then.
7. Make the sentences negative.
1) The teacher was explaining the exercise to the pupils. 2) Amanda was travelling around Africa at that time. 3) We were having a Music lesson at ten o’clock yesterday. 4) I was doing the shopping yesterday. 5) Martin was visiting his aunt at this time yesterday. 6) The girls were preparing for the concert. 7) They were flying to Wales at 6 o’clock yesterday. 8) It was raining hard all day last Tuesday. 9) Mike and Jess were walking in the park last evening. 10) He was choosing the books in the library then.
8. Complete the sentences using the words in brackets in the Past Continuous Tense.
Example: He wasn’t reading the newspaper, (magazine) +
He wasn't reading the newspaper, he was reading a magazine.
We were looking for apples, (bananas) –
We were looking for apples, we weren't looking for bananas,
1) Angela wasn’t singing.a song, (dance) +
2) I was cooking potatoes, (fish) -
3) The boys were watching a film, (the news) -
4) My mother wasn’t washing the dishes, (iron the clothes) +
5) He was building the house, (garage) -
6) They were gathering berries, (mushrooms) -
7) You weren’t listening to music, (read the book) +
8) Ben was repairing his bike, (his car) -
9. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1) You ... (not to listen) to the radio, you ... (to read) the letter from your niece. 2) Clara ... (to take) a bath at nine o’clock yesterday evening. 3) Monica and her friend ... (to have) coffee in the sitting-room. 4) Our Granny ... (not to plant) tomatoes in the garden. 5) Ейск ... (to carry) his bag towards the hotel room. 6) Sally and Frank ... (not to decorate) the classroom, they ... (to prepare) a wall newspaper. 7) The professor ... (to give) a lecture but some students ... (not to listen) to him. 8) The nurse ... (not to take) his temperature, she ... (to give) him an aspirin. 9) The train ... (to arrive) at the station at seven o’clock. 10) Olga ... (not to wait) for us yesterday evening.
10. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the joke.
A man and his wife had a small cafe near the station. The cafe often stayed open until after midnight, because people came to eat and drink there while they ... (to wait) for trains.
It was midnight one day and all the people left the cafe except one man. That man ... (not to eat), and ... (not to drink). He ... (to sleep). The owner of the cafe and his wife were very tired. The wife looked at the man several times, but he still ... (to sleep). When it was three o’clock in the morning the wife came up to her husband and said, «You have woken this man six times now, Robert, but he didn’t leave. Why haven’t you sent him away? It’s very late».
«Oh, no, I don’t want to send him away», answered her husband with a smile. «You see, every time I wake him up, he asks for his bill, and when I bring it to him, he pays it. Then he goes to sleep again».
Питальна форма минулого тривалого часу (загальне запитання) утворюється таким чином: допоміжне дієслово wes/were розташовується на початку речення перед підметом, а дієслово-присудок має закінчення -іng.
Was + l/he/she/it + Ving
Were + you/we/fhey + Ving
Відповіді на такі запитання даються короткі, з використанням того самого допоміжного дієслова:
Was he watching TV? — Yes, he was./No, he wasn't.
Were they playing in the yard? — Yes, they were,/No, they weren't.
11. Make the sentences interrogative.
1) We were having lunch in the canteen. 2) She was singing a lovely song. 3) You were speaking to your boss. 4) George was sitting in the armchair by the fireplace. 5) Jane and Margaret were going to the airport. 6) The baby was crying. 7) It was getting dark. 8) We were waiting for my cousin. 9) The woman was watching the children on the playground. 10) The tourists were taking photos in front of the palace.
12. Make up sentences using the Past Continuous Tense.
1) A mаn/to fish/on the bank of the river.
2) They/to make notes/during the lecture?
3) She/not to smile/any more.
4) Polly/and her cousin/to have tea.
5) You/to dig/in the garden?
6) Mike/to hang/a picture in the living-room.
7) Sue/not to swim/in the swimming-pool.
8) They/to wait/for the doctor?
9) I/not to look/at the actors.
10) She/to speak/in a friendly way.
13. Use the table to ask and answer the questions as in the example.
To wash the dishes at 2 o’clock
To vacuum the carpet at 3 o’clock
To listen to the news at 8 o’clock
To look through the
mail at 11 o’clock
Liz and Pam
Example: Was Willy washing the dishes at 2 o’clock? — No, he wasn’t. Was Willy vacuuming the carpet at 3 o’clock? — Yes, he was.
14. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1)... you ... (to wash) the clothes at 4 o’clock yesterday? — No, I ... . I ... (to tidy) my room at that time. 2) ... Lucy ... (to do) the shopping when you met her? — Yes, she ... . 3) ... they ... (to translate) the text in the afternoon? — No, they .... They ... (to prepare) for the Maths test. 4) ... Alison and Rita ... (to sit) in a cafe at three o’clock? — Yes, they .... They ... (to eat) ice cream. 5) ... Steve ... (to play) computer games all the evening? — No, he .... He... (to do) his homework. 6)... Barbara ... (to sunbathe) in the morning yesterday? — Yes, she ... . 7)... the children ... (to help) their grandparents yesterday? — Yes, they ... . They ... (to gather) fruit in the garden. 8) ... you ... (to sleep) at four o’clock yesterday? — Yes, I .... 9) ... Phil ... (to speak) to the receptionist when you came into the hall of the hotel? — No, he .... He ... (to have) breakfast in the cafe. 10)... you (to pack) your luggage when the taxi arrived? — No, I ... .
15. Translate into English.
1) Учора о десятій ми писали диктант. 2) Вони снідали о пів на восьму. 3) Я не дивився телевізор у цей час вчора. Я мив посуд на кухні. 4) Вона розмовляла зі своїм учителем двадцять хвилин. 5) У цей час минулого вівторка ми поверталися з супермаркету. 6) Він чекав на вас о сьомій учора? — Так. 7) Ви працювали в саду вчора вдень? — Ні, ми відвідували тітку. 8) Ваша сестра розмовляла з вами по телефону вчора о шостій? — Так, ми розмовляли півгодини. 9) Діти готувалися до свята вчора ввечері? — Так, вони прикрашали залу весь вечір. 10) Він спав учора о другій? — Ні, він учив вірш.
Складаючи спеціальні запитання у минулому тривалому часі, слова розташовують у такому порядку: питальне слово (Wh-word), допоміжне дієслово was/were, підмет, присудок (із закінченням -mg).
Wh-word + was + l/he/she/it + Ving?
Wh-word + were + you/we/they + Ving?
Where was she going yesterday?
What were you doing at 5 o'clock yesterday?
Запитання до підмета утворюються з допоміжним дієсловом was: Who was cooking dinner yesterday?
16. Write questions to the sentences using the question words in brackets.
1) She was visiting her dentist at two o’clock yesterday. (What to do? When?) 2) They were having an English lesson at ten o’clock last Monday. (Who? What lesson?) 3) We were driving towards the village yesterday evening. (Where? When?) 4) He was painting the roof of the garage last Saturday. (What? When?) 5) You were waiting for your brother at the bus stop. (Whom? What to do?) 6) My aunt was speaking to the shop-assistant in the supermarket. (Whose? Where?) 7) We were walking quickly because of the rain. (How? Why?) 8) The dog was barking in the yard. (What to do? Where?) 9) They were sunbathing on the beach. (Who? Where?) 10) She was painting a picture in her room. (What? What to do?)
17. Write questions to the underlined words.
1) The girls were playing tennis in the tennis court.
2) The cat was sleeping on the sofa.
3) We were crossing the street at the traffic light.
4) He was explaining the task to his brother.
5) The woman was walking slowly along the road.
18. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1) Where ... you ... (to go) yesterday evening? — I ... (to go) to the railway station to meet my uncle. 2) Where ... your sister ... (to shop) yesterday morning? — Well, she ... (to shop) in a new shopping centre all day yesterday. 3) How long ... they ... (to prepare) for the test last Sunday? — They ... (to prepare) for the test from 2 to 6 o’clock. 4) What book ... he ... (to read) at five o’clock yesterday? — He ... (not to read). He ... (to translate) a short story for his French lesson. 5) What ... Dick ... (to do) yesterday evening? — He ... (to play) a new computer game all the evening. 6) Why ... Chris and Sam ... (to laugh) so loudly? — Because they... (to watch) a comedy film. 7) Who ... (to sing) that nice song when we came into the hall? — My friend ... (to sing). 8) Why ... you ... (to bake) a cake yesterday morning? — Because I... (to wait) for the guests. 9) Whom ... she ...(to speak) to when I met her? — She ... (to speak) to her coach. 10) Whose car ... Bill ... (to drive) yesterday? — He ... (to drive) his cousin’s car.
19. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the joke.
Mrs Jones ... (to get) dinner ready when her little son Tim came into the kitchen with a happy smile.
«What... you ... (to do) all the morning, Timmy?» his mother asked.
«Well, I... (to play) Postman», replied little Tim.
«But how could you play without letters?» wondered his mother.
«Oh, but I had letters. I ... (to look) in your old suitcase and found a pile of letters tied round with a ribbon. I posted one letter under every door in the street».
20. Translate into English.
1) Що ви робили вчора о п’ятій? — Ми готували вечерю і чекали на гостей.
2) Куди вона йшла вчора вранці? — Вона йшла до стоматолога.
3) Який фільм твій брат дивився вчора в кінотеатрі? — Він дивився новий фільм жахів.
4) Де вона чекала на мене? — Вона чекала на вас біля театру.
5) Яку статтю ви читали вчора? — Я читав статтю про новітні наукові відкриття.
6) Чому він вів машину так швидко? — Він поспішав до вокзалу.
7) Коли Том плавав у басейні вчора? — Він плавав з четвертої до п’ятої.
8) Що твій брат робив учора вранці? — Він ремонтував велосипед учора вранці.
9) 3 ким Ганна розмовляла вчора о другій? — Вона розмовляла з секретарем.
10) Що діти робили вчора після уроків? — Вони готувалися до спортивних змагань.
Зверніть увагу на відмінності у вживанні минулого тривалого й минулого неозначеного часів.
Минулий тривалий час вживається у таких випадках.
Минулий неозначений час вживається у таких випадках.
1) Якщо дія тривала у певний час у минулому:
She was tidying her room at five o'clock yesterday.
2) Якщо дві та більше дій тривали одночасно у минулому:
While he was painting the fence his brother was cutting the grass in the yard.
3) Якщо одна дія тривала у минулому, а інша її перервала:
Не was reading a news-paper when the telephone rang.
1) Якщо дія відбулась (і закінчилась) у певний момент у минулому:
She met те at 5 o'clock yesterday.
2) Якщо дві та більше дій відбулись одна за одною послідовно та без великих інтервалів у часі:
Не had dinner and then went for a walk.
3) Якщо присудком у реченні виступають дієслова, які не вживаються у минулому тривалому часі, то вони вживаються у минулому неозначеному часі (believe, belong, forget, cost, know, feel, like, love, mean, need, prefer, realize, see, suppose, understand, want, etc.):
She wanted to buy a newspaper.
21. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Continuous Tense.
1) When I ... (to come) home yesterday my mother ... (to cook) dinner and my father ... (to work) on the computer. 2) We ... (to choose) the flowers when we ... (to see) Nick. He ... (to speak) to somebody near the metro. 3) Witty ... (to write) a report from five to eight yesterday. 4) While Maria... (to dust) the furniture her brother ... (to vacuum) the carpets. 5) First Martin ... (to turn off) the light and then he ... (to lock) the door. 6) When the parents ... (to return) home, the children ... (to sleep). 7) It ... (to get) dark when they ... (to leave) the restaurant. 8) What ... you ... (to do) when I... (to phone) you yesterday? — I... (to prepare) for the English exam. 9) Where ... Mike ... (to ride) when you ... (to meet) him yesterday afternoon? — He ... (to ride) to the post-office. 10) When ... your sister ... (to finish) reading this book? — She ... (to read) it all day yesterday and ... (to finish) reading late in the evening.
22. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Continuous Tense and read the joke.
It ... (to be) Jimmy’s birthday and he ... (to get) a lot of nice presents from his family. One of the presents ... (to be) a beautiful drum. Of course, Jimmy ... (to like) his drum very much. He ... (to play) with it all days long and ... (to make) much noise, but his mother ... (not to mind). His father ... (to work) during the whole day and he ... (not to hear) that horrible noise. But one of the neigh bours ... (not to like) it. So one morning a few days later he ... (to take) a sharp knife and ... (to go) to Jimmy’s house while Jimmy ... (fоhit) his drum. «Do you know, Jimmy, there’s something very nice inside your drum. Here’s a knife. Let’s open and find it».
23. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Continuous Tense.
Journalist: You are a very brave man, Mr Johns. How ... you ... (to catch) the burglar?
Mr Johns: Well, I ... (to go) along the street to meet my wife. When I ... (to pass) the bank I ... (to see) a man. He ... (to carry) a heavy bag and ... (to look) strange in black gloves and a mask. I... (to understand) that something bad ... (to happen) at that time. Suddenly I ... (to see) my wife on the other side of the road. She ... (to stand) and ... (to wave) to me.
J: What... you ... (to do) then?
Mr J: I... (to run) towards the stranger in a mask and ... (to hit) him. He ... (to fall) down and ... (to drop) the bag. The bag ...(to open) and the money ... (to fall) down on the pavement. At that time my wife ... (to take) her mobile phone and ... (to call) the police.
J: ... anybody else ... (to see) you?
Mr J: Sure! Two women ... (to walk) just behind me. They ... (to see) me hitting the stranger and ... (to start) crying.
J: And what about the burglar?
Mr J: He ... (to want) to run away, but I ... (to hold) him on the sleeves of his jacket. We ... (to fight) but he ... (to have) no chancel At that moment the police car ... (to arrive).
J: Thank you for the interview, Mr Johns. You are a real hero!
24. Translate into English.
1) Хлопчик зателефонував своєму другові вчора о сьомій.
2) Поки вона розмовляла по телефону, її брат вечеряв.
3) Вона пакувала валізу, коли приїхало таксі.
4) Він узяв пальто, надягнув його і вийшов з кімнати.
5) Що робили діти, коли ви повернулися додому? — Вони дивилися телевізор.
6) Ми вчора весь вечір готувалися до вечірки.
7) 3 ким ви розмовляли, коли я зустрів вас учора? — Я розмовляв з моїм другом.
8) Він слухав музику, поки їхав машиною до готелю.
9) Що вона розповідала, коли ми прийшли? — Вона розповідала про нові проекти.
10) Яку музику вони слухали, коли розпочалися новини?