Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018
ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)
МИНУЛИЙ ДОКОНАНИЙ ЧАС (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
Минулий доконаний час вживається, якщо дія завершилась до певного моменту або до початку іншої дії в минулому. Стверджувальна форма минулого доконаного часу утворюється за допомогою дієслова had та дієслова-присудка у третій формі (для неправильних дієслів) або із закінченням -ed (для правильних).
l/you/he/she/it/we/they + had + (Ved)
She had written an essay before five o'clock yesterday.
They had cleaned the flat before their parents came home. (First action: they cleaned the flat, second action: parents came home)
1. Make up sentences.
1) Brian/to return/books to the library/before last Thursday. 2) We/to know/the results of the test/before two o’clock yesterday. 3) I/to come/to the office/before lunch time. 4) You/ to make/the order/before we came into the cafe. 5) Sally/to send/the letters/before her boss returned from the bank. 6) The ferry/to reach/the port/by three o’clock yesterday. 7) The performance/to finish/by eight o’clock in the evening. 8) They/to build/a new hospital/before the end of April. 9) Мах/to have dinner/by four o’clock. 10) The baby/to wake up/before you left home.
2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Tense.
1) He ... (to watch) this TV programme before his parents came home. 2) Sheila and Witty ... (to send) the invitations for the conference before Friday. 3) A group of tourists ... (already to visit) this cathedral before the guide told them about its history. 4) His nephew ... (to move) to a new flat by the beginning of September. 5) The accident ... (to happen) before Henry understood anything. 6) It ... (to stop) raining by the evening. 7) John and Andrew ... (to get) to the hotel before night. 8) You ... (to make) a decision before our talk. 9) I ... (to meet) your brother before we both entered university. 10) We ... (to make) photocopies of the documents by six o’clock yesterday.
3. Complete the sentences with the verbs from the boxes, using them in
the Past Perfect Tense.
It was the last week of summer holidays. Mike ... from the country two days before. He ... his grandparents. Mike’s life in the country ... really ... exciting that summer. He ... to do a lot of useful things. His uncle ... Mike to drive a car. Mike’s grandfather ... Mike hunting. Mike was very happy because he ... never ... the hunting rifle before. Mike even ... part in the horse-racing competition and ... the third place. Mike’s friend Pete ... a photo of Mike holding the prize on the horse back. It was a pleasure to remember all the events that had happened in the village. Now Mike wanted to tell his classmates about the summer holidays.
4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Perfect Tense and read the story.
Many hundreds of years ago a king went to see a fortune teller to know about his future life. The fortune teller told the king, «Your wife will die this year». But the king didn’t believe what the fortune teller ... (to predict). Later that year the king’s wife died. The king remembered what the fortune teller ... (to tell) him and thought that she ... (to cause) the death of his wife. So he decided to put the fortune teller to death. After the soldiers ... (to bring) the fortune teller to the king, he reminded her of what she ... (to predict). «If you are a real fortune teller, you must know the day of your own death», said the king. The fortune teller realized that the king ... (to decide) to kill her. So she thought very carefully and then answered, «I’ll die three days before you do, your majesty».
Заперечна форма минулого доконаного часу утворюється додаванням допоміжного дієслова had та заперечної частки not до дієслова- присудка у третій формі (для неправильних дієслів) або із закінченням -ed (для правильних).
l/you/he/she/it/we/they + had not (hadn't) + V3 (Ved)
She hadn't seen this monument before.
We hadn't read this text by the last lesson.
5. Make the sentences negative.
1) We had told him about the time of the meeting. 2) She had washed the vegetables for the salad. 3) You had caught a small fish by that time. 4) The burglars had robbed the bank.
5) A zookeeper had fed the animals by twelve o’clock. 6) David had eaten all the sandwiches by two o’clock. 7) They had been to this town before. 8) I had done all the arrangements by Saturday. 9) Alice had shown me her paintings before. 10) You had forgotten about her request.
6. Look at Mr Samuel’s notes and write what he had done before Christmas and what he hadn't done.
Example: Mr Samuel had visited the dentist before Christmas.
7. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the joke.
A man went out of prison after twenty years. He decided to go back to the place he ... (to live) before. When he got there he didn’t recognize the place. Everything ... (to change). The places he ... (to visit) disappeared. The man was very hungry and remembered about a small cafe where he ... (to have dinner) before, but there wasn’t a cafe any more. Instead of it there was a big restaurant. The man came into this restaurant and ordered a cup of coffee and a sandwich. When he took out his wallet to pay the bill, he found a shoemaker ticket in it. “I... (to take) a pair of shoes to the shoemaker before I went to prison, but I... (not to receive) them back», the man thought. So the man went to the shoemaker’s. To his surprise the shoemaker was still at the same place! The man showed the shoemaker the ticket and explained that he ... (to leave) him a pair of shoes twenty years before. The shoemaker took the ticket and said. «OK. Come back tomorrow. Your shoes will be ready then».
Питальна форма минулого доконаного часу (загальні запитання) утворюється таким чином: допоміжне дієслово had ставиться на початку речення перед підметом, а дієслово-присудок вживається у третій формі (для неправильних дієслів) або із закінченням -ed (для правильних).
Had + l/you/he/she/it/we/they + (Ved)?
Відповіді на такі запитання даються короткі, з використанням того самого допоміжного дієслова:
Had he done this work by Monday? — Yes, he had.
Had they sent all the letters? — No, they hadn't.
8. Make the sentences interrogative.
1) Mary had booked the tickets before. 2) We had been to this exhibition. 3) You had received the invitation before Wednesday. 4) The bus had arrived before 5 o’clock. 5) Tom had heard that story before. 6) They had gone to the railway station before 6 o’clock. 7) My father had returned from his business trip by the weekend. 8) We had met Eric before the lesson. 9) The taxi had come by 7 o’clock. 10) They had used this key before.
9. Use the table to ask and answer the questions as in the example.
To visit the Eiffel Tower
To eat Yorkshire pudding
To ride a camel
To go scuba diving
June and Rose
Example: Had Simon visited the Eiffel Tower before? —
Yes, he had. Had Simon eaten Yorkshire pudding before? — No. he hadn't.
10. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1) We ... (already to give) our projects to the teacher.
2) Sandra ... (to do) the shopping before the New Year Eve.
3) You ... (not to phone) me by the end of the week.
4) I... (not to try) such a delicious cake before.
5) ... your sister ... (to reserve) the hotel room beforehand? — Yes, she ....
6) ... Mr Smith ...(to discuss) that problem with his lawyer? — No, he ... .
7) Clara ... (never to be) to the Pyramids before.
8) ... you ... (to take) part in this festival before? — No, I... .
9) Mark ... (to finish) his work by 6 o’clock yesterday.
10) ... Nigel... (to find) any information in the Internet by last Tuesday? — Yes, he ... .
11. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the joke.
One day a man stopped at a Detroit hotel. He ... (just to cash) a check, but he didn’t want to carry too much money with him. So he asked the desk clerk to put a hundred-dollar bill in the safe for him. The next morning the clerk said that he ... (not to take) any money from the man. The man had nothing to do but to go to the nearest lawyer. The lawyer advised the man to return to the hotel with him and to give another hundred-dollar bill to the clerk. That was what they did. An hour later the man went back and claimed his money. As the man had a lawyer as an eyewitness to the second hundred-dollar bill, the clerk couldn’t say he ... (not to take) it. Another hour later the man and the lawyer came up to the clerk and asked for a hundred-dollar bill. This time the clerk said he ... (already to give) the bill to the man. But the lawyer insisted that he ... (to see) the man giving the money to the clerk, but he ... (not to see) the clerk returning the money. The lawyer promised to call the police if the clerk ... (to forget) about the bill. The clerk realized that he could do nothing but return the money.
«I don’t know how to thank you for getting my money back», said the man happily. «Oh, don’t thank me», answered the lawyer. «My help will cost you one hundred dollars».
12. Translate into English.
1) Ми повернулися додому вчора до сьомої вечора.
2) Вона склала всі іспити до минулого вівторка.
3) Вони не закінчили роботу вчора до восьмої.
4) Ваша сестра не розповіла нам новини до кінця перерви вчора.
5) Ви вчора купили квіти до вечірки? — Так.
6) Вони вчора зіграли в теніс до обіду? — Ні.
7) Туристи прибули вчора перед вечерею.
8) Ми не отримали вашого повідомлення вчора до п’ятої.
9) До кінця минулого тижня вона ще не переїхала до нового будинку.
10) Ви підготували доповідь до минулої середи? — Так.
Складаючи спеціальні запитання у минулому доконаному часі, слова розташовують у такому порядку: питальне слово (Wh-word), допоміжне дієслово had, підмет, дієслово-присудок (із закінченням -ed або у третій формі).
Wh-word + had + l/you/he/she/it/we/they + V3 (Ved)?
What had they read by last Monday?
What places had she visited?
13. Write questions to the underlined words.
1) She had translated three articles by five o’clock yesterday.2) We had come to the cinema by the beginning of the film. 3) They had reached the camp before the sunset. 4) You had written ten invitation cards by the end of the day. 5) He had been to this theatrethree times before.
14. Make up sentences using the Past Perfect Tense.
1) You/not to leave/the hotel/by our arrival yesterday.
2) How many letters/she/to type/by the end of the day?
3) Не/to have dinner/by that time?
4) My cousin/not to be/to this museum/before.
5) I/to get/your message/two days before.
6) What/he/to do/by the end of last week?
7) What places/they to visit/by the end of their vacations?
8) Whom/he/to phone/before his departure?
9) She/to buy/а new fridge/by the end of last week.
10) Ben/to take/the medicine/by five o’clock yesterday.
15. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1) What time ... the participants ... (to arrive) at the conference last Wednesday? — They ... (to arrive) by nine o’clock in the morning. 2) How many clients ... he ... (to serve) by the end of the day? — He ... (to serve) twelve clients. 3) ... the performance ... (to finish) by nine o’clock yesterday? — No, it .... 4) Unfortunately Samantha ... (never to use) this computer program before. 5) Whom ... Robert ... (to see) during his last . visit to our town? — He ... (to meet) some of his friends and relatives. 6) What hotel ... you ... (to choose) to stay at during your last trip? — I ... (to stay) at the Hilton Hotel. 7) Pam ... (to have) such an experience before. 8)... Steve ... (to be) to our Theme Park before this visit? — Yes, he ... . 9) Which street... they ... (to live) before they moved? — They ... (to live) in Oak Street. 10) By what time ... your grandparents ... (to finish) their work in the garden yesterday? — They ... (to finish) their work by six o’clock.
Зверніть увагу на відмінності у вживанні минулого неозначеного, минулого тривалого та минулого доконаного часів.
Минулий неозначений час вживається у таких випадках.
1) Коли дія відбулась (і завершилась) у певний момент у минулому:
Не phoned те at 2 o'clock yesterday.
2) Коли дві та більше дій відбулись одна за одною послідовно та без великих інтервалів у часі:
We played a game of tennis and went home.
3) Якщо присудком у реченні виступають дієслова, які не вживаються у минулому тривалому часі, то вони вживаються у минулому неозначеному часі:
You believed ту story.
Минулий тривалий час вживається у таких випадках.
1) Коли дія тривала у певний момент у минулому:
I was speaking on the phone at two o'clock yesterday.
2) Коли дві та більше дій тривали одночасно у минулому:
While we were cleaning the flat Tom was repairing the bike.
3) Коли одна дія тривала у минулому, а інша її перервала:
She was reading a book when I came home.
Минулий доконаний час вживається у таких випадках.
1) Якщо дія завершилася до певного моменту в минулому:
They had cleaned the flat by five o'clock yesterday.
2) Якщо дія завершилася до початку іншої дії в минулому:
They had cleaned the flat before we arrived home. (first action: had cleaned the flat; second action: arrived home)
We got to school and the lesson began. (дії відбувалися послідовно)
The lesson had begun before we got to school. (first action: the lesson had begun; second action: we got to school)
16. Circle the correct item.
1) When Frank entered the room, his sister was watering /had watered the flowers. 2) When Frank entered the room, his sister was already watering/had already watered the flowers. 3) They packed/had packed the suitcase by six o’clock yesterday. 4) While she was speaking/had spoken to her friend her son was watching/had watched the football players. 5) Anna took/had taken her mobile phone and put/had put it into her handbag. 6) We left/had left before the postman delivered/had delivered the newspaper. 7) Willy had/had had his dinner before Dick came/had come. 8) Jane was vacuuming/had vacuumed the carpet at four o’clock yesterday. 9) You came up/were coming up to the armchair and sat down/had sat down. 10) We wanted/ were wanting to go there by bus but it already departed/had already departed.
17. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Past Perfect Tense.
1) When I ... (to return) home I ... (to find) a note from my friend on the front door. 2) My friend ... (to phone) me after I ... (to leave) the house. 3) The train ... (to arrive) before we ... (to buy) the tickets. 4) Angela ... (to say) that she ... (already to meet) that woman at some party. 5) Eric ... (to remember) that he ... (not to tell) his friend about the changes in the school timetable. 6) Mrs Adams ... (to put) the presents under the New Year Tree after her children ... (to fall) asleep. 7) The performance... (to begin) when they ... (to enter) the hall.
8) Den ... (to tell) me that he ... (not to find) any information on the subject yet. 9) Sally ... (to switch off) the TV set and ... (to go) to bed. 10) The children ... (to eat) all the sweets before their parents ... (to return) from work.
18. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Prefect Tense.
1) Helen ... (to wash) the dishes when I ... (to come) into the kitchen. 2) When we ... (to get) your message you ... (already to leave) our town. 3) Tony... (to listen) to the latest news while his wife ... (to make) a cup of tea for him..4) Sam ... (to walk) home when he ... (to hear) a cry for help. 5) When Pete ... (to turn off) the computer he ... (to realize) that he ... (not to save) his work. 6) Mr Ricks ... (to drive) a car when he ... (to remember) that he ... (not to take) his driving licence. 7) Vicky ... (to walk) the dog after she ... (to write) an essay. 8) When I... (to meet) Fred he ... (to choose) a present for his friend who ... (to have) a birthday the day before. 9) While Alice ... (to read) the article she ... (to notice) that the author ... (not to mention) some historical facts. 10) When Mark ... (to look) through the instruction <;MG more time he ... (to understand) that he ... (to press) the wrong button of the gadget.
19. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Prefect Tense and read the joke.
When Jack ... (to come) to school, the lesson ... (already to begin). Mr White ... (to look) angrily at Jack and ... (to ask), «Why are you late, Jack?» «You see, Mr White, on my way to school I ... (to meet) a man who ... (to lose) a hundred dollar bill». «... you ... (to help) that man to look for it all this time?» the teacher ... (to ask). «No, all this time I... (to stand) on it», ... (to answer) Jack.
20. Translate into English.
1) Коли я побачив твого брата, я зрозумів, що він нещодавно повернувся з відпустки. 2) Вона показала нам картину, яку її чоловік завершив кілька днів тому. 3) Жінка прочитала листа, якого отримала від сестри ще вранці. 4) У той час як його дружина дивилася фільм по телевізору, він читав газету, яку купив ще вранці. 5) Майк зателефонував мені після того, як прийшов додому. 6) Ти помив руки перед тим, як сів обідати? 7) Ми пили каву в кав’ярні, коли мій друг пригадав, що він не вимкнув комп’ютер в офісі. 8) Ганна почала працювати в нашому банку після того, як закінчила університет. 9) Куди вони пішли після того, як зустріли тебе? 10) Ти вимкнув світло пeред тим, як вийти з дому?