Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)

ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ ДОКОНАНО-ТРИВАЛИЙ ЧАС (THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE)

Теперішній доконано-тривалий час вживається для вираження дії, що розпочалась у минулому, триває певний час і в момент мовлення ще не завершилась.

Стверджувальна форма утворюється з використанням допоміжного дієслова have/has, дієслова to be у третій формі (been) та дієслова- присудка із закінченням -іng.

l/you/we/they + have been + Ving

He/she/it + has been + Ving

Наприклад:

He has been working for two hours now. (and hasn't finished yet)

We have been watching this film for half an hour, (and haven't finished yet)

1. Make up sentences using the Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1) I/to read/this book/for three days. 2) We/to play volleyball/ for twenty minutes. 3) She/to clean/the flat/for more than an hour. 4) Peter/to swim/for half an hour. 5) Anna/to speak/on the phone/for an hour now. 6) You/to wait/for a bus/for ten minutes only. 7) Nelly and Mary/to do the shopping/since early morning. 8) It/to snow/since last night. 9) Jack and his friend/ to ride bikes/for three hours now. 10) The teacher/to explain/ a grammar rule/since the beginning of the lesson.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1) Helen ... (to wash) the dishes for fifteen minutes. 2) My classmates ... (to write) a dictation since the beginning of the lesson. 3) Sam ... (to drive) a car for five hours now. 4) I ... (to look) for information on the subject since last Friday. 5)     Molly ... (to paint) this picture for three days now. 6) The tourists ... (to do) the sightseeing since nine o’clock. 7) You ... (to work) as a computer programmer for more than fifteen years. 8) The wind ... (to blow) since yesterday. 9) My grandfather ... (to collect) coins since he was a boy. 10) Andy and Den ... (to discuss) the plans for their winter holidays for two hours now.

3. Read and translate the joke. Mind the use of the Present Perfect

Continuous Tense.

«I hear you have a little sister?» a gentleman asked a small boy. «Yes», answered the boy. «Do you like her?» wondered the gentleman. «I’d like to have a brother so that we could play football and other games together», said the boy. «Then can’t you exchange her for a boy?» the gentleman replied. «It’s too late now. We’ve been using her four days», sighed the boy.

Заперечна форма теперішнього доконано-тривалого часу утворюється за допомогою заперечної частки not, яка ставиться після першого допоміжного дієслова.

l/you/we/they + have not (haven't) been + Ving

He/she/it + has not (hasn't) been + Ving

Наприклад:

She hasn't been playing with a baby.

They haven't been writing an essay.

4. Make the sentences negative.

1) You have been writing a report since morning. 2) We have been working in the garden for three hours. 3) I have been typing letters since ten o’clock. 4) Tom has been running for twenty minutes. 5) A cat has been sitting in the tree for an hour. 6) Jane has been studying English for two years. 7) They have been building this house for more than a year. 8) My parents have been travelling for a week. 9) I have been having a lesson for fifteen minutes now. 10) They have been walking since afternoon.

5. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) Kevin ... (to fish) since early morning. 2) Kim ... (not to pack) her things for so long. 3) You ... (to iron) clothes all day. 4) Allan ... (not to wear) this jacket for three years. 5) I ... (not

to walk) a dog since four o’clock. 6) Monica and Sue ... (to paint) the walls of the house since ten o’clock in the morning. 7) Mr May ... (to read) this article for more than half an hour now. 8) It ... (not to rain) since afternoon. 9) My neighbours ... (to make) a noise since seven o’clock in the morning. 10) Brad ... (to try) to catch a taxi for fifteen minutes now.

Питальна форма теперішнього доконано-тривалого часу (загальні запитання) утворюється за допомогою допоміжного дієслова have/ has, яке ставиться на початку речення.

Have + l/you/we/they + been + Ving?

Has + he/she/it + been + Ving?

Відповіді на такі запитання даються з використанням того самого допоміжного дієслова:

Have you been watching TV for three hours? — Yes, I have.,/No,

I haven't.

Has he been skating since ten o'clockЇ — Yes, he has./No, he hasn't.

6. Make the sentences interrogative.

1) He has been boating for four hours. 2) We have been skating since eleven o’clock. 3) Lucy has been learning this poem for twenty minutes. 4) You have been writing this article since afternoon. 5) My parents have been working in the hospital for thirteen years. 6) The music has been playing for three hours. 7) We have been speaking since five o’clock. 8) Beth has been taking a bath for thirty-five minutes. 9) They have been preparing for the test for two days. 10) The baby has been crying for half an hour.

7. Make up questions as in the example and use the table to answer them.

Write an essay

Walk in the park

Play computer

games

Tidy the room

Eric

for 2 hours

since 4 o’clock

since dinner time

for 10 minutes

Kate and Emma

since 6 o’clock

for 4 hours

for 45 minutes

since afternoon

Diana

for 15 minutes

since 5 o’clock

since morning

for half an hour

Example: Eric/write an essay/for 2 hours?

Has Eric been writing an essay for two hours? — Yes, he has,

Eric/walk in the park/since 2 o’clock?

Has Eric been walking in the park since 2 o'clock? — No. he hasn't,

1) Ericlау computer games/since morning?    

2) Eric/tidy the room/for ten minutes?

3) Kate and Emma/walk in the park/for an hour?

4) Diana/tidy the room/for three hours?

5) Diana/write an essay/for 15 minutes?

6) Kate and Emma/play computer games/for 25 minutes?

7) Kate and Emma/tidy the room/since yesterday?

8) Diana/play computer games/since last Sunday?

9) Kate and Emma/write an essay/since 6 o’clock?

10) Diana/walk in the park/since 5 o’clock?

8. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) ... Jenny ... (to wait) for her flight in the airport since twelve o’clock? — No, she .... She ... (to wait) for her flight for forty minutes now.

2) Can I talk with you? — Sorry, I’m busy. I ... (to look) for one important paper for more than twenty minutes now and can’t find it.

3) Is Ed at home? — No, he is in the gym. He ... (to train) since five o’clock.

4) ... your mother... (to work) as a manager for ten years? — No, she .... She ... (to work) as a manager for eighteen years.

5) Is Philip fixing the washing-machine? — Yes, he ... (to fix) it since nine o’clock.

6) Alison and Cindy ... (not to paint) the walls in the room for two hours. They ... (to work) since morning.

7) The Petersons ... (to build) their house for three years now.

8) Is mother in the kitchen? — Yes, she ... (to cook) since four o’clock.

9) You look tired! — Well, I ... (to gather) strawberries for more than two hours.

10) Where is Ben? — He is in his room. He ... (to listen) to music since afternoon.

Складаючи спеціальні запитання у теперішньому доконано- тривалому часі, слова розташовують у такому порядку: питальне слово (Wh-word), допоміжне дієслово have/has, підмет, дієслово been та дієслово-присудок (із закінченням -іng).

Wh-word + have + l/you/we/they + been + Ving?

Wh-word + has + he/she/it/ + been + Ving?

Наприклад:

What have you been doing?

How long has he been working?

Запитання до підмета утворюються тільки за допомогою допоміжного дієслова has:

Who has been crying?

9. Write questions to the underlined words.

1) He has been speaking to his friend for an hour. 2) We have been whitewashing the trees in the garden for two hours. 3) You have been telling us about уour work since five o’clock. 4) She has been translating this text for half an hour. 5) They have been having lunch in the canteen since one o’clock.

10. Make up sentences using the Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1) What/she/to read/since ten o’clock? 2) Where/we/to drive/ so long? 3) Den/not to ride/his motor-bike/since three o’clock. 4) Dolly and Carol/to plant/flowers in the greenhouse for about an hour. 5) How long/Brian/to learn/English? 6) Linda/to prepare/for her test/since eight o’clock? 7) Whom/you/to talk with/for fifty minutes? 8) Where/thfey/to play/tennis/since . afternoon? 9) The baby/to sleep/for three hours now. 10) We/ not to climb/this mountain/for an hour.

11. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form and read the joke.

A girl is speaking on the phone. She ... (to speak) for forty- five minutes now. Her father ... (to wait) for an important call since afternoon and he is becoming angry. «How long ... you ... (to speak), Kate?» cries her father. Kate quickly hangs up the receiver. Her father looks puzzled, «Usually you speak for hours! What has happened now?» «Wrong number», answers Kate.

12. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1) Put on your raincoat. It... (to rain) since night.

2) Is Frank in his room? What ... he ... (to do)? — He ... (to prepare) for the French test.

3) Are Sue and Liz still in the garden? They ... (to water) the flowers for an hour now! — No, they ... (not to water) the flowers. They ... (to weed) for more than an hour.

4) How long ... you ... (to travel) around the country? — I... (to travel) for two weeks now.

5) Ron should be careful. He ... (to sunbathe) since eight o’clock.

6) Whom ... your boss ... (to shout) at? — He ... (to shout) at his new manager. She ... (to work) in this office for only three days.

7) Cindy is worried. She ... (to wait) for her parents to come home since six o’clock.

8) What... they ... (to write) since three o’clock? — They ... (to write) an article for the scientific journal.

9) Aren’t Julia and Andrew at home yet? — They are still preparing for the conference in the library. They ... (to prepare) for this conference for a week now.

10) How long ... Mr Kane ... (to wash) his car? — He ... (to wash) it for more than an hour now.

13. Translate into English.

1) Вони пишуть диктант уже півгодини. 2) Моя сестра прибирає кімнату з ранку. 3) Хлопці плавають у басейні вже більше години? 4) Він не дивиться телевізор з ранку. 5) Ви читаєте цю книжку чотири дні? — Ні, я читаю її тільки два дні. 6) Що вона робить уже три години? — Вона готується до іспитів. 7) Як довго діти грають у парку? — Вони грають з п’ятої. 8) Що ваш брат розповідає вже двадцять хвилин? — Він розповідає про свого папугу. 9) Яку статтю він пише з ранку? — Він пише статтю про відомого вченого. 10) Що вони обговорюють уже більше години? — Вони обговорюють останні новини.

Зверніть увагу на відмінності у вживанні теперішнього неозначеного, теперішнього тривалого, теперішнього доконаного та теперішнього доконано-тривалого часів.

Теперішній неозначений час вживається у таких випадках.

1) Для вираження постійних дій чи станів:

Не works in the bank.

2) Для вираження повторюваних дій, особливо якщо вони вживаються з прислівниками, що вказують на їх частоту:

She visits her grandparents every weekend.

3) Коли йдеться про загальновідомі факти, закони природи тощо: The leaves from trees fall down in autumn.

4) Коли йдеться про розклади:

The train departs at five o'clock.

Теперішній тривалий час вживається у таких випадках.

1) Для вираження дій, що відбуваються під час мовлення:

Не is riding a bike now.

2) Для опису тимчасових ситуацій:

She is looking for a new job.

3) Коли йдеться про дії, заплановані на найближче майбутнє та які обов'язково відбудуться:

You are flying to Bristol tomorrow.

Теперішній доконаний час вживається у таких випадках.

1) Якщо дія відбулась у невизначений момент у минулому:

Не has sold his camera.

2) Якщо дія завершилася нещодавно і зараз є її наслідки:

We have just planted the trees.

3) Щоб наголосити на особистому досвіді чи особистих змінах:

Не has worked in this factory for ten years.

4) Щоб наголосити на Кількості:

Не has read three novels this month.

Теперішній доконано-тривалий час вживається у таких випадках.

1) Якщо дія розпочалась у минулому, триває певний час і в момент мовлення ще не завершилась:

Не has been running in the park since three o'clock.

2) Щоб підкреслити, що дія тривала достатньо довго і зараз є видимий результат:

You look tired. You have been working too much.

3) Щоб підкреслити час тривалості дії:

She has been swimming for half an hour.

14. Circle the correct item.

1) We walk/are walking along the beach now. 2) He has driven/ has been driving around the town for half an hour. 3) I have already written/have already been writing an essay. 4) Sam often wakes up/has often waken up at half past six in the morning. 5) They are flying/have been flying over the Pacific Ocean at the moment. 6) My parents don’t pay/haven’t paid for the tickets yet. 7) Andy hasn’t phoned/hasn’t been phoning her yet. 8) What is happening/has happened now? 9) Emma has written/has been writing the letters since ten o’clock. 10) Tony has made/has been making seven calls since morning.

15. Complete the sentences with the correct time adverbs from the boxes.

Example: We have never been to this swimming-pool. We even don’t know its location.

1) Can I speak to Mr Sheppard, please? — Sorry, he is having a meeting ... . 2) Sally ... visits her grandparents at weekends. 3) They have been working in the garden ... early morning. 4) Have you walked the dog ...? 5) The train has ... arrived. 6) We have known each other ... years. 7) The Austins ... take their children to the cinema perhaps once or twice a month.

16. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous, Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1) Paula ... (to cook) dinner now. She ... (to cook) since eleven o’clock, but she ... (not to prepare) meat yet. 2) Sally and James ... (to gather) raspberries in the garden now. They ... (to gather) raspberries for two hours, but they ... (not to gather) enough for jam by now. 3) We ... (to prepare) for exams at the moment. We ... (to prepare) since nine o’clock but we ... (not to revise) all the rules by now. 4) What... Mary ... (to do) now? — She ... {to take) a shower. She ... {to wash) in the bathroom for half an hour now. 5) Where ... {to be) Dick? — He ... (to repair) his motor-bike in the garage at the moment. He ... (to repair) it for two days and he ... (not to finish) yet. 6) ... Vicky (to be) busy? — No, she ... (to watch) some programme on TV at the moment. She ... (to watch) TV since twelve o’clock. 7) ... you ... (to read) anything now? You ... (to read) for more than an hour now. What... you ... (to read)? — I... (to read) a report of my manager at the moment. 8) ... Elsa ... (to make) sandwiches yet? — No, she ... .She ... (to make) them for fifteen minutes now. She ... (to slice) cheese for the sandwiches at the moment. 9) ... it ... (to snow) outdoors now? — Yes, it ... . It ... (to snow) since yesterday evening. 10) This sportsman ... (to be) exhausted. He ... (to run) for more than an hour now. Look! He ... (to run) more slowly!

17. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

1) Where ... you ... (to go), Witty? — I ... (to go) to the swimming-pool. I ... (to go) there three times a week. 2) ... Mike ... (to speak) to his coach yet? — No, he ... . His coach ... (to have) a training for half an hour now so Mike ... (to wait) for him at the moment. 3) What ... Ann ... (to cook) since five o’clock? — She ... (to decide) to make a cake for your birthday party and she ... (to bake) it for an hour now. At the moment she ... (to whip) cream for it. 4) Whom ... your brother ... (to wait) for at the bus stop? — He ... (to wait) for our mother. He always ... (to meet) her after work and ... (to help) her to carry bags. 5) Look! The children ... (to fly) a kite! They ... (tо fly) it since afternoon. They often ... (to fly) one when the weather ... (to be) perfect for it. 6) Where ... (to be) Ted and Nick? — They ... (just to go) to the gym. They often ... (to play) basketball there in the evening. I... (to know) that they... (to have) a competition next week. Their team ... (to prepare) for this competition for three weeks now. 7) What ... Jessica ... (usually to do) in the evenings? I seldom ... (tо see) her walking in the park.— She ... (to be) busy with studying. She often ... (to have) German lessons in the evenings. She ... (to learn) German for four years now. But tonight she ... (to visit) her aunt.

18. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or the Present Perfect Tense and read the joke.

A man walks into a shop and ... (to see) a cute little dog. He ... (to ask) the shopkeeper, «... your dog ... (to bite)?» The shopkeeper ... (to answer), «No, my dog ... (not to bite)». The man ... (to try) to pet the dog but the dog ... (to bite) him. The man ... (to shout), «You ... (just to tell) me that your dog ... (not to bite)h «But it ... (not to be) my dog», ... (to reply) the shopkeeper.

19. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous Tense.

Dear Samantha,

I... (to write) to you from San Diego. It... (to be) in the southwest of the USA. We ... (to travel) around the United States for two weeks now. We... (already to be) to New York, Washington, San Francisco and Los Angeles. These cities are magnificent! Phil ... (to take) so many wonderful photos! San Diego ... (not to be) so big as San Francisco or Los Angeles, but there ... (to be) much to see here, too. We ... (to be) here for two days, but we ... (not to visit) all the places of interest yet. Our guide ... (to take) us to different museums and exhibitions every day. We usually ... (to come) back to the hotel late in the evening, ... (to have) supper and ... (to go) to bed. The hotel we ... (to stay) at ... (to be) small, but comfortable. In two days we ... (to go) to Philadelphia and then back to New York. I ... (to look) forward to seeing you! I... (to want) to tell you so much! I... (to promise) to phone you from the airport.

See you soon,

Kelly.

20. Put the verbs in brackets into the Imperative Mood, the Present Simple, Present Continuous or Present Perfect Continuous Tense and read the joke.

— ... (not to bother) me. I ... (to write) a message to my girlfriend.

— But you ... (to write) it for twenty minutes now. Why ... you ... (to write) so slowly?

— Because she can’t read fast.

21. Translate into English.

1) Він уже закінчив свою доповідь? — Ще ні. Він читає її вже двадцять хвилин.

2) Як довго ви чекаєте на автобус? — Ми чекаємо вже більше десяти хвилин.

3) Ганна вже купила подарунок для Марка? — Ще ні. Вона вибирає подарунок уже півгодини.

4) Скільки статей ви вже продивилися? — Сім. Я читаю статті з ранку, та ще не знайшов потрібної мені інформації.

5) У яких країнах вони вже побували? — Вони вже побували у шести країнах. Вони подорожують щороку.

6) Вона вже поснідала? — Ні, ми тільки-но приготували сніданок.

7) Том фарбує машину вже дві години, але він пофарбував лише половину.

8) Що ви зазвичай робите після обіду? — Я часто веду дітей до парку.

9) Де твоя бабуся? — Вона дивиться телевізор у своїй кімнаті. Вона завжди дивиться свій улюблений серіал у цей час.

10) Як довго вона вивчає англійську? — Вона вивчає англійську вже п’ять років.





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