Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)

МОДАЛЬНІ ДІЄСЛОВА (MODAL VERBS)

В англійській мові є такі модальні дієслова: саn (могти, вміти), could (міг), must (повинен, потрібно), mау (можеш, може), should (слід), have to (повинен, потрібно) та ін.

Модальні дієслова (крім have to) мають одну форму для всіх осіб і чисел та самостійно (без допоміжних дієслів) утворюють питальні та заперечні форми.

Після модальних дієслів (крім have to) інфінітив вживається без to:

Can your friend skate? I'm afraid he can't skate, but he can ski. Дієслова have to, ought to є винятками: після них інфінітив вживається з to, а питальні та заперечні речення потребують відповідних допоміжних дієслів. Наприклад:

Do they have to come at five? — No, they don't. They have to come at six.

Модальні дієслова мають відповідні форми у минулому та майбутньому часах.

Present

Past

Future

can

could

will be able to

must

had to

will have to

may

might

will be allowed to

Наприклад:

She will be able to meet you tomorrow.

We had to take a taxi because we couldn't miss the train. I hope my parents will allow me to go fishing.

1. Circle the correct item.

1) You can/could buy the present yesterday. 2) I think we could/ will be able to buy the tickets beforehand. 3) Eddy must/had to return me this book yesterday. 4) The pupils must/mustn’t make a noise in the classroom. 5) The children may/will be allowed to play in the park today. 6) My mother may not/won’t allow me to take her camera. 7) Your cousin can/may play the guitar very well. 8) All the students had to/will have to pass the exams at the end of the year. 9) Last year Ben could/couldn’t speak English, but now he can/can't speak English rather well. 10) I think they can/will be able to take part in this festival next year.

2. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets.

1) Jane ... play the violin a year ago, but now she ... play well. She ... play in the concert in two months, (can, could, be able to) 2) You ... watch this film yesterday. I ... you to go for a walk when you finish your homework. Your friend ... visit you today. (may, might, will allow) 3) Oscar ... take aspirin an hour ago. He ... go to bed right now. He ... visit the doctor in three days. (must, had to, will have to) 4) My friend ... speak French very well. He ... speak French when he was twelve. I think he ... go to university in France in his future. (can, could, will be able to) 5) We ... clean the flat now. We ... clean the flat yesterday, but we had a lot of homework to do. We ... go shopping tomorrow evening. (must, had to, will be able to) 6) Tony and Den ... go to the cinema yesterday. If they have already had dinner, they ... play computer games. Their parents ... the boys to go to the river next Saturday, (may, might, will allow)

3. Make the sentences negative and interrogative.

1) Henry can play volleyball very well. 2) We could help you with house chores yesterday. 3) Dolly must look after her little cousin. 4) They may go fishing with Bob. 5) Alex could return me this disc yesterday. 6) He may give you sweets after dinner. 7) Mary must translate this text. 8) I can make a cup of tea for them. 9) You must take care of your sister. 10) The doctor can examine you. 11) Nick could ski last winter.

4. Complete the sentences using modal verbs and words in brackets as in the example.

Example: Ron can play football but (to play basketball -)

Ron can play football but he can't play basketball.

Sue must learn the poem but (to write an essay ?)

Sue must learn the poem but must she write an essay?

1) Jack and Paul may ride bikes but (to ride fast -)

2) Amy could skate last year but (to ski ?)

3) You may watch the cartoon but (to watch the film -)

4) I must paint the roof but (to paint the fence ?)

5) Eric can read in French but (to speak French ?)

6) Children must eat fruit but (to eat many sweets -)

7) At the age of two Betty could walk but (to speak -)

8) You may take my car but (drive without a licence -)

5. Choose the correct modal verb from brackets to complete the proverbs.

1) A cat ... look at a king, (must, may) 2) Don’t bite off more than you ... chew, (must, may, can) 3) The leopard ... change his spots, (can’t, mustn’t, may not) 4) No man ... serve two masters, (must, may, can) 5) Never put off till tomorrow what you ... do today, (must, may, can) 6) The wolf ... lose his teeth but never his nature, (must, may) 7) You ... make an omelette without breaking eggs, (mustn’t, can’t, may not) 8) You never know what you ... do till you try. (must, may, can)

6. Translate into English.

1) Він уміє користуватись комп’ютером.

2) Ми не повинні допомагати вам.

3) Вона може взяти мій словник.

4) Я не можу показати вам дорогу до аеропорту.

5) Моя сестра не вміє водити автомобіль.

6) Ви можете сказати мені вашу адресу? — Так.

7) Боб уміє грати на гітарі? — Ні.

8) Ми можемо залишити записку для вас? — Так.

9) Я не повинен хвилюватись.

10) Вона не могла прийти до вас учора.    

11) Він повинен був відправити повідомлення вчора.

12) Ви вміли розмовляти, коли вам було два роки? — Так.

13) Ми не зможемо купити квіти завтра.

Складаючи спеціальні запитання до речень з модальними дієсловами, слова розташовують у такому порядку: питальне слово (Wh-word), модальне дієслово, підмет, дієслово-присудок. Наприклад:

What can we do for you?    

Why must you hurry?

Where may he go for a walk?

How could she swim then?

7. Write questions to the underlined words.

1) The boys can swim in the lake in summer.

2) We must buу a present for our mother.

3) Pam may listen to music in her room.

4) They could ski in the mountains in winter.

8. Use the table and make as many questions as you can.

Who

Where

When

How

can

must

may

could

you

your friend

Fred and

Dick

Julia

his cousin

we

play table tennis?

have lunch?

discuss this problem?

get to the theatre in time?

have a talk?

buy flowers?

visit grandparents?

9. Complete the jokes with can or can't

1) В: ... a kangaroo jump higher than the Eiffel Tower?

A: Yes, because the Eiffel Tower ... jump!

2) A: Meet my new born brother.

В: Oh, he is so handsome! What’s his name?

A: I don’t know. I... understand a word he says.

3) Teacher: How ... we get some clean water?

Student: Bring the water from the river and wash it.

10. Translate into English.

1) Хто вміє грати на піаніно? — Моя сестра вміє.

2) Коли він повинен повернути фотоапарат? — Він повинен повернути фотоапарат сьогодні.

3) У якому віці ваш брат умів читати? — Він умів читати у шість років.

4) Що їй можна робити? — Вона може подивитись мультфільм.

5) Куди Пітер має покласти ключ? — Він має покласти ключ на полицю біля дверей.

6) Хто має читати доповідь? — Доповідь має читати представник нашої делегації.

7) Як я можу допомогти вам?

8) Куди вони могли піти вчора? — Вони могли піти до театру.

9) Як ваш друг міг грати в баскетбол рік тому? — Він міг грати гірше, ніж зараз.

10) Що я маю сказати вашій бабусі?

Модальне дієслово must вживається для вираження обов'язків (obligation) та вказує на необхідність щось зробити (necessity).

Must вживається, коли людина приймає рішення самостійно:

You must do it now.

Must not виражає заборону:

You must not make a noise in the hospital.

Модальне дієслово have to вживається у теперішньому, минулому, майбутньому часах і також вказує на необхідність щось зробити та виражає обов'язки, але, на відміну від дієслова must, воно вживається, коли людина має виконувати чужі, а не свої рішення чи змушена щось робити під впливом обставин:

I don't want to walk the dog, but I have to.

My doctor says I have to take vitamins.

Дієслово have to потребує відповідних допоміжних дієслів для утворення питальних та заперечних речень:

Does she have to get up early? — Yes, she does.

Did he have to meet you? — No, he didn't.

Will they have to take part in the conference? — No, they won't.

11. Complete the sentences with must or have to.

1) I’m very tired. I ... go to bed earlier today. 2) My parents think I... go to bed early to have a good sleep. 3) I... buy bread. My mother asked me about it. 4) I have got a terrible headache. I... take an aspirin. 5) My teacher says I... pay more attention to my pronunciation. 6) We have nothing to eat. We ... go shopping. 7) Paul’s coach says he ... exercise more to get good results at the competition. 8) Vicky’s room is a mess. She ... tidy it. 9) The weather is so wonderful today! We ... go out for a picnic. 10) Jane’s boss thinks she ... speak to the clients more politely.

12. Use the information from the list and write what pupils have to do and what they don't have to do.

To wear uniform

To be late for school

To do homework

To miss the lessons

To make a noise during a lesson

To bring books to school

To interrupt the teacher’s explanations

To study hard

To prepare for tests and exams

To study on Sundays

13. Complete the jokes with must, mustn't or have to.

1) Mother: Did you enjoy your first day at school?

Girl: First day? Do you mean I... go back tomorrow?

2) The old lady is going to take a taxi. She says to the driver, «You ... take me to the station. You ... drive slowly and carefully. You ... go on the red traffic light and you ... rush round the corners as the road is very wet». «All right, madam», replies the driver. «But if we have an accident what hospital... I take you to?»

14. Complete the sentences with the correct form (positive, negative or interrogative) and tense (present, past or future) of have to.

1) Sam has got a toothache so he ... visit his dentist today. 2) ... we ... prepare all the documents yesterday? — No, you ... . 3) It’s my day off tomorrow so I ... go to the office. 4) It was raining yesterday so Frank ... take his umbrella. 5) Sally has recovered so now she ... stay in bed any more. 6) Sheila and Marion can’t come to our party because they ... study for the test tonight. 7) ... you ... type all these letters today? — Yes, I ... . 8) My aunt arrives tomorrow so I ... meet her at the railway station. 9) It was very warm yesterday and Jessie ... put on her warm sweater. 10)... Clara ... fill in this report right now? — No, she ... . 11) Let’s go shopping now so that we ... do it tomorrow. 12) ... Mike ... book the hotel room yesterday? — Yes, he ... .

Здатність щось робити (ability) виражається за допомогою дієслів can, could, be able to.

Can виражає вміння щось робити тепер:

She can swim very well. She can teach you to swim.

Could/was able to виражає вміння щось робити у минулому:

Не could/was able to ride a bike when he was five.

Was able to виражає здатність щось робити у минулому в результаті особливих обставин (у значенні «вдалося зробити»):

Не was able to help me in spite of his tiredness.

Will be able to виражає здатність щось зробити у майбутньому: She will be able to meet you tomorrow.

15. Circle the correct item.

1) My little brother can/could count when he was six. 2) I will be able/was able to send the invitations tomorrow. 3) We can/ could order a taxi right now. 4) She won’t be able/wasn’t able to understand the rule because she had a headache. 5) Alan could/was able to win the competition because his leg didn’t hurt. 6) I’m afraid Sue can’t/won’t be able to take you to the exhibition because she’ll be very busy next Friday. 7) It was snowing hard and we can’t/weren’t able to drive fast. 8) Olga can’t/couldn’t say a word in English two years ago but now she can/could speak English fluently.

16. Complete the dialogue with can, could or be able to in the correct tense and form.

— You are a champion skater now, but ... you skate in your childhood?

— No, I .... I even ... think about skating because I was afraid of this kind of sport. But I ... play the violin very well then and my teacher thought I ... become a famous musician.

— But how did you manage to learn to skate?

Well, my father was fond of skating. One day he took me to the skating-rink to teach me skating. When I went on the ice for the first time I felt very excited. I ... think of anything else. But suddenly I fell down and broke my arm. After that accident I ... become a musician. So I had nothing to do but learn to skate.

— ... you play the violin now?

— Unfortunately I... .

— Do you go in for other kinds of sport?

— Well, I ... ski and swim. And I ... play computer games. I hope one day I ... take part in some computer-gaming competition.

— I wish you luck then.

Для висловлювання можливості чи вірогідності (possibility/probability) використовуються такі дієслова.

1) May (можливо, дуже вірогідно): She may return home before dinner.

2) Might (можливо, дуже вірогідно): It might rain in the evening. Хоча mightце форма минулого часу дієслова mау, вона може вживатися для описання ситуацій у теперішньому часі.

3)   Could (можливо): Не could still be in the office.

4) Must (майже впевнений): I often see them together. They must be good friends.

5) Can't (не думаю, що це можливо): You can't be thirty-five. You look much younger.

17. Rewrite the sentences using may/might, must, can’t, could as in the example.

Example: I don’t think this film is interesting.—

This film can’t be interesting.

1) He usually phones me. I think he will phone me today.

2) I don’t know if we meet our cousins.

3) I hope your little brother is near the sandpit.

4) I don’t think the plane arrives on time in such bad weather.

5) I’m not sure if our teacher is still at school.

6) Perhaps your parents will give you some good advice.

7) It’s quite possible that Nick will buy the cake.

8) It’s certain that they are of the same age.

9) I don’t think that the situation is so bad.

18. Complete the dialogue with may/might, must, can't, could.    

— Why do you look so sad, Dave?

— I have quarrelled with my parents. They don’t want to buy me some necessary things.

— What things?

—    A new MP3 player.

— Oh, Dave, MP3 player ... be a necessary thing! You ... be joking!

— No, I really need it! You know I’m fond of rap and my life ... be much better with music. I... listen to my favourite music on the way to school or somewhere else.

— But if your parents refuse to buy it you ... try to make some agreement with them. You ... just be a good son and a good pupil. In this case your parents ... be very pleased with you and will buy you a MP3 player.

— Well, I hope your advice ... be really helpful. OK, I... try! Although I’m afraid, to be a good son and a good pupil... be not an easy task!

19. Translate into English.

1) Наші сусіди мають бути на роботі зараз.

2) Ми запізнюємось. Наш учитель може розсердитись.

3) Це не може бути її номер телефону. Вона нещодавно змінила номер.

4) Мій брат може забути про зустріч.

5) Ти можеш думати, що це питання не таке вже й важливе.

6) Вона не може бути здивованою. Вона знала про це заздалегідь.

7) Твої однокласники можуть мати інші завдання.

8) Цей журнал має бути у твого брата. Я давав його йому тиждень тому.

9) Ці дівчата можуть бути сестрами.

10) Я гадаю, може піти дощ.

 У запитаннях з метою отримання дозволу (permission) використовуються такі модальні дієслова.

1) Саn (дружнє звертання): Can I use your pencil?

2) Could (ввічливе звертання): Could we have a break, please?

3) May (ввічливе звертання): May I talk to you?

4) Might (дуже ввічливе звертання): Might I ask you some questions, please!

Для вираження дозволу/заборони (refusing permission/prohibition) використовуються такі модальні дієслова.

1) Саn (дозволити по-дружньому): You can take a piece of cake if you want.

2) May (дати дозвіл більш офіційно): She may leave her recommendation letter.

Для вираження заборони використовуються такі модальні дієслова.

1) Mustn't (категорична заборона): You mustn’t walk your dog here.

2) Can't (заборона): He can't swim too far from the shore.

20. Complete the dialogues with can, may, could, can't, mustn't.

1) — ... I watch TV a little longer today, Mum?

— I’m sorry, you ... . Little children ... watch TV late at night.

2) — ... I talk with the manager, please?

— One moment, please. Sorry, the manager is out at the moment but you ... leave a message for him.

3) — ... I use your camera, Dad?

— Of course, you .... But be careful with it.

4) — ... I see your passport, please?

— Here you are. ... I go now?

— Yes, please. Good luck.

5) — You ... smoke here. There is a special sign.

— Excuse me, please.

6) — ... I ride a bike after dinner?

— Of course you ... But you ... ride too fast because it’s very dangerous.

7) — Excuse me. ... I make a call from your phone, please?

— Sorry you .... The line is engaged at the moment.

21. Translate into English.

1) Ти можеш користуватися комп’ютером, якщо у тебе є робота. 2) Ти не можеш дивитися телевізор. Ти ще не зробив уроки. 3) Учням не дозволено користуватися калькуляторами на уроках математики. 4) Можна мені взяти вашу валізу? 5) Можна мені позичити вашу машину, будь ласка? 6) Він не може залишатися з нами. 7) Тут не дозволено залишати машину. 8) Він може приєднатися до нас,.якщо хоче. 9) Можна мені подивитися на ваші розрахунки, будь ласка? — Так, звичайно. 10) Можна мені яблуко? — Спершу, тобі слід помити руки, а потім ти можеш узяти яблуко.

Для вираження поради (advice), використовуються модальні дієслова should та ought to без відмінностей у значенні:

You should/ought to до in for sport to stay healthy. You shouldn't/oughtn't to eat a lot of sweets. What should we do in this case?

22. Look at the picture and give advice to Bobby. Use the words in the box.

to stay in bed, to call the doctor, to go out, to drink cold lemonade/warm tea or milk with honey, to take an aspirin, to eat an ice cream, to go to school, to take vitamins

23. Complete the dialogue with should/shouldn't or ought/oughtn't.

— My family has just moved to another town and I have no friends here yet. What... I do to make friends?

— I think you ... try to make friends among your new classmates. First, you ... to be rude. You ... to smile when you speak to people. Then you ... try to be helpful. Remember, a friend in need is a friend indeed!

— But school isn’t the only place to meet new friends.

— Of course not. You ... to be confined to school and home . only. You ... join some club or a gym. Hobby is a wonderful

chance to meet interesting people and new friends. You ... be afraid of communicating. If you are a sociable person it isn’t a problem for you to make friends with somebody.

24. Imagine that your younger sister/brother goes to school for the first time. What advice can you give him/her? (Write 6—7 sentences).

Для висловлювання прохання (request) або пропозиції (offer/ suggestion) використовуються такі модальні дієслова та конструкції з ними.

1) Саn (прохання): Can you tell mе the time?

2) Could (ввічливе прохання чи пропозиція): Could you help mе, please?

3) Would you like (ввічлива пропозиція): Would you like some more coffee?

4) Shall l/we (пропозиція): Shall I repeat? Shall we play a game of chess?

5) Will (дружня пропозиція чи прохання): I’ll show you the way if you want. Will you watt for me?

25. Circle the correct item.

1) Can/could you buy a newspaper for me, please? 2) I shall/will give you my umbrella if you don’t mind. 3) Would/could you like a ham sandwich? 4) Can/could you phone me in the evening? 5) Shall/will we go to the concert tonight? 6) Can/would you like to try this jumper on? 7) Wait a minute! I shall/will write you my address. 8) Shall/will we have lunch in a cafe? 9) Shall/will you leave a message for me? 10) Can/could he show me the cheque?

26. Complete the dialogue with can, could, would, shall or will.

Shop-assistant: ... I help you, Miss?

Miss: Yes, I’m looking for a present for my friend.

S: What kind of present... you like?

M: ... I have a look at that photo frame?

S: Of course. Here you are.

M: ... you show me the bigger one, please?

S: Certainly, Miss.

M: They both look nice but I think I ... take the bigger frame.

S: Good choice. ... I pack it for you?

M: Yes, please.





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