Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)

ПАСИВНИЙ СТАН ДІЄСЛІВ (THE PASSIVE VOICE)

Паcивний стан дієслів в англійській мові вживається, коли дія більш важлива, ніж її виконавець; коли виконавець невідомий; коли ми звертаємо увагу на виконавця дії. Також пасивний стан вживається для підкреслення ввічливості та офіційності ситуації:

The post-office is closed at 20.00. (Виконавець дії невідомий та неважливий.)

The novel is written by Walter Scott. (Звертаємо увагу на виконавця дії.)

The applications аre accepted from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. (Підкреслюємо офіційність ситуації.)

Пасивний стан дієслів англійської мови утворюється додаванням допоміжного дієслова to be у відповідному часі до основного дієслова у третій формі (для неправильних дієслів) або із закінченням -ed (для правильних).

to be + V3 (Ved)

Для утворення пасивного стану дієслів у теперішньому неозначеному часі (Present Simple Passive) вживаються форми допоміжного дієслова to be в теперішньому часі (am, is, are).

I + am + V3 (Ved)

He/she/it + is + V3 (Ved)

We/you/they + are + (Ved)

Наприклад:

Dinner is cooked every day. The films are shown in the evening.

1. Make up sentences using the Present Simple Passive.

1) The rooms/to clean/every day.

2) The luggage/to check/by the customs officer.

3) The dog/to walk/twice a day.

4) English and French/to speak/in Canada.

5) Lemonade/to sell/in plastic bottles.

6) The Internet/to use/all over the world.

7) Christmas/to celebrate/on 25th of December in England.

8) Cakes/to make/by confectioners.

9) Time/to show/by clocks and watches.

10) Football/to play/in different countries.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple Passive.

1) Thousands of calls ... (to make) from mobile phones every day. 2) Stars ... (to see) in the sky at night. 3) Coffee ... (to grow) in South America. 4) The news ... (to report) every day. 5) Animals in the zoo ... (to feed) three times a day. 6) Milk ... (to produce) by cows. 7) Computers ... (to use) in different spheres of modern life. 8) The Tower of London ... (to visit) by thousands of tourists every year. 9) This town ... (to situate) in the north of the country. 10) Famous pieces of Art ... (to keep) in museums.

Заперечна та питальна форми речень з дієсловами пасивного стану утворюються з використанням відповідних форм допоміжного дієслова to be.

I + am not + V3 (Ved)

He/she/it + is not + V3 (Ved)

You/we/they + are not + V3 (Ved)

Am + I + V3 (Ved)?

Is + he/she/it + V3 (Ved)?

Are + you/we/they + V3 (Ved)?

Наприклад:

The room is cleaned every day.

The room isn't cleaned every day.

Is the room cleaned every day?

What is cleaned every day?

3. Make the sentences negative and interrogative.

1) This hotel is constructed by a famous architect. 2) This fact is forgotten. 3) Students are taught in colleges. 4) Airplanes are flown by pilots. 5) Rumours are spread quickly. 6) Oil is made of seeds. 7) Breakfast is served at 8 o’clock. 8) Cars are repaired at service centres. 9) This vase is made of glass. 10) Managers are wanted in this company.

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple Passive and learn the proverbs.

1) Men ... (to know) by the company they keep. 2) Old birds ... (not to catch) with chaff. 3) The road to hell ... (to pave) with good intentions. 4) Tree ... (to know) by its fruit. 5) An oak ... (not to fell) at one stroke. 6) Don’t count your chickens before they ... (to hatch). 7) The devil isn’t so black as he ... (to paint).

5. Write the questions and answers using the information from the list.

Example: When are the newspapers delivered? — The newspapers are delivered every morning.

1) The newspapers/deliver

every morning

2) The letters/write

once a week

3) Phone calls/make

a lot

4) The computer games/play

never

5) The report/prepare

on Fridays

6) Pills/take

four

7) The flowers/water

three times a week

6. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1)    The paintings of this artist ... (to exhibit) in the local gallery. 2) What kind of plays ... (to perform) in this theatre? — Mostly comedies ... (to perform). 3) What ... these plates ... (to make) of? — They ... (to make) of china. 4) Where ... fresh vegetables ... (to sell)? — They ... (to sell) at the market. 5) ... this magazine ... (to publish) every week? — No, it .... It ... (to publish) monthly. 6) The houses in this village ... (not to make) of wood. They ... (to make) of bricks. 7) What time ... the mail... (to deliver)? — It ... (to deliver) at 11 o’clock. 8) How often ... the grass on the tennis court... (to cut)? — It... (to cut) once a week. 9) Which excursion ... (usually to choose) by tourists? — The excursion to Westminster Abbey ... (to choose) by most of the groups. 10)... Opel cars ... (to produce) in France? — No, they ... (to produce) in Germany.

Пасивний стан дієслів у реченнях минулого неозначеного часу (Past Simple Passive) утворюється за допомогою форм минулого часу допоміжного дієслова to be (was, were).

l/he/she/it + was + V3 (Ved)

l/he/she/it + was not + V3 (Ved)

You/we/fhey + were + V3 (Ved)

You/we/they + were not + V3 (Ved)

Was + l/he/she/it + V3 (Ved)?

Were + you/we/they + V3 (Ved)?

Наприклад:

This film was shown yesterday.

This film wasn't shown yesterday.

Was this film shown yesterday?

When was this film shown?

7. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple Passive.

The Statue of Liberty ... (to create) by a French architect Bartholdi. It ... (to make) in France. The statue ... (to build) 11 years and when it was ready, it... (to take) to the USA by ship. A huge base for the statue ... (to prepare) by the Americans on one of the islands two miles from Manhattan. A lift and 390 steps ... (to make) so that the visitors could read the crown top of «Lady Liberty» and admire the view of the area. The Statue of Liberty ... (to recognize) as a symbol of American freedom. Ninety years later the statue ... (to restore) by a team of French and American experts.

8. Use the list and write what was done or wasn't done by the secretary yesterday.

9. Make up sentences using the Past Simple Passive.

1) This statue/to make/of marble. 2) The report/not to type/ yesterday. 3) The letters/to deliver/two hours ago? 4) When/ the building/to destroy? 5) Why/the room/to paint? 6) The bridge/to construct/ten years ago? 7) That suit/to sell/ yesterday. 8) Whom/the message/to send to? 9) When/а new school/to open? 10) The photos/not to take/in Brighton.

10. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple Passive and read the joke.

A Risky Test

A poor young artist ... (to ask) to paint a portrait of a rich lady. When the portrait ... (to finish), it ... (to show) to the lady’s friends. Some of them thought that it was too realistic id the artist ... (to suggest) to change some details in the portrait. But the artist didn’t want to change anything. Then one of the friends had an idea. «Let’s show the portrait to the lady’s dog and we’ll see if the picture is good or bad», he said, So the picture ... (to deliver) to the lady’s house and her dog ... (to bring) before the portrait. As soon as the dog saw the picture, it began to lick it all over. The lady ... (to please) and everybody congratulated the artist.

Пасивний стан дієслів у реченнях майбутнього неозначеного часу (Future Simple Passive) утворюється за допомогою форми майбутнього часу допоміжного дієслова to be (will be).

l/you/he/she/it/we/tbey + will be + V3 (Ved)

l/you/he/she/it/we/they + will not (won't) be + V3 (Ved)

Will + l/you/he/she/it/we/they + be + V3 (Ved)?

Наприклад:

The letters will be typed tomorrow.    

The letters won't be typed tomorrow.

Will the letters be typed tomorrow?

When will the letters be typed?

11. Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Simple Passive.

1) This experiment ... (to finish) in a week. 2) The play ... (to perform) next Sunday. 3) The instructions ... (to receive) in an hour. 4) The design of the building ... (not to complete) next month. 5) The injured man ... (to operate) on in an hour. 6) All the meetings ... (to arrange) next week. 7) The document ... (to sign) in some minutes. 8) This bill ... (not to pay) tomorrow. 9) This question ... (not to discuss) at the next conference. 10) The car ... (not to repair) in two days.

12. Make up sentences using the Future Simple Passive.

1) Fruit/to serve/in some minutes.

2) The painting of this artist/not to exhibit/in the gallery,

3) The Mona Lisa/to show/to the tourists?    

4) When/the computers/to transport/to our country?

5) Why/the museum/to close?

6) What film/to show/tomorrow?

7) Where/the keys/to leave?

8) What route/to offer/for the excursion?

9) The assembly hall/to decorate/tomorrow?    

10) What/the manager/to ask about?

Зверніть увагу на відмінності у вживанні пасивного стану дієслів у теперішньому, минулому та майбутньому неозначених часах.

Пасивний стан дієслів у теперішньому неозначеному часі вживається, якщо дії єрегулярними чи повторгованими або йдеться про загальне відомі факти. Характерні обставини часу: always, usually, often, every, sometimes, seldom, rarely, never.

Наприклад:

Fresh fish is always sold in the market.

Пасивний стан дієслів у минулому неозначеному часі вживається, якщо дії відбулись і закінчились у визначений момент у минулому або йдеться про події чи загальновідомі факти, що мали місце у минулому. Характерні обставини часу:

yesterday, last month (year), a week ago. Наприклад:

This gadget was invented some years ago.

Пасивний стан дієслів у майбутньому неозначеному часі

вживається, якщо дії відбудуться у визначений час у майбутньому. Характерніобставини часу: tomorrow, next week (month), in a week.

Наприклад:

The news will be reported in an hour.

13. Circle the correct item.

1) The Sphinx is/was constructed 4000 years ago. 2) The invitation cards were/will be printed in three days. 3) The Tower of London is/will be visited by thousands of tourists every year. 4) The medicine for cancer was/will be developed in the near future. 5) The tape recorder is/was invented in 1899. 6) The articles of this journalist are/will be sometimes published in this newspaper. 7) A new song by this pop group is/was recorded a week ago. 8) Some new tours will be/were developed by this tourist agency next year. 9) A huge shopping centre is/ will be opened in two weeks in our town. 10) This hotel is/will be seldom chosen by Americans.

14. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple Passive, Past Simple Passive or Future Simple Passive.

1) The room ... (to clean) yesterday.

2) New houses ... (to build) in our city every year.

3) The book of this writer ... (to publish) in a month.

4) The trees ... (to whitewash) by our pupils every spring.

5) Tea ... (to grow) in Ceylon and India.

6) America ... (not to discover) by James Cook. It ... (to discover) by Christopher Columbus.

7) Pizza ... (to deliver) in half an hour.

8) Thousands of new cars ... (to produce) at this plant every year.   

9) Ink ... (to use) for writing many years ago.

10) Some new technologies ... (to introduce) to the industrial companies at the end of the following month.

15. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple Passive, Past Simple Passive or Future Simple Passive.

England and France ... (to separate) by the English Channel. In the past people and goods ... (to transport) from one country to another by ferries only. This way of transporting wasn’t convenient enough so the idea to build a channel under the sea ... (to offer) in 1802 by a French engineer. Work started at the end of the 19th century but ... (to interrupt) by different political and practical problems. The building ... (to resume) in the 1980s, and the tunnel ... (to open) on May 6, 1994. It ... (to name) The Channel Tunnel and at that time it ... (to recognize) as the longest tunnel and one of the Seven Wonders of the

Modern World. Today the travel from France to England takes about three hours and 35 minutes of this time ... (to spend) in the underwater tunnel. But the engineers of both countries develop different ideas so that the work of the tunnel ... (to improve) in the nearest future.

16. Translate into English.

1) Квитки на літак принесуть за годину.

2) Цю машину пофарбували три місяці тому.

3) Комп’ютерами користуються всі учні нашої школи.

4) Де продають свіже молоко?

5) Коли винайшли паровий двигун?

6) Це оголошення не надрукують.

7) Папір виготовляють з дерева.

8) Цю церкву побудували у минулому столітті.

9) Ким був заснований цей музей? * 1

Для того щоб речення з дієсловом активного стану перетворити на речення з дієсловом пасивного стану, необхідно об'єкт (додаток) зробити суб’єктом (підметом):

Не took the children to the cinema.— The children were taken to the cinema.

They will buy a car.— The car will be bought.

Коли стан змінюється з активного на пасивний, граматичний час речення не змінюється.

Якщо в реченні є два додатки, кожен з них може стати на місце підмета:

We gave him the newspaper:— The newspaper was given to him. He was given the newspaper.

17. Circle the correct item.

1) My boss gives/is given me the instructions. 2) They met/were met by the guide at the railway station. 3) She will introduce/ will be introduced to her new manager. 4) The book describes/ is described the life of poor people in the 19th century. 5) The pupils told/were told a beautiful legend about this mountain by their teacher. 6) Peter will show/will be shown the city to his friend. 7) The police arrested/was arrested the robbers of the jewellery shop. 8) The winner of the competition will give/will be given a cup. 9) This factory produces/is produced clothes for children. 10) A new car designed/was designed a month ago.

18. Change the sentences using the Passive Voice.

1) People of our town plant a lot of flowers every spring. 2) They will pay the bill in the hotel. 3) They discussed this project at the meeting yesterday. 4) The scientist of this Institution invented new sources of energy. 5) We will send the invitations for the party in two days. 6) A big dog frightened two little girls in the park. 7) Guards forbid to use cameras in the museums. 8) What will you order for dessert? 9) He washes his car every Sunday. 10) When will they send the programme of the conference? 11) They gather a lot of berries every summer. 12) How often do they use this room for lectures? 13) What newspapers did they buy yesterday?

У реченнях з дієсловами пасивного стану часто вживаються прийменники by та with. By вживається, коли йдеться про виконавця дії, with — коли йдеться про знаряддя, яким виконується дія:

The novel is written by a famous writer.

This picture was drawn with a pencil.   

19. Circle the correct item.

1) The note was written with/by a pencil. 2) The dinner will be cooked with/by my aunt. 3) This story was told with/by a famous traveller. 4) Meat is eaten with/by a fork and a knife. 5) The report will be prepared with/by our manager. 6) The carpets are cleaned with/by a vacuum cleaner. 7) The rooms in the hotel are cleaned with/by maids. 8) The article was written with/by a young journalist. 9) The politicians were interviewed with/by reporters. 10) This star was discovered with/by our scientists.

Утворюючи речення з присудком пасивного стану з модальними дієсловами, слова розташовують у такій послідовності:

modal verb + be + V3 (Ved).

Наприклад:

The book must be read.

The car can be repaired.

The film may be watched.

20. Make up sentences using the Passive Voice.

1) The homework/must/do.

2) The ball/can/use/in the gym.

3) The dishes/must/wash.

4) The essay/should/write.

5) The dog/should/feed.

6) This question/could/discuss/yesterday.

7) The things/must/pack.

8) The documents/couldn’t/sign/yesterday.

9) Mobile phones/can’t/use/during the lesson.

10) Loud music/shouldn’t/play/here.

Якщо дієслово вживається з певним прийменником у реченні з присудком активного стану, цей прийменник обов'язково залишається у відповідному реченні пасивного стану:

She will look after the children.— The children will be looked after. We listened to fhe lecture attentively.— The lecture was listened to attentively.

21. Change the sentences into the Passive Voice.

1) People talk about the new book. 2) The pupils laughed at the play in the theatre. 3) He looked at the photos with great interest. 4) They will listen to the opera with great pleasure. 5) We can take care of your kitten. 6) They must send for the secretary. 7) He looked through some fresh newspapers. 8) She sent the flowers away. 9) We’ll switch off the heater in the room. 10) I must turn on the radio.

Для утворення пасивного стану дієслів теперішнього (Present Continuous Passive) та минулого тривалого часу (Past Continuous Passive) вживаються форми допоміжного дієслова to be в теперішньому (am, is, are) чи в минулому часі (was, were), дієслово to be із закінченням -іng та основне дієслово у третій формі (для неправильних дієслів) або із закінченням -ed (для правильних дієслів). Питальні та заперечні речення утворюються за допомогою відповідних форм дієслова to be.

I + am being + V3 (Ved)

He/she/it + is being + V3 (Ved)

You/we/they + are being + V3 (Ved)

Наприклад:

The film is being watched now.

The film isn't being watched now.

Is the film being watched now?

What is being watched now?

l/he/she/it + was being + V3 (Ved)

You/we/they + were being + V3 (Ved)

Наприклад:

The story was being told then.

The story wasn't being told then.

Was the story being told then?

What was being told then?

Пасивний стан дієслів теперішнього тривалого часу вживається, якщо дія відбувається над об'єктом у момент мовлення.

Пасивний стан дієслів минулого тривалого часу вживається для вираження дії, яка відбувалася над об'єктом у певний момент у минулому чи протягом певного часу в минулому.

22. Make up sentences using the Present Continuous Passive.

1) The letter/to write/now.

2) The oranges/to buy/now.

3) Sandwiches/to make/now.

4) The newspaper/not to read/at the moment.

5) The song/not to sing/now.

6) The candles/to light/now?

7) What lecture/to give/now?

8) Whose report/to listen to/at the moment?

9) The news/to report/at the moment?

10) The interview/to give/now?

23. Complete the answers to the questions using the Past Continuous Passive and the verbs from the boxes.

1) Did she return you the CD yesterday? — No, it .... 2) Why didn’t you put that black shirt on? — It .... 3) Why didn’t he hear the doorbell? — The carpet ... . 4) Did the teacher check your test yesterday? — No, it.... 5) Did they find a solution to that problem? — No, it.... 6) Why didn’t you try the cake? — It ... . 7) Could he take the documents yesterday? — No, they ....

24. Translate into English.

1) Цим комп’ютером зараз не користуються. 2) Кімнату зараз прибирають. 3) Доповідь учора слухали півгодини. 4) Ваш костюм учора прасували двадцять хвилин. 5) На нього чекають? 6) Вашу кімнату вчора довго фарбували? — Так, її фарбували три години. 7) Обід ще готують. 8) Запрошення зараз пишуть? — Так. 9) Мою машину вчора ремонтували весь день. 10) Її зараз запитують.

Для утворення пасивного стану дієслів теперішнього доконаного часу (Present Perfect Passive) вживаються форми допоміжного дієслова to have у теперішньому часі (have, has), дієслово to be у третій формі (been) та основне дієслово у третій формі або із закінченням -ed. Питальні та заперечні речення утворюються за допомогою відповідних форм дієслова to have.

l/you/we/fhey + have been + V3 (Ved)

He/she/it + has been + (Ved)

Наприклад:

The book has been read by Monday.

The book hasn’t been read by Monday.

Has the book been read by Monday?

What has been done by Monday?

Пасивний стан дієслів теперішнього доконаного часу вживається, якщо дія над об'єктом завершилася нещодавно та наявний результат.

25. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect Passive.

1) This collection of science fiction stories ... (already to publish). 2) Our director ... (just to inform) about the accident. 3) The burglars ... (not to arrest) yet. 4) The curtains ... (already to put up). 5) The construction of the bridge ... (not to finish) yet. 6)... the suitcases ... (to pack) yet? — No, they ... . 7) What poem ... (to learn) by heart for today? 8) What souvenirs ... (to prepare) for the foreign guests? 9) How ... the information ... (to use)? 10) Which picture ... (already to exhibit)?

26. Change the sentences into the Passive Voice.

1) They are looking for the information at the moment.

2) They have just designed a new series of clothes.

3) The workers were paving the road with stones.

4) She must ask him for help.

5) He has thanked the woman for her advice.

6) Everyone was laughing at the joke.

7) They have invited us to a party.

8) You can rewrite this application.

9) The wind is blowing away the papers.

10) The fire has destroyed the town.

27. Put the verbs in brackets into the Passive Voice (use the correct grammar tense).

1) Breakfast ... (to serve) at the moment. 2) The rubbish ... (should/to throw) away. 3) The tickets ... (to deliver) tomorrow. 4) Some people ... (to rob) in the streets last night. 5) A new car ... (just to introduce) to the public. 6) People ... (to rescue) from the floods during the last night. 7) Andrew ... (already to tell) about the meeting. 8) The concerts ... (usually to hold) at this concert hall. 9) What island ... (to explore) now? 10) When ... this bill... (must/to pay)?

28. Translate into English.

1) Цей театр побудували минулого року.

2) Фотографії зроблять завтра.

3) Хворого зараз оглядають.

4) Рибу не слід купувати на ринку.

5) Вітаміни треба приймати регулярно.

6) 3 ним зараз розмовляють.

7) Подарунки вже приготували?    

8) Учням уже сказали результати тесту.

9) Бутерброди вже зробили?

10) Що зараз обговорюють?





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