Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)

УМОВНІ РЕЧЕННЯ (CONDITIONAL SENTENCES)

Умовні речення вживаються для вираження дій, які відбудуться чи відбулися б за певних умов. Умовні речення складаються з двох частин: головної (Main Clause) та підрядної (lf-clause).

Умовні речення нульового типу (Zero Conditionals) виражають реальні або вірогідні ситуації у теперішньому. У таких реченнях вживається теперішній неозначений час як у головній частині, так і у підрядній.

Main Clause

lf-clause

Present Simple Tense

1 Present Simple Tense

Chocolate melts if you heat it.

If I have a bad mood, I always listen to music.

Умовні речення першого типу (First Conditionals) виражають реальні чи вірогідні ситуації у майбутньому. Граматичні часи в таких реченнях вживаються так.

Main Clause

lf-clause

Future Simple Tense

Modal verb + bare Infinitive

Present Simple Tense

She will finish the work if you help her.

He can give you this book if he has it.

В умовних реченнях не обов'язково головна частина стоїть першою. Головна та підрядна частини можуть поєднуватися сполучниками if (якщо), when (коли), till (поки), until (поки нe), unless (якщо не), as soon as (як тільки):

As soon as he finishes his work, he will join us.

She won't go shopping unless you give her a list of purchases.

В умовних реченнях нульового типу if та when вживаються в одному значенні, але в умовних реченнях першого типу if вживається для вираження умови, a when — для вираження дій, які відбудуться у певний час.

Порівняйте:

If/ when I meet my friends, I always greet them. (Якщо/коли я зустрічаю друзів, я завжди їх вітаю.)

Не will phone you if he has time. (Він зателефонує тобі за умови, що матиме час.)

He will phone you when he has time. (Він зателефонує тобі тоді, коли матиме час.)

1. Match two parts of the sentences.

1) When she comes to our town,

2) He will pass the exams successfully

3) If it gets dark,

4) They always go to the country

5) You should keep to the diet

6) We drink a lot of water

7) If milk isn’t fresh,

8) We will go to the gym

a) if the weather is hot.

b) when our lessons are over.

c) if you want to lose weight.

d) you shouldn’t drink it.

e) she always stays in the hotel.

f) when they are on holidays.

g) we will turn on the light.

h) if he studies hard.

2. Circle the correct item.

1) When we need/will need food, we usually go/will go to the supermarket. 2) If this exercise is/will be too difficult for you, you should/will should ask your friend to help you. 3) If/when the weather is rainy tomorrow, we won’t go boating. 4) She will find a good job if/when she graduates from university. 5) If Alex finishes/will finish his work early, he comes/will come to our party. 6) Jane will return you the book if/when she finishes reading it. 7) We miss/will miss the train if we don’t/won’t catch a taxi. 8) Sue always helps/will help me with cooking when she has/will have time. 9) When they have/will have enough money, they buy/will buy a new car. 10) If the film is/will be interesting, I always watch/will watch it up to the end.

Якщо підрядне речення (If-clause) стоїть першим, воно відокремлюється комою. Порівняйте:

Не will give you this disc if you ask him.

If you ask him, he will give you this disc.

3. Rewrite the sentences as in the example.

Example: Your cat is hungry. I feed it. (if)

If your cat is hungry. I'll feed it.

1) We have dinner. Mother cooks meat. (when)

2) Henry gets a driving licence. He buys an expensive car. (if)

3) Му mother returns home. We go shopping. (as soon as)

4) Frank gets up. The alarm clock rings. (when)

5) I stay at home. You phone me. (until)

6) Sandra works in the garden. It gets dark. (till)

7) I have any news. I tell you. (as soon as)

8) She is angry. Ben doesn’t walk the dog. (if)

9) Our teacher checks the test-papers. We know the results. (when)

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Future Simple and learn the proverbs.

1) If you ... (to run) after two hares, you ... (to catch) none.

2) ... (not to cry) till you ... (to be) out of the wood.    

3) If the sky ... (to fall), we ... (to catch) larks.

4) When the cat... (to be) away, the mice ... (to play).

5) You never ... (to miss) the water till the well ... (to run) dry.

6) ... (not to have) the cloak to make when it ... (to begin) to rain.

7) ... (not to strike) a man when he ... (to be) down.

8) The cat always ... (to shut) its eyes when it ... (to steal) the cream.

9) If the blind man ... (to lead) the blind man, both ... (to fall) into the ditch.

5. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Future Simple Tense.

1) If you ... (to come) to see me tomorrow, I... (to be) very glad. 2) We ... (to visit) the Tower of London when we ... (to go) on a tour next summer. 3) She ... (to prepare) dinner as soon as she ... (to finish) cleaning the flat. 4) If you ... (to do) your homework properly, you ... (not to get) a bad mark. 5) The baby ... (not to fall asleep) if you ... (to make) so much noise. 6) Frank ... (to have) a stomachache if he ... (not to eat) so much. 7) My parents ... (to be) angry if I... (to fail) the exam. 8) Pam always ... (to talk) to her mother when she ... (to need) a piece of advice. 9) I usually ... (to go) to bed early when I ... (to be) tired. 10) If Tony ... (to manage) to buy the tickets, we ... (to go) to the concert tonight.

Unless часто вживається у реченнях замість if nоt. У цьому випадку заперечна частка not не потрібна. Але не можна вживати unless у питальних реченнях.

We won't watch TV unless we finish (if we don't finish) our project. What will he do if he doesn't find a job? (Not: unless he finds a job.)

6. Complete the sentences with if or unless.

1) We won’t leave the house ... we find the key. 2) They won’t go to the river ... the weather is cloudy. 3)... you leave the cake in the oven for too long, it will burn. 4) What will you do ... you don’t catch the bus? 5) James won’t enter university ... he passes his final exams at school. 6) Where will Nigel sleep ... there are no vacant rooms in the hotel? 7) I’ll make Sam a cup of hot tea ... he is cold. 8) Helen won’t phone you ... she has any news. 9) What shall we do ... we don’t find any information in the Internet? 10) Your friends won’t speak to you ... you tell them the truth.

7. Rewrite the sentences using the first conditional as in the example.

Example: You shouldn’t eat so much or you’ll put on weight.— If you eat so much, you’ll put on weight.

1) You shouldn’t speak quickly or they won’t understand you.

2) She should take your umbrella or she’ll get wet.

3) He shouldn’t forget about the meeting or his boss will be very angry.

4) You shouldn’t drive so fast or you will have an accident.

5) You should leave now or you will be late for the train.

6) They should train a lot so that they will win the competition.

7) She should consult the dictionary or she won’t translate such a difficult text.

8) We should take a rest or we won’t reach the camp before night.

9) They should hurry or they will miss the beginning of the performance.

8. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple or Future Simple Tense and read the jokes.

1) A small boy was fishing by a stream. A man came by and stopped to watch him.

«How many have you caught?» the man asked.

«If I... (to catch) another, I ... (to have) one», said the boy.

2) A boy says to his friend, «Guess how many coins I have in my pocket». The friend says, «If I ... (to guess) right, ... you ... (to give) me one of them?» The first boy says, «If you ... (to guess) right, I... (to give) you both of them!»

3) An elementary school teacher sends this note to all parents on the first day of school.

«If you ... (to promise) not to believe everything your child always ... (to say) happens at school, I ... (to promise) not to believe everything your child ... (to say) happens at home».

9. Use the sentences to make up a chain story as in the example.

a) Example: If Vicky studies hard she will pass her school final exams successfully. If she passes her school final exams successfully. she...

Vicky will study hard.

She will pass her school final exams successfully.

She will enter university.

She will get good education.

She will graduate from the university.

She will find a good job.

She will earn a lot of money.

She will travel a lot.

She will meet a handsome and clever young man.

They will have a happy family.

b) Use the sentences of part a and write what happens if Vicky doesn’t study hard.

c) Write your chain story using the first sentence: If I win a lot of money in a lottery...

10. Translate into English.

1) Якщо ти купиш фрукти, я приготую фруктовий пиріг. 2) Ми прийдемо до неї на вечірку, якщо вона нас запросить. 3) Він повісить картину, коли у нього буде час. 4) Якщо ти мені не допоможеш, я не приберу квартиру швидко. 5) Якщо ти їси брудними руками, у тебе болітиме живіт. 6) Я завжди користуюся словником, коли не знаю значення слів. 7) Що ти робиш увечері, якщо у тебе є вільний час? 8) Як він знайде потрібну інформацію, якщо він не має Інтернету? 9) Куди вони підуть, якщо лекція закінчиться рано? 10) Що вона буде робити, якщо ти їй не зателефонуєш?

Умовні речення другого типу (Second Conditionals) вживаються, якщо дія неможлива чи нереальна у теперішньому чи майбутньому. Граматичні часи в цих реченнях вживаються так.

Main Clause

If-dause

would/could/might + bare Infinitive

Past Simple

We would до to the seaside if we had holidays. (But we have no holidays.)

If he could ride a bike, he would go on a ride with us. (But he cannot ride a bike.)

11. Write down the sentences as in the example, using the rules of the second conditionals.

Example : I have free time. I go to the cinema with you.

If I had free time. I would go to the cinema with you.

1) She has enough money. She buys some new clothes.

2) He knows the law. He doesn’t consult the lawyer.

3) You take an aspirin. You don’t have a headache.

4) We have a country house. We go there for the weekend.

5) She knows English. She understands the words of this song.

6) I don’t oversleep. I meet them at the station.

7) He knows about this fact. He changes his opinion.

8) The boy doesn’t play with the knife. He doesn’t cut his finger.

9) She breaks the vase. She tells her mother about it.

12. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. (Use the second conditional.)

1) If Amanda ... (to listen) to news, she ... (to know) about the accident. 2) We ... (to have) a snack if we ... (to be) hungry. 3) If Peter ... (can) to play the guitar, he ... (to take) part in the concert. 4) Our parents ... (not to be) so angry if you ... (not to return) home so late. 5) If Sam ... (to listen) to the teacher’s explanation, he ... (to understand) this rule. 6) I ... (to come) to their wedding if I ... (to get) the invitation. 7) If Mark ... (to have) a car, he ... (to give) us a lift. 8) What ... you ... (to buy) if you ... (to have) a lot of money? 9) What country ... they ... (to visit) if they ... (to plan) their travel beforehand? 10) What musical instrument ... Diana ... (to learn) to play if she ... (to want) to become a musician?

13. Use your ideas to complete the sentences.

1) If I could fly, I ... .

2) If my teachers didn’l give any homework to do, I... .

3) If I were a magician, I... .

4) If my parents were millionaires, ....

5) If I had my own car, I ... .

6) If I were the President of the country, I... .

7) If the animals could speak, ....

8) If people could live on other planets, ....

9) If I saw a ghost, I ... .

10) If I could choose the weather, I... .

Умовні речення другого типу вживаються для висловлювання порад:

If I were you, I would buy a new mobile phone. (На вашому місці я би купив новий мобільний телефон.)

Форма were вживається для всіх осіб в умовних реченнях.

14. Give advice in the following situations as in the example. Use the word combinations from the table.

to see the dentist, to look for a highly paid job, to take some driving lessons, to tidy, to go to the hairdresser’s, to ask parents for advice, to go shopping, to use the dictionary, to leave the house earlier, to have an early night

Example: — I’m afraid, I will be late for the meeting.

— If I were you. I would leave the house earlier.

1) I don’t like my hairstyle.

2) My room is a mess.

3) I don’t have enough money to pay for my flat.

4) Our fridge is empty.

5) I have got a terrible toothache.

6) I can’t translate these words.

7) I’m so tired!

8) I don’t know how to solve this problem.

9) I can’t drive a car.

15. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and read the joke. (Use the second conditional.)

«Mummy, I’ve got a stomachache», said little Nelly to her mother. «That’s because you’ve been without lunch. Your stomach is empty. You ... (to feel) better if you ... (to have) something in it». At that moment father came into the room and complained of a severe headache. «That’s because it’s empty», said little Nelly. «You ... (to feel) better if you ... (to have) something in it».

16. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense and read the joke. (Use the second conditional.)

Sam and Jim were having dinner when, to Jim’s disgust, Sam calmly helped himself to the larger fish on the plate.

«Fine manners you have got, Sam», Jim remarked. «If I ... (to be) you, I... (to take) a smaller fish».

«Well», replied Sam with his mouth full, «you have got it».

Для висловлювання побажань використовується конструкція I wish з дієсловами у таких граматичних формах.

Граматичний час

Вживання

I wish (if only)

+ Past Simple Наприклад:

I wish I were younger. (Я би хотів бути молодим.) На жаль, я не молодий.)

I wish I won the competition. (Я би хотів виграти змагання./На жаль, я не виграю змагання.)

Коли йдеться про бажання змінити теперішню ситуацію.

1 wish (if only)

+ subject + could + bare Infinitive

Наприклад:

I wish she could come to the concert. (Я би хотів, щоб вона прийшла на концерт./На жаль, вона не може прийти на концерт.)

Коли йдеться про бажання, які не можуть реалізуватися через певні теперішні обставини, висловлюється жаль із цього приводу.

1 wish (if only)

+ subject + would + bare Infinitive

Наприклад:

I wish we would buy a new house. (Я би хотів, щоб ми купили новий будинок. /На жаль, ми не купимо новий будинок.)

Коли висловлюється побажання щодо майбутнього.

Запам'ятайте! У реченнях такого типу were вживається для всіх осіб.

17. Henry doesn't like his job. Write what he wishes.

Example: I wish my working day wasn't so long.

My working day is very long. My salary is very small. My boss often shouts at me. I have no time for lunch. I often go on business trips. I have no time to play with my children. I want to have another job.

18. Mary wants to change her future life. Write about her wishes.

Example: I wish my parents would buy me a new computer.

I want my parents to buy me a new computer. I don’t want my mother to make me clean my room every day. I want my father to take me to the driving courses. I don’t want my Granny teach me to cook. I want to go to the night club every Saturday. I don’t want my parents to make me study Biology.

19. Match two parts of the sentences.

1) If you leave meat on the table,

2) You will catch a cold

3) If I were you,

4) She would buy a new computer

5) If he didn’t miss the lessons,

6) I will phone you

7) He would improve his English

8) If I need advice,

9) I wish my brother

a) if she saved money.

b) when I come home.

c) if he attended language courses.

d) your cat will eat it.

e) would take me on the tour with him.

f) I’ll talk with my mother.

g) if you don’t put your warm coat on.

h) he would pass the exams successfully.

і) I would join some sport club.

20. Circle the correct item.

1) If I do/will do my homework quickly, I will/would play on computer.

2) Witty showed/would show you her picture if she finish/finished it.

3) He always wants/will want to eat when he feels/would feel nervous.

4) My parents don’t/wouldn’t buy me a present if I didn’t/ wouldn’t get a good mark for the test.

5) He won’t/didn’t repair the car if you didn’t/don’t help him.

6) If Helen wouldn’t/didn’t eat a dirty apple she wouldn’t/ didn’t have a stomachache.

7) We will/would leave the town today if he manage/managed to buy the train tickets.

8) If I have/has some eggs and butter I will/would bake a cake.

9) If he take/took his camera, we will/would make wonderful photos.

10) I will/would buy this dress if it was/were the right size.

21. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Decide if it is the first or the second conditional.

1) If Mark could ski, we ... (to go) to the mountains in winter.

2) Our team will get the cup if we ... (to win) this match.

3) If I were you, I... (to study) foreign languages.

4) When Nick ... (to get) a driving licence, his father will buy him a car.

5) If I... (to have) such an opportunity, I would use it.

6) I wish my teachers ... (not to give) me so much homework next year.

7) If you ... (to be) so rude, you won’t have any friends.

8) We would stay here longer if it... (not to be) so late.

9) As soon as our boss ... (to arrive), we’ll start the conference.

10) If Kate didn’t leave her umbrella at home, she ... (not to get) so wet.

22. Translate into English.

1) Якщо ти будеш їсти багато фруктів, ти будеш здоровим.

2) У нас буде час купити квитки, якщо він не запізниться.

3) На вашому місці я б не ставив так багато запитань.

4) Я би хотів мати власну машину.

5) Якби вона мала вищу освіту, вона знайшла би кращу роботу.

6) У майбутньому я хотів би багато подорожувати.

7) Вони погодились би зі мною, якби знали про мій план.

8) На вашому місці я би не залишав її саму.

9) Я би хотів, щоб ми були друзями.

10) Він мав би більше вільного часу, якби не працював так багато.





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