Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018
ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB)
НЕПРЯМА МОВА (REPORTED SPEECH)
Непряма мова (Reported Speech) — це слова людини, передані іншою людиною. У реченнях з непрямою мовою лапки не вживаються, на відміну від речень із прямою мовою (Direct Speech). При трансформації речень з прямої мови у непряму особові та присвійні займенники змінюються відповідно до змісту:
Не says, «І have got a computer».—Не says that he has got a computer.
She says, «This is my book».— She says this is her book.
У реченнях з непрямою мовою вживаються дієслова say та tell. Say вживається, якщо ми не вказуємо людину, до якої звертаємось. Tell вживається тоді, коли ми вказуємо людину, до якої звертаємось:
She said to те, «І have nо time».— She said that she had no time. She told me that she had no time.
У реченнях з непрямою мовою часто вживається сполучник that, але його можна випустити:
Не said, «І watch TV every evening».— He said that he watched TV every evening. He said he watched TV every evening.
1. Circle the correct item.
1) Alex says/tells that he was busy yesterday. 2) Mike said/ told that the film was boring. 3) They said/told me that they could play basketball well. 4) Sue said/told that her sister was younger than she. 5) Monica says/tells us that she has to look after her brother. 6) I said/told Henry that I was preparing for the test. 7) We said/told our teacher that we were ready for the dictation. 8) Peter said/told that his friends were waiting for him. 9) Mary and Kate said/told that they had Maths lessons every day. 10) My uncle said/told me that he would phone in the evening.
2. Complete the sentences with said or told.
1) Susan ... us about this film yesterday. 2) Our teacher ... that we would have an extra lesson of History. 3) The doctor ... him to stay in bed. 4) Samantha ... her mother that she had already fed the dog. 5) She ... me her phone number. 6) The policeman ... the woman not to worry. 7) My parents ... that I should go to bed. 8) Bob ... them that he was packing his suitcase. 9) You ... that you could speak French fluently. 10) Alan ... her that he didn’t know about the accident.
Якщо у словах автора в реченнях із прямою мовою дієслово- присудок стоїть у теперішньому часі, то після перетворення прямої мови на непряму час дієслів не змінюється:
They say, «We are going to the supermarket».— They say (that) they are going to the supermarket.
She says, «I was at school yesterday».— She says (that) she was at school yesterday.
Якщо у словах автора в реченнях із прямою мовою дієслово- присудок стоїть у минулому часі, то після перетворення прямої мови на непряму час дієслів змінюється таким чином:
She said, «I go to school at eight o'clock».
She said that she went to school at eight o'clock.
He said, «I am reading a book».
He said he was reading a book.
He said, «I lost the wallet».
He said he had lost the wallet.
She said, «I have washed the dishes».
She said she had washed the dishes.
She said, «I will help you».
She said she would help me.
Модальні дієслова та дієслово to be змінюються на відповідні форми минулого часу (окрім дієслів should, could, might):
Не said, «І can swim».— He said he could swim.
She said, «I am thirsty».— She said she was thirsty.
The teacher said, «You should learn the poem by heart».— The teacher said I should learn the poem by heart.
Минулий тривалий час не змінюється у непрямій мові:
They said, «We were working in the garden».— They said that they were working in the garden.
3. Circle the correct item.
1) Mark says that he has/had six lessons every day. 2) My friend said that he is/was in a hurry. 3) She told him that she can/ could drive a car. 4) My Granny says she is/was baking a cake. 5) They said they have/had seen that film. 6) The doctor said I must/had to take a cold shower. 7) Eric told me that we will/ would receive the invitations in some days. 8) The manager says that he has/had already prepared all the documents. 9) The shop-assistant told me that she can/could give me another pair of gloves. 10) Helen said that she has/had already had lunch.
4. Report what Ann's relatives told her when she went to school for the first time.
Example: Ann’s mother said that Ann would get only good marks.
5. Report the statements.
1) Jack said, «I’m repairing the radio». 2) Fredsaid, «My cousin usually goes to the gym after school». 3) Ann said, «I have never been to the Theme Park». 4) Andrew said, «I can’t remember the number of his flat». 5) We said, «We returned home at five o’clock». 6) I said, «I’m hungry». 7) She said, «My aunt will take me to the exhibition». 8) Our teacher said, «I know about this fact». 9) My father said, «You may play the computer a bit longer». 10) Sally said, «We were discussing the play at that time». 11) Tony said, « I have just finished my report». 12) The waiter said, «The taxi is waiting for you». 13) I said, «I don’t agree with you, Paul». 14) Henry said, «I have ordered a cup of hot chocolate». 15)Tim said, «Our trip won’t be long». 16) Jane said, «I didn’t buy the magazine». 17) A little girl said, «I can’t ride a bike». 18) The policeman said to the driver, «Your car was moving too fast». 19) Julia said, «Your boots are very dirty, Ken». 20) Den said, «The doctor hasn’t come yet».
Якщо в реченнях з прямою мовою йдеться про загальновідомі факти, то після перетворення прямої мови на непряму граматичний час дієслів не змінюється:
The teacher said, «There are seven days in a week».— The teacher said that there are seven days in a week.
6. Report the statements. What did Mary tell her Granny!
— I wasn’t at school because I felt badly.
— I had a horrible headache.
— Mother didn’t call the doctor.
— I have just had dinner.
— I haven’t done my homework yet.
— My parents were at the theatre on Tuesday.
— I’m going to Pam’s birthday party on Friday.
— I’ll meet you at the bus station.
— We can buy the pills for you.
— Father will drive you back home in the evening.
7. Report the statements.
1) Sally said, «People can’t live without air». 2) Mark said, «I will be in time for the meeting». 3) Johnny said, «My father can sail a yacht». 4) The teacher said, «The planets of the Solar System move around the Sun». 5) Dolly said, «Mothers always take care of their children». 6) Sam said, «Athens is the capital of Greece». 7) A little boy said to us, «I didn’t touch your dog». 8) Mother said to her child, «There are thirty-one days in December». 9) Ben said happily, «We’ll celebrate Christmas in a week». 10) Jessica said, «I have just read a very interesting article, Vicky».
За допомогою непрямої мови також можна передавати накази, прохання, пропозиції тощо. Для їх передачі використовуються слова (introductory verbs) order, ask, tell, suggest, beg, advise, forbid, warn, insist, promise, agree, refuse, remind etc., після яких вживається інфінітив дієслова. У реченнях з непрямою мовою не вживається слово please:
She said, «Give me your book, please».— She asked me to give her my book.
He said, «Open the door!»— He ordered to open the door.
She said, «Don't take my bag».— She asked not to take her bag.
He said, «Let's have a cup of tea».— He suggested having a cup of tea.
8. Report the statements, using the reporting verbs from the box.
to suggest, to remind, to explain, to beg, to ask, to forbid, to refuse, to agree, to advise, to promise
1) Helen said, «Let’s go to the park, Molly!» 2) Daniel said to his mother, «I really will tidy my room in the evening». 3) The woman said to her son, «You should help your friend». 4) Andy said, «Don’t forget to send the e-mail, Ted*. 5) Nora said, «Help me with the luggage, please, Nick». 6) A little girl said to her parents, «I will not stay at home alone». 7) Jane said to her mother, «Please, let me go to the party!» 8) Frank said to his friend, «ОК, I’ll give you my camera for a day». 9) The teacher said to the pupils, «The Moon is smaller than the Earth». 10) Mrs Sunders said to her daughter, «No, Sue, you mustn’t take the jam from the fridge!»
9. Report the statements.
1) Mother said, «Show me your exercise-book, Ron!» 2) The teacher said, «Pupils, open your books and read the text». 3) Eddy said, «Tell us about your adventure, please, Nick». 4) The librarian said to the children, «Don’t make a noise!» 5) The doctor said to Betty, «Open your mouth, please». 6) Mr Green said to the waiter, «Bring us the bill, please». 7) Alice said to her little sister, «Don’t drink cold milk». 8) Father said to Sam, «Don’t turn on the computer». 9) The policeman said to the driver, «Show me your driving licence, please». 10) Martin said, «Mum, make me a cheese sandwich, please».
10. Report what Mr Mendes told his staff. Use appropriate introductory verbs.
— Jeff, please, remind the clients to pay their bills.
— OK, Mary, I’ll look through the documents for the conferencfe.
— Sally, don’t use the office phone for your private talks!
— Ben, remember to order three rooms for the participants of the conference in the hotel.
— Jane, you should send the advertisement to the local newspaper.
— Ron, don’t play computer games during your working day!
— Cindy, please, don’t be late for the appointment with the representative of the bank.
Для того щоб передати непрямою мовою запитання, використовуються слова ask, wonder, want to know. У питальних реченнях із непрямою мовою (загальних запитаннях) підрядна та головна частини поєднуються за допомогою слів if чи whether і граматичні часи змінюються відповідно до правил. У підрядних реченнях такого типу порядок слів прямий (як у розповідному реченні). Знак питання в кінці речень з непрямою мовою не ставиться:
Nick said, «Do you get up early, Ben?» — Nick asked if/whether Ben got up early.
Liz said, «Did you go to school, Ann?» — Liz wondered if/whether Ann went to school.
11. Report the questions.
1) Molly said to Vicky, «Do you often visit your aunt?»
2) Martin said, «Does your friend play table tennis, Den?»
3) Mother said to her daughter, «Will you help me with the washing up? »
4) Helen said to her Granny, «Did you buy any apples for me?»
5) Sam said, «Have you written an essay, Mike?»
6) The doctor said to the patient, «Do you often have headaches? »
7) George said to his father, «Have you repaired my bike?»
8) The shop-assistant said to the customer, «Have you tried the shoes on?
9) The waiter said to us, «Will you have anything for dessert?»
10) Mother said to Pam, «Are you watching TV?»
11) Angela said, «Is anything wrong, Emmy?»
12) Ted said to his parents, «Are you going to the theatre?»
13) The guide said to the tourists, «Do you understand English?»
14) The child said to his mother, «May I play football with my friends?»
15) Granny said to Sally, «Can you go shopping for me?»
16) The teacher said to the pupils, «Should I speak louder?»
17) Alice said to her friend, «Did you see this film?»
18) Jane said to the conductor, «Must I show you my ticket?»
19) Granny said to Tommy, «Are you hungry?»
20) The professor said to the student, «Did you learn French at school?»
12. What did the tourists ask the guide about? Report the questions.
— Did you plan our tour before- hand?
— Are we going to the museum?
— Do you speak Spanish?
— Will you tell us about the history of the castle?
— Have you ever been inside the tower?
— Will you show us the best shop to buy souvenirs?
— Can you speak a bit louder?
— May we take some photos?
13. Report the joke.
Two women were speaking in the park.
Mrs Stone: I have the perfect son.
Mrs Franks: Does he smoke?
Mrs S: No, he doesn’t.
Mrs F: Does he drink whiskey?
Mrs S: No, he doesn’t.
Mrs F: Does he ever come home late?
Mrs S: No, he doesn’t.
Mrs F: I guess you really do have the perfect son. Is he a student?
Mrs S: No, he will be six months old next Wednesday.
14. Report the joke.
A little boy came up to an old man, who was, looking through the telescope at the sky.
Boy: Can you see everything in the sky with this telescope?
Man: Yes, my boy.
Boy: Can you find the balloon I lost in the morning?
Для того щоб передати непрямою мовою спеціальні запитання, головна та підрядна частини речення поєднуються за допомогою відповідного питального слова (when, what, where, which, how), граматичний час у підрядній частині змінюється за правилами. У підрядних реченнях такого типу порядок слів прямий (як у розповідному реченні). Знак питання в кінці речень з непрямою мовою не ставиться:
Eddy said, «How old is your brother?» — Eddy asked how old my brother was.
Jane said, «What have you done, BenI» — Jane wondered what Ben had done.
15. Report the questions.
1) Robert said, «What time do you come back from the swimming-pool, John?»
2) The shop assistant said to the lady, «What size of dress do you need?»
3) A man said to the policeman, «How can I get to the railway station?»
4) The teacher said to the boy, «What exercise did you write? »
5) Helen said to her sister, «Where are you going?»
6) A woman said to a little girl, «Why are you crying?»
7) Frank said, «What time is it, Bob?»
8) A man said to his wife, «What have you cooked for supper?»
9) A manager said to the secretary, «Who is waiting for me?»
10) Pam said, «Where will we go after the lecture, Mark?»
11) Henry said, «Where is my shirt, Mum?»
12) Vicky said, «What present have you bought for Mary, Den?»
13) Jim said to Victor, «When did you buy your car?»
14) Granny said to the children, «Who has broken my cup?»
15) Joe said, «How much are the tickets?»
16) Margaret said to the driver, «What time does the bus arrive to Manchester?»
17) The secretary said to the man, «What can I do for you?
18) Dick said, «Why are you so angry, Paul?»
19) Jessica said, «Why have you cut your hair, Liz?»
20) Amanda said to her classmate, «What time will the lesson begin?»
16. What did the doctor ask Colin about! Report the questions.
— How do you feel?
— Where do you feel the pain?
— How did you hurt your leg?
— When did it happen?
— Can you move your toes?
— Who has put you the bandage?
— Have you taken any medicine?
17. Write the exact words of the teacher.
The teacher asked the pupils what they had prepared for the lesson. She wondered if all the pupils had done their homework. She wanted to know what questions the pupils wanted to ask her about the grammar rules. The teacher asked the pupils which exercise had been the most difficult. She told the pupils to open their books and to revise the grammar rule. Then she invited Bobby to the blackboard and asked him to write a sentence. She wondered if Bobby could explain the spelling of the words in the sentence. The teacher gave Bobby a good mark for his answer.
18. Report the joke.
Little Ted and his father came to the stadium to see the sport competition.
Ted: Why are all those people running?
Father: They are running a race to get a cup.
T: Who will get the cup?
F: The person who wins.
T: Then why are all the others running?
Обставини місця та часу в реченнях із непрямою мовою змінюються таким чином:
here — there;
this — that;
these — those;
now — then, at that time;
today — that day;
tonight — that night;
yesterday — the day before, the previous day;
tomorrow — the next day, the following day;
last week/month, etc.— the week/month before, the previous week/month;
next week/month, etc.— the next week/month, the following week/month;
an hour ago — an hour before/earlier.
Bill said, «I bought this book in the supermarket yesterday».— Bill said that he had bought that book in the supermarket the day before.
19. Report the sentences.
1) Kate said, «I haven’t seen Roy today». 2) Vicky said, «Where are we going tonight, Jane?» 3) The teacher said to the pupils, «You’ll pass your exam next month». 4) Philip said to his friend, «My mother bought me these trainers a week ago». 5) Pam said, «I’ll bring you this magazine tomorrow, Jane». 6) The baby-sitter said to the woman, «The children are playing on the playground now». 7) Andy said, «I spoke to my coach an hour ago». 8) Henry said to his sister, «I only had a sandwich for breakfast today». 9) Beth said, «I’m happy to be here again». 10) The policeman said to the woman, «I didn’t see your car here five minutes ago». 11) The teacher said, «Why weren’t you at school yesterday, Bob?» 12) Angela said, «Will you go shopping tomorrow, Mary?» 13) Laura said, «What are you reading now, Nina?» 14) Andrew said, «Can you find any mistakes here, Paul?» 15) Rachel said, «Are you leaving tomorrow, Sam?»
20. Report the joke.
Two neighbours were speaking at the gates.
Bill: I heard your dog howling yesterday night. If it howls tomorrow, it’s a sure sign of death.
John: Really! And who do you think will die?
Bill: The dog.
21. Write the exact words of a famous actress and a journalist.
Example: Yesterday a journalist from the most popular magazine interviewed the famous actress Milly.
Journalist: What new film have you starred in. Milly?
Yesterday a journalist from the most popular magazine interviewed the famous actress Milly. The journalist asked in what new film Milly had starred. Milly told that it would be a great surprise for all her admirers. She added that the work had been finished two weeks before and the film would be on the following month. The journalist asked Milly what she thought about her work in the new film. Milly answered that the previous , year had been very hard for her, but the work had been very interesting and sometimes dangerous. Journalist wondered about Milly’s plans for the nearest future. Milly replied that the following year she was going to star in a new historical film, but she kept the details in a secret.