Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018

ІМЕННИК (THE NOUN)

Іменники в англійській мові мають число (однину та множину), два відмінки (загальний та присвійний) та поділяються на злічувані і не- злічувані. Рід іменників залежить від їх значення.

МНОЖИНА ІМЕННИКІВ (PLURAL OF NOUNS)

Множина більшості іменників англійської мови утворюється шляхом додавання закінчення -s: dog dogs, tabletables, appleapples.

До іменників, що закінчуються на -s, -ss, -sh, -cb, -x, -о, додається закінчення -es: bus — buses, dress — dresses, bush — bushes, watch — watches, box — boxes, tomato — tomatoes.

Але: piano — pianos, photo — photos, radio — radios, zoo — zoos, hippo — hippos, video — videos.

1. Write the nouns in plural in the correct column.

A flower, a fox, a potato, an orange, a class, a pen, a kitten, a piano, a witch, a house, a chair, a hero, an address, a plate, a picture, a brush, a ship, a tree, a bench, a film, a glass, a peach, a video, a window.

-s

-es

2. Write the plural of the nouns.

A room, a glass, a photo, a test, a dish, a tomato, a girl, a desk, a match, a bus, a vase, a hand, a school, an ostrich, a zoo, a boss, . a cup, a beach, a nose, a page, a bag, a torch, a case, a wish, a spider, a hippo.

Якщо іменник закінчується на -у з попереднім приголосним, то -у змінюється на -i та додається закінчення -es: city cities, baby — babies.

Якщо перед кінцевим -у стоїть голосний, то додається закінчення

-s: day days, toy — toys.

3. Write the plural of the nouns.

A holiday, a raspberry, a monkey, a cowboy, a fairy, a party, a key, a cherry, a country, Monday, a lady, a puppy, a day, a spy, a boy, a story.

4. Write the nouns in plural in the correct column.

A dolphin, a fly, a dress, a shoe, a diary, a cake, a strawberry, a sandwich, a toy, a fox, a garden, a ray, a piano, an enemy, a branch, a wish, a coin, an ability.

-s

-es

-ies

Якщо іменник закінчується на -f (-fe), то -і змінюється на -v та додається закінчення -es: wolf wolves, wifewives.

Але: roof — roofs, proof — proofs, chief — chiefs, handkerchief — handkerchiefs, safe — safes.

5. Write the plural of the nouns.

A shelf, a proof, a leaf, a half, a chief, a loaf, a knife, a thief, a safe, a housewife, the life, a handkerchief.

6. Write the singular of the nouns.

Bodies, loaves, bushes, friends, birthdays, radios, knives, dictionaries, forks, chiefs, glasses, churches, roses, roofs, ways, lives, butterflies, boxes, lorries.

7. Complete the sentences using the words in brackets in plural. Learn these proverbs.

1) All are not ... (thief) that ... (dog) bark at. 2) All are not ... (cook) that walk with long ... (knife). 3) A closed mouth catches no ... (fly). 4) Desperate ... (disease) call for desperate ... (remedy). 5) Never do ... (thing) by ... (half). 6) If you run after two ... (hare), you’ll catch none.

8. Complete the sentences with the words in plural from the boxes.

1) The girls gathered a lot of mushrooms and ... in the wood. 2) The ... smell so sweetly in the garden. 3) A man has bought two ... of bread at the baker’s. 4) There are two ... at the stop. Which one is ours? 5) She saw three ... with the books above the table. 6) I’m so hungry! I’ll make some ... . 7) While travelling around the country we took a lot of nice ... . 8) Black and white ... were sleeping in the basket. 9) He has travelled to many ... . 10) There were two ... of lemonade on the table.

Запам'ятайте винятки:

a man (чоловік) — men (чоловіки)

a woman (жінка) — women (жінки)

a child (дитина) — children (діти)

a mouse (миша) — mice (миші)

a fool (стопа) — feel (стопи)

a toofh (зуб) — teeth (зуби)

a goose (гусак) — geese (гуси)

an ox (бик) — oxen (бики)

a sheep (вівця) — sheep (вівці)

a deer (олень) — deer (олені)

a fish (риба) — fish (риби) a

fruit (фрукт) — fruit (фрукти)

9. Write the plural of the nouns.

1) A watch, a dish, a lamp, a fish, a radio, a knife, a bird, a deer, a day, an index, a woman, a play, a pocket, a horse, an activity, a foot, a wolf, a bus, a key, a mouse.

2) A hen, a fruit, a strawberry, a cup, a test, a bell, a dictionary, a man, a city, a fox, a child, a song, a leaf, a sheep, an orange, a goose, a game, an ox, a potato.

10. Complete the text with the plural of nouns using the pictures.

Last summer we went camping to the lake. The weather was fine so we decided to walk there. On our wav we listened to the singing and met some ... looking for ...

Finally we got to the lake. We walked a long way and our ... were very tired. On the bank of the lake two ... were fishing. Some ... were swimming in the bucket near them. We put the tents and started to cook food.

I made the fire and baked some ... and the... made In the evening we looked at the ... played the guitar and sang songs. At night we felt a bit scared because

Tom told us horrible stories about ... But the night was quiet and the morning was wonderful. We really enjoyed our camping.

11. Complete the sentences using the words in brackets in plural. Learn these proverbs.

1) When cat is away, the ... (mouse) will play. 2) A tree is khown by its ... (fruit). 3) So many ... (man), so many ... (mind). 4) Honey catches more ... (fly) than vinegar. 5) A cat in ... (glove) catches no ... (mouse). 6) ... (man) may meet but ... (mountain) never greet.

12. Complete the poem with the plural of nouns in brackets.

Nice ... (Mouse)

I think ... (mouse) are very nice.

Their ... (tail) are long,

Their ... (face) are small,

They haven’t any ... (chin) at all.

Their ... (ear) are pink,

Their ... (tooth) are white,

They run about the house at night.

They eat ... (thing) they must not touch,

And no one seems to love them much,

But I think ... (mouse) are very nice.

Запам’ятайте іменники, що вживаються тільки у множині:

clothes — одяг

scissors — ножиці

scales — терези, ваги

customs звичаї

pyjamas — піжама

tiqhts — колготи

trousers — штани

spectacles/glasses — окуляри

goods — товари

jeans — джинси

shorts — шорти

Із цими іменниками не вживається артикль а/аn, а також дієслова та вказівні займенники у формі однини:

The goods in this supermarket are quite cheap.

These jeans are very fashionable.

З іменниками, що називають парні предмети, вживається конструкція a pair of:

She bought a pair of shorts yesterday.

13. Circle the correct item.

1) Look, the scissors is/are on the table. 2) The clothes in the suitcase was/were dirty. 3) This/these glasses are/is too expensive. 4) А/the goods you have shown us is/are of a high quality. 5) The scales need/needs to be repaired. 6) That/those customs was/were described in the article. 7) А/the pyjamas look/looks good on you.

14. Write the nouns in plural in the correct column.

Spectacles, cups, scales, mathematics, customs, jeans, plans, gymnastics, sweaters, tights, pyjamas, mice, goods, computers, shorts, clothes.

Nouns which can be used in singular

Nouns in plural which can be used with a pair of

Nouns which are used in plural only

15. Translate into English.

1) Твої штани у шафі.

2) Вчора ваші окуляри були на полиці у спальні.

3) Я гадаю, ці джинси завеликі для мене.

4) Її одяг завжди виглядає дуже охайним.

5) Звичаї цього народу дуже цікаві для істориків.

6) Та піжама занадто довга.

7) Одяг у цьому магазині завжди дорогий.

Запам'ятайте іменники, що вживаються тільки в однині:

information — інформація

news — новина, новини

knowledge — знання

money — гроші

advice — порада, поради

success — успіх, успіхи

progress — успіх, успіхи

Із цими іменниками дієслова вживаються тільки у формі однини:

The knowledge is very important in modern life.

His advice was really helpful.

16. Complete the sentences with the nouns from the boxes.

1) The... you found in the Internet was very useful for our work. 2) There is no ... in your account, you have spent everything. 3) These ... are old-fashioned. 4) I’m sure his ... on the subject is very deep. 5) I’ve bought a pair of ... recently. 6) Those ... aren’t sharp enough for such a cloth. 7) Bad ... always spreads quickly.

17. Circle the correct item.

1) His success is/аге the result of a hard work. 2) I’m looking for the information/informations about that National park. 3) This/these goods is/are delivered from Europe. 4) If he doesn’t put on his glass/glasses he won’t see anything. 5) My Granny always gives good advice/advices to me. 6) The trousers suit/suits you. 7) The news about the results of the experiment was/were received very quickly.

18. Translate into English.

1) Вечірні новини були не дуже добрими.

2) Цей товар недорогий, але його якість також низька.

3) Ці джинси не пасують до мого светра.

4) Ця інформація дуже важлива для нашого проекту.

5) Великі успіхи чекають на цю спортсменку.

6) Гроші отримали вчора.

7) Його одяг був старим, але чистим.

Іменники англійської мови поділяються на злічувані (Countable Nouns) та незлічувані (Uncountable Nouns).

Злічувані іменники називають предмети, які можна порахувати, та мають форму однини і множини: а kitten kittens, а newspaper newspapers.

Злічувані іменники вживаються з артиклями a/the відповідно до правил та з дієсловами у формах однини і множини залежно від ситуації:

A tiger has sharp teeth. The tigers have sharp teeth.

Незлічувані іменники це назви речовин та абстрактних понять, які не можна порахувати. Вони вживаються лише в однині: tea, water, friendship, money, furniture.

Незлічувані іменники вживаються з артиклем the або без артикля відповідно до правил та з дієсловами у формі однини:

There is lemonade in the bottle. The furniture is very comfortable.

19. Write the nouns into two columns.

House, snow, biscuits, monument, tooth, coffee, dream, flower, salt, weather, river, situation, air, shop, journalism, time, friend, hour, information, painting, money, dictionary, music, joke, garden, chocolate, juice, cupboard, sandwich, food.

Countable Nouns

Uncountable Nouns

20. Correct mistakes.

1) The water in the sea were cold and we didn’t want to swim.

2) A clothes isn’t comfortable for this trip.

3) Ice creams is made of milk.

4) Cats has four legs and a tail.

5) A honey in the jar is very tasty.

6) The musics were loud and we couldn’t speak.

7) The meat smell bad.

8) We had a lot of plan for the weekend.

9) My homework include many tasks.

10) This jam have an unpleasant taste.

21. Circle the correct item.

— What is/are the weather like, Jim?

— The weather is/are just for a picnic.

— It’s great! I’ll buy some meat/meats and some pizza /pizzas for a picnic.

— And I’ll take а/the juice I’ve bought in the supermarket. And cheese is/are also good for making sandwiches.

— Don’t forget bread/breads. You can’t make sandwiches without it.

— I remember about it. We’ll have a lot of fun/funs today! * I

Деякі іменники можуть бути злічуваними та незлічуваними залежно від їх значення. Порівняйте:

There are three glasses on the table.— The vase is made of glass.

The tea in the cup is hot.— We'd like two teas, please.

Для позначення певної кількості речовини з незлічуваними іменниками часто вживається слово some:

I need some butter for the cake.

He drank some water from the bottle.

З незлічуваними іменниками також вживаються спеціальні слова для позначення певного об'єму та кількості. Запам'ятайте:

a bottle of water, a carton of milk, a cup of coffee, a piece of meat, a bar of chocolate, a jar of jam, a loaf of bread, a tin of tuna, a slice of cheese, a packet of tea, a kilo of ham, a can of Cola, a glass of lemonade, a piece of information/advice/furniture.

22. Write if the underlined nouns are countable or uncountable.

1) I need some potatoes for the salad.

2) Will you have some more potato?

3) She washes her hair twice a week.

4) There is a hair on your shoulder.

5) My mother has prepared a chicken for supper.

6) I know you don’t like chicken in your sandwich.

7) The children gathered a lot of mushrooms in the wood.

8) The table is made of wood.

23. Complete the sentences with a or some.

1) Take ... piece of paper to write on.

2) I need ... paper to make the notes.

3) She bought... milk, ... butter and ... pineapple for the cake.

4) I’m thirsty. I’ll drink ... water.

5) He asks me for ... more cake.

6) My Granny has just baked ... cake for us.

7) We have spent... money on presents.

8) ... fish was swimming in the bowl.

9) I’d like ... fish for dinner. .

24. Complete the sentences with the words a bottle, a tin, a bar, a kilo, a cup, a carton, a slice, a jar.

1) The girl took ... of chocolate and thanked her brother for the present.

2) Can I have ... of tea, please. I’m so cold!

3) There is ... of fresh milk in the fridge.

4) We also need ... of tuna and ... of meat for dinner.

5) The child asked his father to buy him ... of Cola.

6) Granny allowed me to take ... of jam from the cupboard.

7) «Put... of cheese on your sandwich», the mother said to the child.

25. Translate into English.

1) Ти можеш купити пачку масла та кілограм яблук?

2) Моя сестра не любить рибу.

3) Меблі виготовляють із дерева.

4) Я б хотів випити трохи лимонаду.

5) Не забудь приготувати картоплю з м’ясом.

6) Принесіть нам дві кави, будь ласка.

7) Цей шоколад має чудовий смак.

Для визначення кількості предметів та речовин в англійській мові використовують такі слова: much/many/a lot of (багато); few (недостатньо)/а few (небагато, але достатньо); little (недостатньо)/ a little (мало, але достатньо); some/any (трохи); по (нічого).

Слова much/many вживаються у питальних та заперечних реченнях. У стверджувальних реченнях замість них вживається a lot of:

Му little brother has got a lot of toys. We need a lot of information about the subject.

Has your brother got many toys? Do we need much information? Слова many, fewfew вживаються зі злічуваними іменниками:

There are few eggs in the fridge. I had only few sweets in the box. Have you made many photos?

Слова much, a little вживаються з незлічуваними іменниками:

There isn't much water left in the bottle. He had a little time to finish the work.

Слово some вживається зі злічуваними та незлічуваними іменниками у стверджувальних реченнях:

We found some mushrooms in the wood last week. I bought some meat in the shop.

Слово any вживається зі злічуваними та незлічуваними іменниками у питальних та заперечних реченнях:

Are there any oranges in the bag? There aren't any children in the park.

Слово no вживається зі злічуваними на незлічуваними іменниками у заперечних реченнях:

We have nо lessons tomorrow. There is no tea in the tea-pot.

26. Complete the sentences with a lot of, much, many.

1)1 have... work to do today. 2) He has met ... interesting people during his travel. 3) Have you eaten ... ice cream? 4) I bought ... souvenirs for all my friends. 5) My mother always cooks ... food for the weekend. 6) She can’t sleep. She has drunk ... coffee. 7) There weren’t ... cars in the street. 8) She hasn’t put ... sugar into your tea. 9) Were there ... people at the concert? 10) Tony doesn’t like to spend ... time in front of TV. 11) Is there ... juice left in the bottle? 12) There are ... interesting places to visit during your holidays. 13) Young people have got ... opportunities to get higher education. 14) She doesn’t have ... friends in this town. 15) They didn’t spend ... money for food.

27. Circle the correct item.

1) There is a little/a few furniture in this room. 2) We can’t buy this jacket. We have too little/few money. 3) I can’t finish the project on time. I have only a little/few people to help me. 4) She bought a little/a few magazines to read in the plane. 5) Henry has bought too little/few cheese. It isn’t enough for pizza. 6) Sue got a little/a few letters on e-mail yesterday. 7) The woman switched on the lamp as there was too little/few light in the room. 8) Tom told a little/a few jokes and everybody enjoyed them. 9) Helen will tell you a little/a few words about the people you are going to meet. 10) My mother always adds a little/a few lemon juice into the salad.

28. Complete the dialogue with some, any, no.

— Can I help you, Miss?

— Yes, please. I need ... fresh fish. Do you have ... fish?

— Oh, we have ... smoked fish, but ... fresh fish.

— What a pity! Do you have ... tomatoes, then?

— Yes, we have tinned tomatoes and ... cartons of tomato juice.

— And what about fresh tomatoes?

— Sorry, Miss, we have ... fresh tomatoes. But we have ... fresh apples.

— That’s good, but I don’t need ... apples. Give me ... cucumbers, please.

— I’m sorry to disappoint you, Miss, but we have ... cucumbers at the moment. Perhaps you need ... butter or rice?

— No, thank you. I’d better have my supper in ... cafe.

29. Complete the joke with the words some, a lot, no.

Two men came from the city to the village for their weekend. They were walking in the orchard enjoying their time. They saw ... of fruit trees there. There were ... of apples in each tree except for one which had ... apples at all. A small country boy was sitting nearby. The men called to him. «Here is ... money for you. Do you know why there are ... apples in that tree?» asked the men. «Of course I do, sir. Because it’s an oak-tree», answered the boy.

Complete the dialogue with some, any, no, many, much.

— Let’s cook something tasty for dinner, Jack.

— OK, I don’t mind. Let’s prepare ... tasty salad.

— Good, but you’ll help me.

— Sure, Mum. What do we need for the salad?

— We need ... ham and ... boiled potatoes.

— How ... ham do we need?

— I think this piece will be enough.

— And how ... potatoes do we need?

— Four potatoes. And we need ... tomatoes.

— Shall we use ... cucumbers?

— No, dear. We need ... cucumbers at all. Give me ... salt, please.

— Here you are, Mum.    

— Thank you. Now pass me the oil.

— How ... oil will you add?

— Not ... . That will do. We’ll also add ... spring onion and our salad is ready.

— Great! It must be very tasty!

30. Choose a word from the brackets to complete the proverbs.

1) He knows how ... beans make five. (many/much)

2) It is ... use crying over spilt milk. (some/no)

3) ... hands make light work. (many/much)

4) Too ... pudding will choke a dog. (many/much)

5) There is ... place like home. (any/no)

6) Too ... cooks spoil the broth. (many/much)

32. Translate into English.

1) У цьому класі замало світла. 2) Нам треба додати сир у салат? 3) Скільки фотографій він зробив учора? — Небагато. 4) У пакеті залишилося дуже мало молока. 5) Я хочу розповісти вам кілька цікавих фактів. 6) Скільки людей було вчора на зборах? — Багато. 7) Ти маєш купити трохи масла та пачку чаю. 8) Він зустрів кілька старих друзів учора.

9) У нас є олія? — Ні. 10) Купи цукру та кілька банок рибних консервів, будь ласка.





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