Англійська мова. Граматичний практикум: збірник граматичних вправ для середнього рівня - 2018
АРТИКЛЬ (THE ARTICLE)
1. 1) а; 2) an; 3) an; 4) а; 5) an; 6) а; 7) а; 8) an; 9) а; 10) а; 11) an; 12) а; 13) an; 14) а; 15) an; 16) а; 17) an; 18) а; 19) а.
2. 1) a, the; 2) a, the; 3) а; 4) a, the; 5) the; 6) the; 7) a, the; 8) а.
3. A: lion, photo, lemon, robot, mouse, plate, garden, balloon, cup, monkey, cake.
The: birds, bread, children, sugar, doors, cars, mice, sweets, trees, soup, forks, dresses.
4. 1) The children have got toys. 2) He has got a computer. The computer is new. 3) There is a garden behind the house. The garden is big. 4) There were the flowers in the room. 5) The women took the documents and left the room. 6) The boys will get a letter the next week.
5. 1) the з порядковим числівником; 2) the у словосполученні in the morning; 3) а з назвою професії, якщо йдеться про будь-якого її представника; 4) the з назвами музичних інструментів; 5) а після дієслова to be; 6) а у словосполученнях «прикметник + іменник», якщо іменник вживається в однині; 7) the з найвищим ступенем порівняння прикметників; 8) а після дієслова to be; 9) the зі словом theatre; 10) the з найвищим ступенем порівняння прикметників.
6. 1) Му friend has got a hamster. The hamster lives in a big cage. 2) His sister played the flute at the theatre yesterday. 3) A young woman came into the shop and bought a cake. 4) Jack explained that the second book was a detective story. 5) I didn’t know that your father is a ski-instructor. 6) It is well-known that a cheetah is the fastest animal in the world. 7) Last summer Margaret went to the seaside and had a wonderful rest there. 8) A big fireplace was the first thing she saw in the living-room.
7. 1) a nice sunny day; the children, the beach; 2) the country; 3) a yacht, the yacht; 4) a photographer; 5) the coffee; 6) the drum; 7) sweets; 8) the most exciting adventure.
8. A teacher; the children; a terrible headache; the youngest girl; the teacher; the teacher; the girl.
9. 1) A horse is stronger than a dog. 2) This exercise is the most difficult in the textbook. 3) A teacher teaches children. 4) The first day of the holidays was the most interesting for Tom. 5) He has got a flat. The flat is small but comfortable. 6) Can your friend play the guitar? 7) My granny always buys vegetables in the market.
10. 1) the, the; 2) a; 3) a; 4) the; 5) the, the; 6) a; 7) a, the, the; 8) a, the.
11. 1) a; 2) a, the; 3) the; 4) a; 5) a; 6) an; 7) a, the, a, the; 8) a.
12. It was such a rainy day. An old woman was hurrying home when she saw a little girl with two umbrellas. The first umbrella was right for the child, but the second one was too big. «For whom is this big umbrella, young lady?» the woman asked the girl. «It’s a present from the best friend», answered the girl. «And who is your best friend?» wondered the woman. «I don’t know, these words are written on the handle of the umbrella», explained the girl.
13. 1) There is no girl in the yard. 2) That is his car. 3) These are five photos. 4) Mary has got seven flowers. 5) Dolly showed her picture to her teacher. 6) There was no TV set in the room. 7) Peter has finished his report. 8) Tony will buy three discs.
14. 1) I have got an aunt and three cousins. I have no uncle. 2) There are two books on the table. The first book is a detective story, the second is a historical novel. 3) Bob has got a sister, but he has no brothers. 4) That girl is my cousin. 5) This is a mobile phone. The mobile phone is new. This is my father’s mobile phone. 6) I don’t know his friend. 7) There is no letter on the desk. But there are three letters on the coffee table. 8) I don’t think his answer was correct.
15. 1) -; 2) the; 3) a; 4) -; 5) -; 6) -; 7) the.
16. My parents always get up at seven o’clock. My mother cooks breakfast and my father walks the dog in the yard. I usually have breakfast at half past seven. I live not far from school. My mother is a teacher of Music and she works in my school, so we often go to school together. My mother is a very good teacher. She can play the piano, the violin and the guitar. She knows a lot about music and she tells many interesting stories about composers and musicians. The pupils of our school love her lessons very much. I also like music, but I am really interested in sport. I attend the tennis club and have trainings three times a week: on Mondays, Tuesdays and Fridays. My dream is to become the best tennis player in our city and I work hard to make my dream come true.
17. A member of a military orchestra felt ill and went to see the doctor. «Let me see your throat, said the doctor. «Oh, you have got a cold. You should stay in bed for a day or two. Take this medicine three times a day and you’ll feel better soon». In three days the man came to the doctor again. «Your throat is quite well now», said the doctor. «You can go back to your work. By the way, what instrument do you play in the orchestra?» «I play the drum, sir, answered the man.
18. 1) Sally (ім’я людини), Spanish (назва мови), Madrid (назва міста); 2) The Taylors (прізвище у множині), Bridge Street (назва вулиці); 3) the President (назва титулу без імені); 4) the Dominican Republic (назва країни, до складу якої входить слово Republic; 5) The Moon (іменник, що називає унікальну річ); 6) Queen Victoria (назва титулу з ім’ям); 7) Sheila (ім’я), French (назва мови), France (назва країни); 8) The Germans (назва національності у множині).
19. 1) Му friend Steve Wilson is fond of travelling. He has already been to Japan and the United States of America and now he is flying to the Irish Republic. 2) The Ridleys live in the High Street. 3) The tourists have visited the palace but they haven’t seen the Queen. 4) The weather was rainy and the sky was covered with dark heavy clouds. 5) Before going to China Robert took the lessons of Chinese. 6) King Alfred the Great is considered to be the first king of England. 7) The delegation met the President in the airport. 8) Regent’s Park is the home of the London Zoo and one of the most popular parks for family rest in the city.
20. Yesterday my friend Alex Frank phoned me. We haven’t seen each other for four years. The Franks have moved to a new flat recently and now they live not far from our house on Oak Street. Alex wanted to see me and we met in the city centre. The weather was nice so we decided to go to the park. We chose the Shade Park as it was very cosy.
It was Saturday and there were many people in the park. We talked a lot and then found a small cafe to have a cup of coffee. Alex told me about his life. He was fond of sport and music. Alex played basketball and he learned to play the guitar. I invited Alex to visit my place to meet my parents and my younger sister. We agreed to meet in a week, as we both were busy at school. We enjoyed our meeting greatly.
21. 1b; 2b; 3c; 4b; 5a; 6b; 7c; 8b; 9c; 10c.
22. 1) Jamaica is situated in the Caribbean Sea. 2) The capital of Australia is Canberra. 3) My sister has graduated from Harvard University. 4) Hoverla is the highest peak of the Carpathian Mountains. 5) We enjoyed the beautiful view of the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco. 6) My friend invited us to the Royal Theatre to watch the play of some modern English dramatist. 7) During the tour around the city the tourists visited the Museum of Fine Arts, King’s Castle, St Andrew’s Cathedral and the Historical Museum.
23. Malta or officially the Republic of Malta is a developed European country. The state occupies seven islands and is situated in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. But only three largest islands — Malta Island, Gozo and Comino — are inhabited. Malta is known for its mysterious history and beautiful temples which are the oldest free-standing structures on Earth. Malta’s capital city is Valletta. There are two official languages: Maltese and English. Malta is a popular tourist resort due to its tropical climate, exciting nightlife and the history, full of legends. There is something in the islands that everybody will enjoy.
24. The world famous author of the books about Harry Potter, JK Rowling was born in England. She studied French at Exeter University and then worked as a secretary. When she was twenty-six she moved to Portugal where she taught English and worked on a story about a wizard. She returned to the United Kingdom and has lived in Scotland since then. Since the first Harry Potter book was published she has made her living from writing. Today JK Rowling is at the top of the best sellers list. She says she has enjoyed writing stories since her childhood and she is happy to achieve success after so many years of hard work.
25. 1) He has never had such an exciting adventure. 2) It was the best lesson of History. 3) Helen went to Italy last year to learn Italian. 4) The teacher of Biology will take us to the Museum of Nature next Tuesday. 5) The Browns have already moved to a new flat and now they live in Park Street. 6) My sister wants a new dress for the party. 7) What time does his brother return home from school? 8) They have already returned from the theatre and now they are having supper. 9) Nataly has already bought the tickets for the plane and she is flying to the United States of America in a week. 10) The capital of Ukraine is situated on the banks of the Dnipro River.
1. la; 2c; 3a; 4c; 5b; 6b; 7b; 8a.
2. 1) Greece is situated in the south of Europe. 2) The Ronalds usually spend Christmas in the Alps. 3) There is no butter in the fridge. 4) A grey cloud covered the sun and a strong wind blew. 5) Madagascar is washed by the Indian Ocean. 6) In 1868, Queen Victoria published the book «Our Life in the Highlands». 7) It was the first day of summer and Sue decided to invite her friends to the cinema. 8) Nigel can’t play the guitar as well as he plays the violin. 9) Her birthday is on the second of April. 10) They play chess every Sunday.
3. 1) Dolly has got a red car. 2) There are fruit trees in the garden. 3) The President met the delegation from Mexico. 4) The weather is perfect for the picnic. 5) Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland. 6) The Nile is one of the longest rivers in the world. 7) He knows four foreign languages but he doesn’t know Japanese. 8) We have already had breakfast. 9) Her elder sister is an economist. 10) School begins in September.
4. 1) UK; 2) sandwich; 3) Colorado River; 4) Cuba; 5) song; 6) Everest; 7) best; 8) table tennis; 9) King Alexander; 10) Drama Theatre.
5. 1) My brother likes playing volleyball. 2) I have got a photo on the table. This is the photo of my best friend. 3) There are no books on the shelf. 4) They left the car near North Station. 5) The French language is very beautiful. 6) The Italians like meat dishes very much. 7) Last year they travelled around the Crimean Mountains and swam in the Black Sea. 8) This computer game is the most difficult. 9) She has just finished playing the piano. 10) She dreams to get her education in Oxford University.
ІМЕННИК (THE NOUN)
1. s: flowers, oranges, pens, kittens, pianos, houses, chairs, plates, pictures, ships, trees, films, videos, windows.
-es: foxes, potatoes, classes, witches, heroes, addresses, brushes, benches, glasses, peaches.
2. Rooms, glasses, photos, tests, dishes, tomatoes, girls, desks, matches, buses, vases, hands, schools, ostriches, zoos, bosses, cups, beaches, noses, pages, bags, torches, cases, wishes, spiders, hippos.
3. Holidays, raspberries, monkeys, cowboys, fairies, parties, keys, cherries, countries, Mondays, ladies, puppies, days, spies, boys, stories.
4. -s: dolphins, shoes, cakes, toys, gardens, rays, pianos, coins.
-es: dresses, sandwiches, foxes, enemies, branches, wishes.
-ies: flies, diaries, strawberries, abilities.
5.Shelves, proofs, leaves, halves, chiefs, loaves, knives, thieves, safes, housewives, the lives, handkerchiefs.
6. A body, a loaf, a bush, a friend, a birthday, a radio, a knife, a dictionary, a fork, a chief, a glass, a church, a rose, a roof, a way, a life, a butterfly, a box, a lorry.
7. 1) thieves, dogs; 2) cooks, knives; 3) flies; 4) diseases, remedies; 5) things, halves; 6) hares.
8. 1) berries; 2) roses; 3) loaves; 4) buses; 5) shelves; 6) sandwiches; 7) photos; 8) puppies; 9) countries; 10) glasses.
9. 1) Watches, dishes, lamps, fish, radios, knives, birds, deer, days, indexes, women, plays, pockets, horses, activities, feet, wolves, buses, keys, mice. 2) Hens, fruit, strawberries, cups, tests, bells, dictionaries, men, cities, foxes, children, songs, leaves, sheep, oranges, geese, games, oxen, potatoes.
10. Birds, women, strawberries, feet, men, fish, potatoes, girls, sandwiches, stars, wolves.
11. 1) mice; 2) fruit; 3) men, minds; 4) flies; 5) gloves, mice; 6) Men, mountains.
I think mice are very nice.
Their tails are long,
Their faces are small,
They haven’t any chins at all.
Their ears are pink,
Their teeth are white,
They run about the house at night.
They eat things they must not touch,
And no one seems to love them much,
But I think mice are very nice.
13. 1) are; 2) were; 3) these, are; 4) the, are; 5) need; 6) those, were; 7) the, look.
14. Nouns which can be used in singular: cups, plans, gymnastics, sweaters, computers, mice.
Nouns in plural which can be used with a pair of: spectacles, jeans, tights, pyjamas, shorts.
Nouns which are used in plural only: mathematics, scales, customs, goods, clothes.
15. 1) Your trousers are in the wardrobe. 2) Yesterday your glasses/ spectacles were on the shelf in the bedroom. 3) I think these jeans are too big for me. 4) Her clothes always look very tidy. 5) The customs of these people are very interesting for the historians. 6) Those pyjamas are too long. 7) The clothes in this shop are always expensive.
16. 1) information; 2) money; 3) glasses; 4) knowledge; 5) trousers; 6) scissors; 7) news.
17. 1) is; 2) information; 3) these, are; 4) glasses; 5) advice; 6) suit; 7) was.
18. 1) The evening news wasn’t very good. 2) These goods are cheap but their quality is also low. 3) These jeans don’t suit my sweater. 4) This information is very important for our project. 5) A great success is waiting for this sportswoman. 6) The money was received yesterday. 7) His clothes were old but clean.
19. Countable nouns: house, biscuits, monument, tooth, dream, flower, river, situation, shop, friend, hour, painting, dictionary, joke, garden, cupboard, sandwich.
Uncountable nouns: snow, coffee, salt, weather, air, journalism, time, information, money, music, chocolate, juice, food.
20. 1) The water in the sea was cold and we didn’t want to swim. 2) The clothes aren’t comfortable for this trip. 3) Ice cream is made of milk. 4) Cats have four legs and a tail. 5) The honey in the jar is very tasty. 6) The music was loud and we couldn’t speak. 7) The meat smells bad. 8) We had a lot of plans for the weekend. 9) My homework includes many tasks. 10) This jam has an unpleasant taste.
21. — What is the weather like, Jim?
— The weather is just for a picnic.
— It’s great! I’ll buy some meat and some pizzas for a picnic.
— And I’ll take the juice I’ve bought in the supermarket. And cheese is also good for making sandwiches.
— Don’t forget bread. You can’t make sandwiches without it.
— I remember about it. We’ll have a lot of fun today!
22. 1) countable; 2) uncountable; 3) uncountable; 4) countable; 5) countable; 6) uncountable; 7) countable; 8) uncountable.
23. 1) a piece; 2) some paper; 3) some milk, some butter and some pineapple; 4) some water; 5) some more cake; 6) a cake; 7) some money; 8) a fish; 9) some fish.
24. 1) a bar; 2) a cup; 3) a carton; 4) a tin, a kilo; 5) a bottle; 6) a jar; 7) a slice.
25. 1) Can you buy a packet of butter and a kilo of apples? 2) My sister doesn’t like fish. 3) Furniture is made of wood. 4) I’d like to have some lemonade. 5) Don’t forget to cook some potatoes with meat. 6) Bring us two coffees, please. 7) This chocolate has a wonderful taste.
26. 1) a lot of; 2) a lot of; 3) much; 4) a lot of; 5) a lot of; 6) a lot of; 7) many; 8) much; 9) many; 10) much; 11) much; 12) a lot of; 13) a lot of; 14) many; 15) much.
27. 1) a little; 2) too little; 3) few; 4) a few; 5) little; 6) a few; 7) little; 8) a few; 9) a few; 10) a little.
28. — Can I help you, Miss?
— Yes, please. I need some fresh fish. Do you have any fish?
— Oh, we have some smoked fish, but no fresh fish.
— What a pity! Do you have any tomatoes, then?
— Yes, we have tinned tomatoes and some cartons of tomato juice.
— And what about fresh tomatoes?
— Sorry, Miss, we have no fresh tomatoes. But we have some fresh apples.
— That’s good, but I don’t need any apples. Give me some cucumbers, please.
— I’m sorry to disappoint you, Miss, but we have no cucumbers at the moment. Perhaps you need any butter or rice?
— No, thank you. I’d better have my supper in some cafe.
29. They saw a lot of fruit trees there. There were a lot of apples in each tree except for one which had no apples at all. «Here is some money for you. Do you know why there are no apples in that tree?» asked the men.
30. — Let’s cook something tasty for dinner, Jack.
— OK, I don’t mind. Let’s prepare some tasty salad.
— Good, but you’ll help me.
— Sure, Mum. What do we need for the salad?
— We need some ham and some boiled potatoes.
— How much ham do we need?
— I think this piece will be enough.
— And how many potatoes do we need?
— Four potatoes. And we need some tomatoes.
— Shall we use any cucumbers?
— No, dear. We need no cucumbers at all. Give me some salt please.
— Here you are, Mum.
— Thank you. Now pass me the oil.
— How much oil will you add?
— Not much. That will do. We’ll also add some spring onion and our salad is ready.
— Great! It must be very tasty!
30. 1) many; 2) no; 3) many; 4) much; 5) no; 6) many.
31. 1) There is little light in the classroom. 2) Should we add any cheese into the salad? 3) How many photos did he make yesterday? — Not many. 4) There is little milk left in the carton. 5) I want to tell you some interesting facts. 6) How many people were at the meeting yesterday? — A lot. 7) You have to buy some butter and a packet of tea. 8) He met some old friends yesterday. 9) Do we have any oil? — No, we don’t. 10) Buy some sugar and some tins of fish, please.
1. Clocks, boys, leaves, children, dresses, tomatoes, deer, bushes, voices, scarves, men, monkeys, boxes, nuts, witches, mice, families, ships, cucumbers, brothers, toys, sheep, monsters, cities, geese.
2. Countable nouns: hat, foot, palace, window, fireplace, cake, banana, horse, room, plate.
Uncountable nouns: happiness, sugar, noise, money, friendship, chocolate, rice, lemonade, butter, furniture, air.
3. la; 2b; 3b; 4a; 5b; 6a; 7a; 8b; 9a; 10a.
4. 1) a packet, a jar; 2) a slice; 3) a bottle; 4) a carton, a kilo; 5) a cup, a piece; 6) a bar; 7) a loaf.
5. 1) some; 2) a; 3) some; 4) a; 5) some; 6) some; 7) an.
6. 1) any; 2) a lot of; 3) much; 4) any; 5) a lot of; 6) many; 7) a lot of; 8) much; 9) many; 10) a lot of.
7. A few: children, buildings, students, oxen, bicycles, onions, spoons, deer, boats, articles, carpets, pictures, trees.
A little: honey, knowledge, hope, fun, oil, food, salt, furniture, milk, progress, success.
8. 1b; 2a; 3c; 4b; 5c; 6b; 7a.
9. 1) I have got some good news for you. 2) Can you buy any vegetables for the salad? 3) He has no books you need./He hasn’t got any books you need. 4) I always add some milk into coffee. 5) The children were playing with a ball in the yard and the women were watching them. 6) I have a bar of chocolate and some Coke for you. 7) How much sugar do we need to make a cake? 8) These jeans are very small for you. 9) Yesterday I spent some money for food. 10) Sorry, I have no time.
ЗАЙМЕННИК (THE PRONOUN)
1. 1) her; 2) they; 3) we; 4) she, him; 5) he, it; 6) they; 7) it; 8) they, her; 9) we; 10) he, them.
2. 1) He, us; 2) I, she, me; 3) She, them, they; 4) they, them; 5) him, he; 6) me, her; 7) me; 8) us; 9) them; 10) her, her.
3. 1) Can you tell it to me, please? 2) I always enjoy my visits to them. 3) We can’t see her anywhere. 4) Excuse us, can you help us? 5) I didn’t answer the teacher’s questions and he gave me a bad mark. 6) She asked Den to phone her as she wanted to tell himsome news. 7) I need his help. 8) The secretary told us that we had to wait for some minutes.
4. 1) her; 2) his; 3) their; 4) Our; 5) their; 6) her; 7) their.
5. 1) her; 2) mine, yours; 3) her, mine; 4) my, yours; 5) her, theirs; 6) her, his; 7) their; 8) ours.
6. 1) Frank showed me photos of his family and I showed mine. 2) I spent my day doing shopping and Jane spent hers in the swimming-pool. 3) We described our adventures to Mr Harris and he told about his. 4) They didn’t know that was your car. They were surprised to know that it’s yours. 5) I returned them my key. Their Granny told the key was theirs. 6) Has she found your pen? If not, you can use mine then. 7) We don’t need his help because he didn’t accept ours. 8) Dogs are my favourite animals and what are yours? 9) She took my hands into hers and smiled at me. 10) We gave our passes to the guard. He gave me my pass back but didn’t return Bob his.
Absolute form of possessive pronouns
8. 1c; 2c; 3b; 4c; 5a; 6b; 7c; 8b.
9. Little Johnny was very proud of his dog. He was playing with it when a passing gentleman stopped and asked him. «What kind of dog is that, sonny?» «It doesn’t look like a police dog».
10. Soon the competition between them became strong and their stories grew more and more fantastic. At last the American said, «When I crossed from France to England a fellow was following our ferry all the way arriving at Dover five minutes ahead of us». «You’re quite right», he said. «That fellow was mе».
11. 1) He told us about his plans yesterday. 2) I want to return your book to you. 3) We will meet them near the metro tomorrow. 4) She saw you in the hospital last week. 5) The teacher corrected our mistakes and returned the exercise books to us. 6) Where are my shoes? — They are under the chair. 7) We’ll show her our wonderful town. 8) I didn’t understand his words and asked him to repeat his question. 9) She couldn’t phone you because she had lost your phone number. 10) I have just put the pencil on the table but I can’t find it now.
12. 1) that; 2) This; 3) those; 4) these; 5) That; 6) these; 7) those.
13. CD — Let’s buy a present for Nora. It’s her birthday in three days.
— OK. What shall we choose? Look at this lovely vase. Nora loves fresh flowers.
— The vase is big enough for only one flower and Nora likes big bouquets. Let’s buy her these coffee cups. They are so nice!
— Nora doesn’t drink coffee. She likes tea. Let’s better buy her that bright tea-pot.
— No! It is old-fashioned. I think those plates over there will be a useful present.
— Plates! Is it a joke! I never give my friends such presents!
— Well, I have got another idea. What do you think about that picture? Isn’t it wonderful?
— I think you’re right. It will be the best present for Nora.
14. 1) These puppies are very funny. 2) That flower looks very fresh. 3) I can’t understand these words. 4) Are those things in the suit-case yours? 5) He will like this song very much. 6) That cake wasn’t tasty. 7) That boy near the door is waiting for you. 8) Did you like those trousers? 9) This pen isn’t mine. 10) She has just bought these shoes.
15. 1) herself; 2) ourselves; 3) myself; 4) themselves; 5) myself; 6) herself; 7) himself; 8) itself; 9) themselves; 10) themselves.
16. 1) himself; 2) themselves; 3) myself; 4) herself; 5) yourselves; 6) myself; 7) itself; 8) yourself; 9) herself; 10) itself.
17. 1) My cat has caught this mouse itself. 2) He told us about his adventures during the travel to the mountains himself. 3) Have you built this house yourself? 4) My grandfather has grown these strawberries himself. 5) The story itself was very interesting. 6) Ann has read the news in the newspaper herself. 7) What can you show us yourself? 8) The pupils of our school have organized the competition themselves. 9) I can find the answer to the question myself. 10) When will Peter and Mike come themselves?
1. 1) her, me; 2) he; 3) they; 4) I; 5) they; 6) me, him; 7) it; 8) them; 9) she, her; 10) he.
2. 1c; 2e; 3a; 4g; 5b; 6d; 7f.
3. 1) this; 2) that; 3) this; 4) that; 5) those; 6) that; 7) those; 8) these.
4. 1) yourself; 2) himself; 3) myself; 4) themselves; 5) herself; 6) ourselves; 7) itself.
5. 1) She has never told us about her childhood. 2) Give me those sweets, please. 3) The boy has written this poem himself. 4) They showed her their town and told a lot of interesting things about it. 5) Look at them! They are so funny! 6) My-sister has made this present herself. 7) Those people are too far. I can’t see their faces. 8) I can’t give you my phone number. 9) The children decorated this room themselves. 10) Torn phoned her late in the evening.
ПРИКМЕТНИК ТА ПРИСЛІВНИК (THE ADJECTIVE AND THE ADVERB)
1. Long — longer — the longest, gentle — gentler — the gentlest, small — smaller — the smallest, slow — slower — the slowest, quick — quicker — the quickest, cheap — cheaper — the cheapest, young — younger — the youngest, noble — nobler — the noblest, low — lower — the lowest.
2. Німа -e: safe, fine, brave, large.
Double consonant: hot, fat, sad, thin, wet.
-y → i: pretty, lazy, dry, busy, happy.
3. Funny — funnier — the funniest, hot — hotter — the hottest, new — newer — the newest, ripe — riper — the ripest, noisy — noisier — the noisiest, tall — taller — the tallest, easy — easier — the easiest, bright — brighter — the brightest, red — redder — the reddest.
4. Clean — cleaner — the cleanest, ugly — uglier — the ugliest, big — bigger — the biggest, light — lighter — the lightest, muddy — muddier — the muddiest, fat — fatter — the fattest, hard — harder — the hardest, cold — colder — the coldest, heavy — heavier — the heaviest, wet — wetter — the wettest, wide — wider — the widest, rich — richer — the richest, silly — sillier — the silliest, thin — thinner — the thinnest.
5. -er/-est: fast, young, lucky, smart, thick, easy.
more/most: modern, comfortable, friendly, wonderful, dangerous, attractive.
-er/-est or more/most: clever, gentle, stupid.
6. Angry — angrier — the angriest, cool — cooler — the coolest, polite — more polite — the most polite, fat — fatter — the fattest, fine — finer — the finest, soft — softer — the softest, expensive — more expensive — the most expensive, miserable — more miserable — the most miserable, weak — weaker — the weakest, healthy — healthier — the healthiest, great — greater — the greatest, dry — drier — the driest, thin — thinner — the thinnest, generous — more generous — the most generous, sweet — sweeter — the sweetest.
7. Positive Degree: fluent, intelligent, bitter, full, serious.
Comparative Degree: more careful, hotter, tastier, faster, more boring.
Superlative Degree: the brightest, the most violent, the richest.
8. 1) good; 2) ordinary; 3) bad; 4) little; 5) young.
9. Wet, wide, old, marvellous, good, crazy, slow, tidy, little, cheap, dirty, bad, helpful, thin, large, rich, far.
10. Beautiful — more beautiful — the most beautiful, little — less — the least, active — more active — the most active, neat — neater — the neatest, high — higher — the highest, bad — worse — the worst, obvious — more obvious — the most obvious, rude — ruder — the rudest, many — more — the most, big — bigger — the biggest, sensitive — more sensitive — the most sensitive, light — lighter — the lightest, clear — clearer — the clearest, amazing — more amazing — the most amazing, far — farther/further — the farthest/ furthest, good — better — the best, difficult — more difficult — the most difficult, slim — slimmer — the slimmest.
11. 1) the noisiest; 2) worse; 3) hotter; 4) better; 5) more attractive; 6) less; 7) prettier; 8) wetter; 9) the most helpful; 10) the most fashionable.
12. 1) better; 2) thicker; 3) louder; 4) higher, greater; 5) worse; 6) stronger, weakest; 7) easier; 8) sweetest.
13. «Heat makes things bigger and cold makes things smaller», answered the brightest boy of the class. «In summer, when it is hot, the days are longer, but in winter, when it is cold, the days are shorter», answered the boy.
14. The car is bigger than the bike. The bike is cheaper than the car. The car is more expensive than the bike. The bike is slower than the car. The boy is younger than the man. The man is older than the boy. The man is stronger than the boy. The boy is more careless than the man. The handbag is the smallest of all. The rucksack is bigger than the handbag but smaller than the suitcase. The suitcase is the biggest of all. The suitcase is the heaviest of all. The rucksack is heavier than the handbag but lighter than the suitcase. The handbag is the lightest of all. The lemon is more sour than the ice cream. The ice cream is sweeter than the lemon. The lemon is more useful than the ice cream. The ice cream is colder than the lemon.
The dog is faster than the mouse. The lion is the fastest of all. The dog is more dangerous than the mouse. The lion is the most dangerous of all. The dog is heavier than the mouse. The lion is the heaviest of all. The lion is cleverer/more clever than the mouse. The dog is the cleverest/most clever of all. The dog is smaller than the lion. The mouse is the smallest of all.
15. Crocodiles are the most ancient animals in the world. The largest of them is Crested crocodile which lives in the south-east Asia and in Australia. They are the longest (about six metres) and the strongest among their relatives, that’s why Crested crocodiles are the most dangerous. Alligators are smaller than crocodiles. Chinese alligator is considered to be the smallest kind of crocodiles (only two metres long). It is also the rarest one.
16. 1) This book is more interesting than the film. 2) The dog is cleverer/more clever than the parrot. 3) This is the tastiest ice cream I’ve ever eaten. 4) Now the results of his test are better than they were last year. 5) She has got a younger sister and an elder brother. 6) This way to the river is the shortest. 7) It was the most exciting adventure in my life. 8) The cake is tastier than the sweets. 9) The living-room is the most comfortable room in our flat. 10) Your suitcase is heavier than mine.
17. 1) as ... as; 2) so ... as; 3) so ... as; 4) as ... as; 5) so ... as; 6) so ... as; 7) as ... as; 8) as ... as; 9) so ... as; 10) as ... as.
18. 1) The film is as interesting as the book. 2) Today is the longest day of summer. 3) He isn’t so good a footballer as your brother. 4) This watch is as expensive as your ring. 5) Today you aren’t so sad as yesterday. 6) Summer holidays are longer than winter holidays. 7) This is the best park of our city. 8) This hotel is as comfortable as the hotel we stayed at last year. 9) This ice cream isn’t so tasty as the ice cream we bought yesterday. 10) Your answer is as brilliant as the answer of your friend.
19. 1) Adverb of frequency; 2) adverb of time; 3) adverb of manner; 4) adverb of place; 5) adverb of time; 6) adverb of place; 7) adverb of frequency; 8) adverb of manner; 9) adverb of place; 10) adverb of frequency.
20. Brightly, carefully, prettily, terribly, beautifully, heavily, easily, loudly, brilliantly, quietly, noisily, carelessly, fluently, greatly, violently, smartly, perfectly, sweetly.
21. 1) Adverb; 2) adjective; 3) adverb; 4) adjective; 5) adjective; 6) adverb; 7) adverb; 8) adverb; 9) adjective; 10) adjective.
22. 1) beautiful, pretty, kindly; 2) quietly; 3) heavily, perfect; 4) fluent, fluently; 5) obvious; 6) well, good; 7) sweetly, nice; 8) careful, sharp; 9) quickly, bad.
23. It was obvious that he had been in a bad fight and lost. His father looked sadly at his son and asked what had happened.
— Well, Dad,— said Pete,— I wanted to have an honest duel with Jack and gave him his choice of weapons.
— That seems fair.— said the father.
24. 1) enough; 2) too; 3) enough; 4) too; 5) too; 6) enough; 7) too; 8) enough; 9) enough; 10) too.
25. 1) He was driving the car too slowly. 2) Sometimes she isn’t attentive enough at the lessons. 3) This is my best friend. 4) The letters in this book aren’t big enough for my son to read them. 5) You sing better than me. 6) They woke up not early enough to have time for breakfast. 7) She always speaks too loudly. 8) He works too much. 9) This question is too difficult for us. 10) My house is farther from school than yours.
1. Large — larger — the largest, dirty — dirtier — the dirtiest, little — less — the least, difficult — more difficult — the most difficult, far — farther/further — the farthest/furthest, wet — wetter — the wettest, lazy — lazier — the laziest, generous — more generous — the most generous, narrow — narrower/more narrow — the narrowest/most narrow, bad — worse — the worst, tasty — tastier — the tastiest, wonderful — more wonderful — the most wonderful, fat — fatter — the fattest, fine — finer — the finest, interesting — more interesting — the most interesting, good — better — the best, tidy — tidier — the tidiest, brave — braver — the bravest, old — older/elder — the oldest/eldest, expensive — more expensive — the most expensive.
2. 1) the deepest; 2) further; 3) the most beautiful; 4) the laziest; 5) shorter; 6) the best; 7) more comfortable; 8) worse; 9) more; 10) the oldest.
3. 1) quietly; 2) brief, carefully; 3) angry; 4) nice; 5) comfortably, exciting; 6) well; 7) happily; 8) badly; 9) fresh; 10) busily.
4. 1) as ... as; 2) so ... as; 3) too; 4) enough; 5) too; 6) so ... as; 7) as ... as; 8) enough.
5. 1) The dress is more expensive than the skirt. 2) He is the youngest in the family. 3) This exercise isn’t so difficult as the previous one. 4) Today the weather is too hot to go to the beach. 5) What river is the longest in your country? 6) Your idea isn’t so bad as it seemed at first. 7) This library is the oldest in our town. 8) He was driving the car too fast as he. didn’t want to be late for the meeting. 9) Her proposition isn’t interesting enough. 10) The results of the test are worse than we expected.
ДІЄСЛОВО (THE VERB) ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ НЕОЗНАЧЕНИЙ ЧАС (THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE)
1. s: cooks, cleans, buys, likes, drinks, helps, runs, opens, pays, swims, rides, listens, meets, comes.
-es: teaches, goes, discusses, watches, catches, does, mixes, wishes.
-ies: studies, fries, copies, tidies, flies, marries.
2. 1) Mike always helps his grandparents. 2) Andy likes to swim in the swimming-pool. 3) Vicky makes the best pizza in our town. 4) Larry meets our friends every weekend. 5) Dolly knows everything about cats. 6) Nelly writes wonderful poems. 7) Garry understands French well. 8) Sam teaches my little brother to ride a bike. 9) Pam often plays with the ball in the yard. 10) A bird sings merrily in the tree. 11) My cousin often flies to Prague. 12) His mother always watches TV in the evening. 13) Alice sometimes sees him in the library. 14) My father usually washes the car on Saturday. 15) Bill never tells lies.
3. 1) She; 2) We; 3) I; 4) He; 5) My sister; 6) My watch; 7) Rita; 8) You; 9) Her cousins; 10) My Granny.
4.1) drinks; 2) like; 3) walk; 4) spend; 5) works; 6) start; 7) walks; 8) play; 9) buys; 10) begins; 11) visit; 12) has; 13) rains; 14) costs; 15) take.
5. 1) Amanda speaks English fluently. 2) Peter and Robert often go skiing. 3) It never snows in summer. 4) Children like to watch cartoons on TV. 5) My aunt works at the hospital. 6) We prefer to spend winter holidays in the mountains. 7) She sometimes comes home late. 8) Alice and Jane always do the shopping together. 9) Colin always listens to music in the car. 10) I sometimes take books from the library.
6. 1) don’t; 2) doesn’t; 3) don't; 4) don’t; 5) don’t; 6) doesn’t; 7) don’t; 8) doesn’t; 9) doesn’t; 10) don’t.
7. 1) don’t; 2) doesn’t; 3) don’t; 4) don’t; 5) doesn’t; 6) don’t; 7) doesn’t; 8) don’t; 9) don’t; 10) doesn’t; 11) doesn’t; 12) don’t; 13) doesn’t; 14) don’t; 15) don’t.
8. 1) Martin doesn’t often go fishing in summer. 2) You don’t always buy fresh newspapers. 3) His mother doesn’t bake tasty pies. 4) This fruit salad doesn’t taste delicious. 5) Pineapples don’t grow in trees. 6) My dog doesn’t eat tomatoes and pears. 7) People don’t know a lot about the life on other planets. 8) I don’t always travel with my grandparents. 9) They don’t plant flowers and trees every spring. 10) Girls don’t always like to do the washing-up.
9. 1) changes; 2) smell; 3) don’t make; 4) don’t know; 5) prefers; 6) doesn’t listen; 7) doesn’t like; 8) writes; 9) shows; 10) train; 11) don’t put; 12) takes; 13) enjoy; 14) don’t live; 15) takes care.
10. 1) lead; 2) doesn’t eat; 3) crowns; 4) helps, help; 5) make; 6) doesn’t make; 7) makes; 8) comes.
11. 1) Do; 2) Does; 3) Does; 4) Do; 5) Do; 6) Does; 7) Do; 8) Does; 9) Does; 10) Do; 11) Do; 12) Does; 13) Does; 14) Do.
12. 1) Do you like to travel? — Yes, I do./No, I don’t. 2) Does your friend go in for sport? — Yes, he (she) does./No, he (she) doesn’t. 3) Do your parents like to play computer games? — Yes, they do./No, they don’t. 4) Does your father drive a car? — Yes, he does./No, he doesn’t. 5) Does your mother watch the news on TV in the evening? — Yes, she does./No, she doesn’t. 6) Do your classmates always come to school in time? — Yes, they do./No, they don’t. 7) Do your grandparents live in the country? — Yes, they do./No, they don’t. 8) Does your mother often meet her friends? — Yes, she does./No, she doesn’t. 9) Do you have a dream? — Yes, I do./No, I don’t. 10) Do you often visit your grandparents? — Yes, I do./No, I don’t.
13. 1) Do Liz and her sister often go skating to the skating-rink? 2) Does our teacher always prepare us for tests? 3) Does her dog like to sleep on the sofa? 4) Do we usually make photos for the school newspaper? 5) Does Den often go on a ride with his friends? 6) Do Ted and Victor prefer to travel by car? 7) Does it often rain in spring? 8) Does his sister run a small cafe? 9) Do the Harrods usually visit their relatives in the country? 10) Do all children like sweets and ice cream?
14. 1) Does your sister help you with washing-up? 2) He hates to get up early on Sunday. 3) We don’t spend much time at the seaside. 4) The weather often changes in spring. 5) Do you often visit your relatives? 6) He doesn’t know my phone number. 7) Do her grandparents grow any vegetables in summer? 8) My cousin often goes on business trips to other towns. 9) Do you always wash your hands before meals? 10) My mother doesn’t drink tea without sugar.
15. Then one lady asks the boy kindly, «Do you like reciting poems, dear?» The boy looks at her and answers politely, «Oh, no, I hate it. But mummy makes me do it when she wants people to go».
16. 1) Where do they always go in the evening? 2) What does she prefer to buy on sales? 3) When does he usually meet his friends? 4) Why does she buy fresh magazines? 5) How does this baby-sitter look after children? 6) Who often tells about his adventures during the expeditions? 7) How much sugar does this lady usually buy? 8) Whose little brother rides his bike in the afternoon? 9) Where does Nelly usually put her key? 10) Why do they need this article?
17. 1) Where do young leaves appear in spring? When do young leaves appear in the trees? 2) Who usually leaves home early? What do my parents leave early? When do my parents leave home? 3) What does she do well? How does she understand German? 4) Who needs three apples for the fruit salad? How many apples do we need for the fruit salad? What do we need for the fruit salad? 5) What does the cat look at? Why does the cat look at the sausage? 6) Whom does Mike help to clean the flat? What does Mike help his parents to do?
7) Who wants to get the toy from the shelf? What does the boy want to get from the shelf? Where does the boy want to get the toy from?
18.1) Where does your brother usually go after classes? — He usually goes to the swimming-pool. He has trainings four times a week. 2) Why does your sister always get UP so early in the morning? — Because she helps my mother to cook breakfast for the whole family.— Don’t you cook breakfast for yourself? — No, I don’t. I usually walk the dog before going to school. 3) What do you usually do on Saturdays? — Well, in the morning I go shopping with my mother and then I take my younger sister to the Art Studio. She paints very well and dreams of becoming a designer.— Do you meet your friends on Saturdays? — Of course, I do. We often go to the cinema or to the disco on Saturday evenings. 4) Why does Fred need to buy flowers? — It is his sister’s birthday today. She lovesflowers and Fred believes it is the best present for her. 5) What time does this programme start? — It always starts at eight in the evening.— Do you always watch it? — No, I don’t always watch it because sometimes I have to meet my younger brother at the tram stop. He often returns from the football training at this time.
19. A young woman wants to become a singer and trains every evening for an hour. She notices that her husband always goes to the balcony while she sings. «Why do you go to the balcony when I sing?» she asks him. «Don’t you like to hear me singing?» «It isn’tthat», her husband answers. «I just want my neighbours to see that I don’t beat my wife».
20. 1) When do you wake up? — I usually wake up at seven o’clock. 2) What music does your friend like to listen? — He listens to rock music. 3) What does she cook for supper? — She often cooks chicken with vegetables. 4) The sun sets late in summer. 5) We seldom go to the countryside at weekends. 6) His Granny doesn’t grow vegetables. She grows flowers. 7) They don’t know my timetable. 8) It often rains here in this season. 9) Do you know her address? — Unfortunately, I don’t. 10) What do you do in the evening? — My parents watch TV, I play on the computer and my sister speaks on the phone with her friends. 11) Where does your cousin go in summer? — He always visits grandparents. They live in the country. My cousin likes to go there. He has a lot of friends there. They swim in the river and ride horses. 12) Does the working day of your sister start early? — Yes, it does. She leaves home at half past seven. The shop where she works is far from our house. She usually goes by bus there. 13) What books do you like to read? — I like to read detective stories very much but sometimes I read historical novels.— Do you like to read adventure stories? — No, I don’t, but my sister does.
1. Writes, plans, does, catches, hurries, reads, makes, says, matches, drives, washes, runs, stays, changes, worries, mixes, swims, knows, rides, flies, brushes, sleeps.
2. 1) My father doesn’t teach me to drive the car. Does my father teach me to drive a car? 2) His parents don’t work at the hospital. Do his parents work at the hospital? 3) You don’t always brush your teeth in the morning. Do you always brush your teeth in the morning? 4) Nick doesn’t usually drink coffee for breakfast. Does Nick usually drink coffee for breakfast? 5) Jennifer doesn’t often forget her promises. Does Jennifer often forget her promises? 6) My friends don’t tell me all the news. Do my friends tell me all the news? 7) My Granny doesn’t cook very well. Does your Granny cook well? 8) The Tappings don’t want to buy a new flat. Do the Tappings want to buy a new flat? 9) Cats don’t catch mice. Do cats catch mice? 10) Alec doesn’t collect rare books. Does Alec collect rare books?
3. 1) Who often goes camping in summer? When do we often go camping? 2) What does Julia usually finish at six o’clock? When does Julia usually finish her work? 3) Whom does Diana often meet at the bus stop? Where does Diana often meet them? 4) Whose cousin always gives me nice presents for my birthday? What presents does my cousin always give me for my birthday? 5) Who wants to become musicians? What do these children want to become? 6) What do the Pages play in the golf-court on Friday? Where do the Pages often play golf on Friday?
4. 1) Do you want fish for supper? — No, I don't, thank you. I usually have some vegetable salad and a cup of tea. 2) When does Nigel usually return home from school? — He usually returns home at three o’clock. But sometimes he has extra lessons and comeshome at half past four. 3) Who usually cooks breakfast for you? — My mother cooks breakfast for me and herself.— Does your father have breakfast? — No, he doesn’t. He never eats in the morning. 4) Who buys clothes for you? — I usually do it myself, but sometimes I ask my mother for advice. She always chooses fashionable clothes for me. We like to do the shopping together. 5) Where do your father and you go so early in the morning? — We go fishing. We enjoy it very much. My father often cooks a tasty fish soup on fire and I help him.
5. 1) We always clean the garden in spring. 2) Children always eat soup for dinner. 3) She sometimes buys milk and cheese in this shop. 4) I don’t read magazines. 5) How often does she water the flowers? — She waters them twice a week. 6) They don’t understand what you mean. 7) Do you often attend the swimming-pool? — No, I don’t. I seldom have time to go there. 8) What time does he come to the office? — He Visually comes to the office at nine o’clock. 9) Who helps you to repair the car? — My friend (does). He knows a lot about cars. 10) What bread do you usually buy? — I always buy brown bread. 11) She doesn’t take a shower in the evening. 12) What do you usually do in such a situation? 13) When does their bus depart? — It departs at eight o’clock. 14) My friends often phone me. 15) Where does her grandmother live? — She lives in the centre of our town.
ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ ТРИВАЛИЙ ЧАС (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE)
1. Working, swimming, coming, playing, lying, telling, getting, taking, cutting, drinking, making, hitting, sleeping, trying, looking, walking, serving, eating, dying, sitting, crying, skiing, travelling, smiling, beginning, preparing, stopping, listening, shaving.
2. 1).are; 2) is; 3) is; 4) is; 5) are; 6) am; 7) are; 8) is; 9) are; 10) are.
3. I’m doing homework. You are riding a bike. Ann is setting the table for dinner. Peter is listening to news. Den and Ted are playing with the dog. We are planting flowers, etc.
4. 1) I’m playing tennis with my friend now. 2) We are walking on the beach now. 3) They are having a great time at the camp at the moment. 4) Angela is painting a beautiful picture now. 5) Tina and Pam are staying in a five-star hotel. 6) It is raining outdoors at the moment. 7) Bobby is preparing for the test in his room. 8) The dog is barking at some strangers. 9) The water in the kettle is boiling. 10) Somebody is knocking at the door. 11) The children are still sleeping. 12) You are watching the sunset now. 13) The girls are choosing the costumes for the party. 14) We are waiting for the bus at the bus-stop. 15) A little girl is crying.
5. Today my little sister Beth is having a birthday party. Our house is full of guests. Aunt Martha is talking with our mother. They are discussing a new film with Brad Pitt. Uncle James is playing chess with our grandfather. Beth is opening her presents. Her friends Liz and Kate are dancing in the middle of the room and Paul is drinking lemonade. The door bell is ringing. Granny is hurrying to the door. Our cousin Steve is coming into the room. He is holding a big bouquet of lilies and a colourful box. Beth is running up to him and taking the presents. She is so happy!
6. 1) Molly isn’t translating an article. 2) Jack and Sam aren’t gathering pears in the garden. 3) It isn’t getting warm. 4) We aren’t climbing a mountain. 5) You aren’t playing basketball now. 6) The children aren’t washing hands in the bathroom. 7) My grandfather isn’t reading a newspaper now. 8) My family isn’t having supper now. 9) Angela isn’t ironing her dress now. 10) I’m not looking for my kitten now.
7. 1) Pupils aren’t writing a dictation now. They are translating the text. 2) Margaret is washing the dishes. She isn’t sweeping the floor. 3) The days are getting shorter. They aren’t getting longer. 4) My Granny isn’t reading a magazine. She is watching TV. 5) My friend and me are sunbathing. We aren’t swimming. 6) The kitten isn’t sleeping. It is playing. 7) Greg and his boss aren’t having lunch. They are reading a report. 8) Cliff and Julia are preparing for the test. They aren’t dancing at the disco. 9) My father isn’t washing his car. He is digging in the garden. 10) I’m not learning a poem now. I’m writing an essay. 11) You are skating now. You aren’t playing snowballs now. 12) I’m drinking tea now. I’m not drinking coffee now. 13) My father and me aren’t listening to music now. We aren’t listening to news now.
8. Phil and Tim are peeling potatoes. No, Phil and Tim aren’t peeling potatoes. They are fishing. Mother and Susan are reading a newspaper. No, mother and Susan aren’t reading a newspaper. They are cooking dinner. Granny is fishing. No, Granny isn’t fishing. She is peeling potatoes. Grandpa is putting the tent. No, Grandpa isn’t putting the tent. He is reading a newspaper.
9. 1) are sitting; 2) isn’t snowing; 3) are waiting; 4) am watching; 5) are arguing; 6) isn’t having; 7) are coming; 8) isn’t going; 9) is standing; 10) aren’t having; 11) is improving; 12) are disappearing; 13) isn’t looking, is sleeping; 14) is pointing; 15) am not discussing.
10. 1) Are we gathering apples in the garden? 2) Is Mary listening to music now? 3) Are you sweeping the floor in the kitchen? 4) Is the cat running after the mouse? 5) Are the boys making a plane? 6) Is the wind getting stronger? 7) Are you building a nice house? 8) Are you taking a bath now? 9) Is a woman feeding the chickens? 10) Are they trying to catch a taxi?
11. 1) Yes, she is. 2) No, they aren’t. 3) Yes, I am. 4) No, he isn’t. 5) Yes, they are. 6) No, it isn’t. 7) No, I’m not. 8) Yes, he is. 9) No, she isn’t. 10) Yes, it is.
12. 1) Is Anna typing the documents? — No, she isn’t. She is speaking to her boss. 2) Is it getting cold? — Yes, it is. And the wind is getting stronger. 3) Are you looking through the papers? — No, I'm not. I’m writing a report for the conference now. 4) Are Bill and Mike mending the fence? — Yes, they are. 5) Are your parents and you resting in the country house? — No, we aren’t. We are spending our weekend at the seaside. 6) Is Edgar playing a computer game? — Yes, he is. 7) Is the phone ringing? — No, it isn’t. Somebody is ringing the door bell. 8) Are your grandparents resting? — No, they aren’t. My grandparents are working in the kitchen garden. 9) Is the kitten sleeping? — No, it isn’t. The kitten is hiding somewhere. 10) Are you slicing cheese? — No, I’m not. I’m mixing the vegetable salad.
13. 1) We are gathering mushrooms in the forest. 2) The boys are not riding the horses now. 3) Is your sister having breakfast now? 4) They are whitewashing the trees in the garden. 5) Are you waiting for me? 6) Roger is not having lunch now. 7) Our teacher is speaking to them now. 8) Is Vicky vacuuming the carpet in the living-room? 9) Helen is not making coffee for me. 10) My friend and me are going to the cinema. 11) The children are learning a new song for the concert. 12) His brother is not looking for work now. 13) Are you hanging the garlands in the hall? 14) My sister is dusting the furniture in the bedroom now. 15) Everybody is enjoying the party.
14. 1) They are decorating the room now. 2) Is he waiting for me? 3) We aren’t cooking supper now. We are cleaning the kitchen. 4) Anna isn’t swimming now. She is playing volleyball with her friends. 5) Are you listening to me? — Yes, I am listening to you attentively. 6) I’m having rest in the garden now. 7) My brother is looking for some information for his project. 8) They aren’t painting the roof of the house now. They are repairing the gates. 9) Is Jane having a shower now? — No, she isn’t. She is cooking breakfast. 10) Are you washing your hands? — Yes, I am. 11) Are your friends preparing for the concert? — Yes, they are discussing the costumes. 12) It is raining outdoors now.
15. Why am I telling you about it? Where are the boys playing football? What is Mary cooking for dinner? Why is your father painting the car? How are Sam and Tom swimming now? How is your father driving? etc.
16. 1) What is Fred reading in his room? Where is Fred reading a magazine? 2) Who is going to the market? Where are Sally and Jessica going? 3) What kind of film are you watching? 4) Who is singing karaoke in the park? What are we doing in the park? 5) Whom is she speaking to now? 6) Who is drinking juice now? What is the child drinking now? 7) Who is typing very quickly now? How are you typing now? 8) Where are my classmates playing basketball?
17. Mother asked little Kate, «What is your sister Mary doing?» «Well, if the ice is as thick as she thinks it is, she is skating. But if the ice is as thin as I think, she is swimming».
18. 1) Where is Roger going? — He is going to the exhibition. 2) What are you drinking? — I am drinking apple juice. 3) Who is riding a bike over there? — My neighbour Mike is. 4) Why are Dolly and Cathy looking through the magazines? — Because they are lookingfor some information for their report. 5) Is it snowing outdoors? — Yes, it is. It is snowing very hard and it is getting colder. 6) Whom is he speaking to? — He is sneaking to his uncle. They are discussing what present to buy for Granny. 7) Is Helen going to her office now? — No, she isn’t. She is having a day off today. 8) What are they doing? — They are repairing a motorbike. 9) Where are you hurrying? — I’m hurrying to the concert. My husband is waiting for me near the concert hall. 10) Who is preparing the performance in the Assembly hall? — My classmates are having a rehearsal there now. 11) What is he going to do tonight? — He is going to visit his friend.
19. An old gentleman wearing an expensive suit is sitting on a bench in the park. He is enjoying a warm spring day. A little boy is lying on the green grass opposite him. The boy is looking at the gentleman very attentively. «What is the matter, sonny?» asks the gentleman. «Why aren’t you playing with other children?» «Don’t want to», the boy replies. «But why aren’t you running about?» insists the old gentleman. «I’m just waiting», answers the boy. «I’m just waiting till you get up. A man painted this bench twenty minutes ago».
20. 1) Whom are you waiting for? — I’m waiting for my parents. We’re going to choose a present for my birthday now. 2) What is she doing? — She is planting flowers. 3) Are you watching the news? — No, I’m watching sport competitions. 4) Whom is your brother speaking to? — He is speaking to his teacher. 5) What is he telling about? — He is telling about his rest in the mountains. 6) What are they looking at? — They are looking at my wedding photos. 7) Where is your sister hurrying? — She is hurrying to the cinema. 8) How are you going to spend the weekend? — We are going to the country. 9) When is your brother going to repair his bike? — He is going to repair it next week. 10) Is it raining now? — No, it isn’t, it’s getting warmer outdoors.
1. Singing, beginning, enjoying, learning, giving, sitting, eating, having, getting, watching, taking, travelling, seeing, buying, helping, coming, putting, going, drinking, collecting, painting, leaving, running, washing, swimming.
2. 1) Jenny isn’t helping her mother now. Is Jenny helping her mother now? 2) We aren’t meeting the guests now. Are we meeting the guests now? 3) It isn’t getting dark. Is it getting dark? 4) You aren’t preparing for the conference at the moment. Are you preparing for the conference at the moment? 5) The sun isn’t appearing in the sky. Is the sun appearing in the sky? 6) His friends aren’t waiting for him in the yard. Are his friends waiting for him in the yard? 7) I am not washing the dishes now. Are you washing the dishes now? 8) Martin and Fred aren’t swimming in the pool. Are Martin and Fred swimming in the pool? 9) The teacher isn’t explaining the rule now. Is the teacher explaining the rule now? 10) Some people aren’t crossing the street. Are some people crossing the street?
3. 1) Yes, he is. 2) No, they aren’t. 3) No, I’m not. 4) Yes, it is. 5) Yes, they are. 6) No, she isn’t. 7) Yes, they are. 8) Yes, it is. 9) No, she isn’t. 10) Yes, they are.
4. 1) Who is leaving the railway station at the moment? What are we leaving at the moment? 2) What are the children playing on the beach? Where are the children playing badminton? 3) How is the dog barking at me? Who (Whom) is the dog barking at? 4) Who is telling a funny story? What are you telling? 5) What are they going to do? When are they going to write a dictation? 6) What is Clare cutting in the yard? Where is Clare cutting the grass? 7) Whom am I giving my disc? Whose disc am I giving you?
5. 1) What is he reading? — He is reading a fresh magazine. 2) Where are we going? — We are going to a new shopping centre. Why are we going there? — Because we are looking for a mobile phone at a reasonable price. 3) Are you cooking? What are you cooking? — I am cooking fish for supper. 4) What is your Granny doing? — She is baking a raspberry pie. 5) What is she telling about? — She is explaining us the way to the hospital. 6) Why are you slicing ham? — I’m making sandwiches for you and me. 7) What is your sister looking at? — She is looking at the children playing in the sandpit. 8) Where is your cousin hurrying? — He is hurrying to the airport. Our aunt is arriving today. 9) Is Dina having supper? — Yes, she is. 10) Whom is Tony waiting for? — He is waiting for his coach.
6. 1) What film are you watching? — I’m watching a new comedy. 2) What is he planning to do on Monday evening? — He is going to the theatre. 3) Why is she looking for this book? — She is writing an article about its author now. 4) Whom are you calling/phoning? — I’m calling/phoning my dentist. 5) Where is she going? — She is going to the bank. She is meeting a manager there. 6) Is your brother fishing now? — No, he isn’t. He is playing tennis. 7) What are your parents doing now? — Mother is cooking dinner and father is watching sport competitions on TV. 8) Are you looking for glasses? — No, I’m looking for my notebook. 9) What are they
going to buy for her? — They are going to buy fruit and flowers.
10) Is your sister staying at the hotel now? — Yes, she is.
ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ НЕОЗНАЧЕНИЙ ЧИ ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ ТРИВАЛИЙ ЧАСІ (THE PRESENT SIMPLE OR PRESENT CONTINUOUS!)
1. 1) вираження повторюваних дій; 2) загальновідомі факти; 3) дії, що заплановано на найближче майбутнє, та які обов’язково відбудуться; 4) йдеться про розклад; 5) опис тимчасових ситуацій; 6) вираження постійних дій чи станів; 7) вираження дій, що відбуваються під час мовлення.
2. 1) visit; 2) enjoy; 3) is speaking; 4) works; 5) are fighting; 6) is working; 7) take; 8) is playing; 9) check; 10) departs; 11) buy; 12) is having; 13) is visiting; 14) are having; 15) drink; 16) starts; 17) go; 18) are going; 19) dances; 20) are meeting.
3. 1) waits; 2) is waiting; 3) go; 4) is going; 5) buy; 6) I’m buying; 7) arrives; 8) is arriving; 9) is writing, writes; 10) is raining; 11) rains; 12) are asking; 13) asks; 14) isn’t sleeping, is preparing; 15) doesn’t come; 16) don’t give; 17) aren’t boating, are diving; 18) is coming; 19) don’t fly, swim; 20) am not vacuuming, am dusting.
4. The teacher is giving her class a lecture on mottoes. She is writing a motto «It is better to give than to receive» on the blackboard. «Pupils, remember this motto», she is saving. At this moment a small boy is crying out, «Yes, Miss, my father always says that he uses, this motto in his work».
5. 1) What do you usually do after classes? — I sometimes play basketball with my friend but usually I hurry home. 2) What is your sister doing now? — She is walking with her friends. She often goes for a walk when she has nothing to do about the house. 3) Where does Sam go on Sundays? — Well, he usually meets his friends and they go to the cinema or to the sports ground. But this Sunday Sam is translating the text for tomorrow English lesson. 4) How often does your sister go to the Art Studio? — She goes there three times a week. 5) What are you eating? — I am eating a strawberry cake. My Granny always bakes tasty cakes. 6) What is Nelly typing? — She is typing an important document for her boss. He often asks her to type documents. 7) Who is calling you now? — It is my mother. She always phones me in the afternoon when I come home from school. 8) What is Diana doing in the kitchen? — She is making tea for us. We always drink tea at this time.
6. 1) They are preparing for the competitions in the gym now. 2) My sister often phones her friends. 3) What are you doing? — I’m making a present for my brother’s birthday. 4) When does the bus arrive? — It arrives at five o’clock. 5) Whom are you making dinner for? — I’m making dinner for my son. He always comes home at this hour. 6) Who is she talking with? — She is talking with her aunt. 7) Is he writing? What is he writing? — He is writing an article for a scientific journal. 8) Why are you laughing? — I’m listening to an interview with a famous comic actor. He is telling a very funny story now. 9) Is Den still sleeping? — No, he isn’t. He always gets up very early. He is doing the washing-up after breakfast now.
7. 1) are preparing, understand; 2) is making, don’t like; 3) are hurrying, hope; 4) is phoning, forget; 5) are ... cooking, smells; 6) are trying, don’t want; 7) are going, need; 8) are ... taking, belongs; 9) is ... talking, don’t recognize.
8. Mother. Hello, honey! How are you?
Jane: Hi, Mum! We are fine. Where are you?
M: I am in the train. What are you doing. Jane?
J: Well, I’m writing an essay about my winter holidays. You know, our teacher often asks us to write essays.
M: And what is Paul doing? Does he want to speak to me?
J: Paul is listening to music in his room. The music is playing so loudly that I am afraid he doesn’t hear anything.
М: OK. And what is father doing?
J: He is trying to cook something in the kitchen. I think he wants to make a surprise for you.
M: It sounds impressive. I hope he remembers to meet me at the station tomorrow morning.
J: Sure, he does. What time does the train arrive?
M: It arrives at seven o’clock in the morning.
J: Good. Then see you tomorrow morning, Mum. Have a good trip!
M: Bye, dear!
9. Vicky’s father is going along the corridor to the bathroom. Suddenly he hears his daughter speaking to somebody in the bathroom in a kind voice. Little Vicky is holding a cat in her arms and is cleaning its teeth with his tooth-brush. «What does it mean. Vicky?» father is shouting. «Why are you cleaning the cat’s teeth? Cats don’t clean teeth!» «But, father, you always say that everybody cleans teeth. So we clean our teeth with this tooth-brush every, evening».
10. 1) This dish tastes good. 2) What are you doing? — I’m looking a word up in the dictionary. I don’t understand what this word means. 3) It seems to me this car is moving very slowly. 4) Sorry, I don’t hear what you are telling. 5) I hope Rita is cooking supper now. 6) I don’t know how to help you now. 7) How much does this hat cost? 8) Where is she phoning? — She is phoning her doctor. She needs his help. 9) Where do you want to go now? — We are going to the zoo. The children like to look at the animals. 10) Why isn’t your boy playing basketball now? — He hates this game. 11) Is she having dinner now? — Yes, she is. Her break finishes at two o’clock. 12) Where are your parents? — They are visiting the aunt. 13) These flowers smell wonderful. I like the smell of flowers.
11. 1) love; 2) is she tasting; 3) is weighing; 4) smell; 5) is; 6) are loving; 7) weighs; 8) looks; 9) tastes; 10) are you looking; 11) is coming; 12) is thinking; 13) is smelling; 14) think; 15) are being; 16) come.
12. 1) are thinking, think; 2) am tasting, tastes; 3) look, are looking; 4) love, am loving; 5) see, are seeing; 6) has, is having; 7) are ... feeling, feel; 8) smell, is smelling.
13. A man is coming up to the saleswoman in the supermarket. He is giving her a bag with five tomatoes to weigh. The saleswoman is putting the bag on the scales and pushing some buttons. Suddenly she is opening the bag, taking tomatoes one by one and weighing every tomato. «Doesn’t your scales work properly?» the man is asking. «Why aren’t you weighing the tomatoes together?» «Don’t make me laugh, young man», the saleswoman is replying. «All the tomatoes are of different size!»
14. — Hello, Lucy! You look so beautiful in a new dress!
— Hi, Kate! Sorry, I don’t have much time to talk.
— Where are you hurrying?
— You see, a friend of mine is coming to visit me. His plane arrives at half past six. I’m going to the airport now.
— Where doеs your friend come from?
— He is Italian and he doesn’t understand a word of Ukrainian.
— Really! You should hurry then.
— Yes. I think I’ll take a taxi. By the way, we are having a small party tomorrow. I want to introduce Roberto to my friends. Can you come tomorrow?
— Of course I can. This sounds great!
— Good! I hope we’ll have a lot of fun!
15. 1) You look very happy in this photo. 2) This perfume smells nice. 3) What is he smelling? 4) Why is he looking at this picture? 5) I see they are very tired. 6) This coffee tastes bitter. 7) Look how the child is tasting an ice cream! 8) Today he is meeting his future boss. 9) Where are your friends coming from? — They are coming from Poland. 10) My younger brother is being very quiet today. 11) She loves weekends. 12) The salesman is weighing apples. 13) I’m loving this day. 14) Your sister is a very polite girl. 15) These peaches weigh two kilos.
1. 1) is blowing; 2) changes; 3) tastes; 4) is coming; 5) is chasing; 6) look; 7) weighs; 8) knows; 9) costs; 10) is having; 11) is tasting; 12) belongs.
2. 1) What do you prefer for dessert: a cake or an ice cream? — I think I’ll have an ice cream. 2) We are going for a picnic tomorrow. 3) Molly is waiting for her brother at the railway station. He is coming from Bulgaria. 4) Little Alice is being so nice this week. 5) She supposes our work is very hard but interesting. 6) My parents are seeing the lawyer today. 7) Why is the child crying? — He wants one more ice cream and his mother refuses to buy it. 8) What is Frank doing tonight? — He is playing a game of tennis with his friend. 9) How often do Sam and Henry have driving lessons? — They have driving lessons four times a week. 10) Where is Jess? — She is seeing her doctor. She doesn’t feel well.
3. 1) Why aren’t you eating carrot salad now? — I hate carrot. 2) When is your brother coming back from the business trip? — Today. The plane arrives at nine o’clock in the evening. 3) It always gets dark early in winter. 4) Sorry, I don’t understand what you’re saying. I don’t want to take part in this project. 5) Something smells very tasty in the kitchen. What is mother cooking? — She is cooking a meat pie. 6) How much does my suitcase weigh? — Your suitcase weighs only two kilos. 7) Ann doesn’t know where we are going. I want to make a surprise for her. 8) What books does your friend prefer? — He likes to read science fiction stories. 9) Who does this car belong to? — It belongs to our neighbour. He always leaves it opposite his window. 10) Ted is being very polite these days. I think he wants to ask for help.
СПОСОБИ ВИРАЖЕННЯ МАЙБУТНЬОГО ЧАСУ (MEANS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE ACTIONS)
1. 1) Amanda will move to a new flat next month. 2) Daniel will attend language courses next year. 3) His cousin will buy the tickets for the plane in two days. 4) Our students will study philosophy next semester. 5) I will do the ironing after dinner. 6) We will have the History exam in three days. 7) Larry and Tom will go to the skating- rink in an hour. 8) You will write the invitations for the party tomorrow. 9) Mark will go to the swimming-pool next Tuesday. 10) They will leave for Berlin in a week.
2. 1) They won’t sail this yacht next summer. Will they sail this yacht next summer? 2) He won’t show you our city. Will he show you our city? 3) Nora won’t plant flowers tomorrow. Will Nora plant flowers tomorrow? 4) They won’t organize the meeting next Friday. Will they organize the meeting next Friday? 5) You won’t spend next month in the language camp. Will you spend next month in the language camp? 6) Monica and Sam won’t clean the flat tomorrow. Will Monica and Sam clean the flat tomorrow? 7) She won’t put on her warm sweater. Will she put on her warm sweater? 8) He won’t buy any fruit. Will he buy any fruit? 9) People won’t travel to other planets in future. Will people travel to other planets in future? 10) It won’t rain tomorrow. Will it rain tomorrow?
3. 1c; 2a; 3e; 4b; 5d.
4. Mr Green will attend the sport club next year. He won’t be late for work. He will spend more time with the family at weekends. He will buy a new TV set. He will get a driving licence. He won’t argue with his wife. He won’t eat too much. He will take the children to Disneyland.
5. 1) Yes, they will. 2) No, I won’t. 3) Yes, she will. 4) Yes, they will. 5) Yes, she will. 6) No, I won’t. 7) No, he won’t. 8) Yes, they will. 9) Yes, she will. 10) Yes, it will.
6. 1) What will the postman deliver in the morning? When will the postman deliver fresh newspapers? 2) Who will have a picnic in the park? Where will we have a picnic? 3) Whose brother will translate this article next week? What will her brother do next week? 4) Where will Alex return at seven o’clock? When (What time) will Alex return home? 5) Whose report will you read very attentively? How will you read my report? 6) Whom will my friend soon send an e-mail letter? What letter will my friend send me soon? 7) Who will give you some discs in two days? When will her cousin give you some discs? 8) What will Jane do? What will Jane learn? 9) Whose mother will feed the fish in the evening? What will my mother feed in the evening? 10) Who will drive to the country next Sunday? Where will they drive next Sunday?
7. 1) When will they return from their trip? 2) Our boss will sign the documents tomorrow morning. 3) I will not go to bed early tonight. 4) They will publish your article in the local newspaper. 5) How will they solve this problem? 6) What will you give her for her birthday? 7) They will not meet me after classes. 8) The secretary will receive the documents in the morning. 9) Where will you put the key from your flat? 10) Next train will arrive in twenty minutes.
8. So she comes into the shop and asks the shop assistant, «Will you show me this bracelet?» «Here you are, madam», answers the shop assistant and gives her the bracelet. «Will you hold the bracelet for me if I pay you a small deposit?» asks the woman. «I will hold this bracelet if you pay £50», answers the shop assistant. «But when will you come to pay the rest of money and collect it?» «My husband will come and pay for the bracelet as soon as he does something unforgivable. Perhaps he will come this weekend», answers the woman.
9. — We will go to the mountains next week. Will you join us, Larry?
— Of course I will. Where shall we stay?
— We will stay in a hotel. I will phone and book the rooms tomorrow.
— Good. Shall I help you with the preparations?
— Yes, please. Will you buy the tickets for the train?
— OK. What train shall I buy the tickets for?
— I think it’s better to take the night train. Then we will arrive early in the morning.
— How many tickets shall I buy?
— For you, my friend Sally and me.
— Will Ron go with us?
— No, he won’t. He will be very busy next week.
— What a pity! Shall we go skiing?
— Of course we will. The weather forecast promises it will be cold and snowy.
— Fine. I will take some warm sweaters then. Shall I take my camera, Molly?
— Good idea. My camera doesn’t work.
— OK. Then I will start packing things. See you tomorrow, Molly.
10. 1) I’ll help you to organize the exhibition. 2) We’ll have dinner in half an hour. 3) She won’t come to school tomorrow. She’ll prepare for the competition. 4) My friends won’t take part in the concert. 5) Will you have tea with us? — Yes, I will. 6) Where will they go next summer? — They will go to Italy. 7) Shall I show you the way to the hotel? — Yes, please. 8) When will your husband finish the work? — I think he will come home in an hour. 9) Shall we visit your cousin at the weekend? — Good idea. 10) What will your Granny cook for dinner? — She will cook soup and a fish pie. 11) Shall we wash the dishes? — No, thank you. 12) Will you take a taxi? — No, we’ll go by bus. 13) Where will the boys play football? — They will play football near our house. 14) Shall I order pizza? — No, we’ll make pizza ourselves. 15) Will he phone you in the evening? — Yes, he will.
11. 1) will; 2) won’t; 3) is going to; 4) is going to; 5) will; 6) is going to; 7) are going to; 8) will; 9) will; 10) will.
12. On Tuesday Oscar is going to play tennis. He will probably send an e-mail letter to his cousin Pete. Perhaps Oscar will vacuum the carpet in the living-room on Wednesday. He is going to watch a football match on TV. On Thursday Oscar is going to repair the bike. Perhaps Oscar will return the books to the library on Friday.
He is also going to play a game of chess with father. On Saturday Oscar will probably do homework. He is also going to help his father to paint the car. Perhaps Oscar will clean the room on Sunday. He is also going to watch a new film in the cinema.
13. It will be Sunday tomorrow and my friends and me are going to take part in the Art Festival which takes place in our school every year. Nick has made a model of the plane and he is going to exhibit it on the handicraft exhibition. I believe his model will have a success. Monica is going to sing her new song. She has composed some really good ones, but she hasn’t decided yet which song she will sing. Mike and John are going to do conjuring tricks. They have learnt some very interesting tricks for this festival. Ben and Diana haven’t told what they are going to perform, but I think they will dance their favourite waltz. As for me, I’m going to take the photos of my friends. I hope we will make a wonderful wall newspaper to tell everyone about our Art Festival.
14. — Will you help me to cook supper, Liz? Uncle David and Aunt Elsa are going to visit us tonight.
— And what are you going to cook. Mum?
— I’m going to cook a rabbit. You know, Uncle David likes rabbits.
— Me too. What shall I help you to do, Mum?
— I think you will cut an onion. And I’m going to prepare the rabbit.
— Will that be OK, Mum?
— Yes, good. And now will you give me a bigger saucepan? I’m afraid this saucepan will be too small for the rabbit.
— Here you are, Mum. Shall I do anything else?
— Will you wash these tomatoes and cucumbers? I think we will make a vegetable salad.
— The vegetables are ready. Shall I slice them?
— Yes, please. Be careful! You are going to cut your finger!
— The rabbit smells delicious. I’m sure Uncle David will enjoy it.
— You are right. But I will probably add some more salt. That’s nice.
— Oh, we are going to have a wonderful dinner today!
15. His mother sees it and says to her son, «No, Johnny, you can’t have the hammer to play with. I’m afraid you will hit your fingers». «No, I won’t. Mummy», Johnny replies. «Sue is going to hold the nails».
16. 1) You’ll be seventeen next year. 2) She is going to enter the university this year. 3) I think they won’t speak to you. 4) What are you going to do tomorrow? — Perhaps, I’ll visit the niece. 5) Watch out! You’re going to fall down! 6) It will be Saturday tomorrow.
7) My friend is going to paint his bike. 8) I’m afraid we won’t watch this TV programme. 9) What are they going to do in this case? — I think they won’t do the work in time. 10) Are you sure your sister will buy the tickets? — Yes, I am.
17. 1) has; 2) is leaving; 3) will; 4) are having; 5) arrives; 6) is giving; 7) will visit; 8) is coming; 9) will; 10) opens.
18. 1) will be; 2) are meeting; 3) are going; 4) will ... help; 5) won’t find; 6) are going; 7) are taking part, Will ... join; 8) are coming; 9) are having; 10) will read.
19. — Tony, Den and I are going to the cinema tonight. Will you join us?
— What time does the film start. Bill?
— It starts at five o’clock.
— I’m afraid I can’t. I want to see a football match on TV. It starts at half past five.
— When does this match finish. Tony?
— It finishes at seven o’clock.
— No problem. We can go to the cinema later. The next show starts at half past seven. I’m sure we will have enough time to get to the cinema. I think Den will buy the tickets beforehand.
— That’s wonderful. I will go with you then.
20. 1) She is interviewing a famous actor tomorrow. 2) He is going to Great Britain in a week. 3) When does the performance start? — The performance starts at seven o’clock tomorrow. 4) She thinks we’ll phone her. 5) What are you doing tonight? — I’m meeting my friends in a cafe. 6) She’ll be fifteen in a week. 7) My sister will probably join us for the party. 8) My friends are going to the country house on Saturday. 9) I’m afraid he won’t find our street without a map. 10) It’s very cold. I’ll close the window.
1. 1) You will buy the food for the picnic. 2) Amanda won’t tell anyone about it. 3) Will Garry wait for us after the training? 4) Shall we go to the exhibition tomorrow? 5) The children won’t plant the trees tomorrow. 6) Vicky will bring you this dictionary next Sunday.
7) Will you reserve the room in the hotel? 8) They won’t go there by car. 9) Will Martin walk the dog in the evening? 10) Shall I show you the railway station on the map?
2. 1) My mother won’t bake the cake tomorrow. Will my mother bake the cake tomorrow? 2) She won’t leave the key under the rug. Will she leave the key under the rug? 3) You won’t show me your new watch. Will you show me your new watch? 4) Paul won’t bring me my umbrella. Will Paul bring me my umbrella? 5) The guide won’t tell us about this tower. Will the guide tell us about this tower? 6) The workers won’t have the day off tomorrow. Will the workers have the day off tomorrow? 7) The pupils won’t have lunch after the third lesson. Will the pupils have lunch after the third lesson? 8) Nick won’t give us the invitation in a day. Will Nick give us the invitation in a day? 9) The weather won’t change tomorrow. Will the weather change tomorrow? 10) They won’t buy a present for her. Will they buy a present for her?
3. 1) Who will go to the museum tomorrow? Where shall we go tomorrow? 2) What performance will you see? What will you see? 3) Whom will she give some costumes for the party? What will she give you some costumes for? 4) Who will spend their holidays at the seaside? Where will they spend their holidays? 5) What will he do next Wednesday? When will he write an essay?
4. 1) shall; 2) will; 3) is going to; 4) will; 5) shall 6) will; 7) Will; 8) are going to; 9) will; 10) is going to; 11) will; 12) will.
5. 1) is going; 2) will probably look; 3) is ... coming, is coming, arrives; 4) will pass; 5) will be; 6) are leaving; 7) will give; 8) will be; 9) are celebrating; 10) departs.
6. 1) Tomorrow they are taking the children to the Zoo. 2) Shall I pass you the sugar? — Yes, please. 3) The boys have a ball and they are going to play basketball. 4) What are you planning to do tomorrow? — My friend and I are going to watch a new comedy on TV. 5) I think they won’t return you the book in time. 6) I’m cold.— I’ll make you hot tea. 7) When does the train arrive? — It arrives at twelve o’clock in the afternoon. 8) Next week we are visiting your cousin. 9) Perhaps she will move to another town. 10) Where are you going? — We are going to the theatre.
МИНУЛИЙ НЕОЗНАЧЕНИЙ ЧАС (THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE)
1. -ed: listened, stayed, walked, cleaned, answered, played, talked, waited.
-d: hated, lived, saved, baked, liked, closed.
-ied: fried, carried, hurried, emptied, replied, tidied.
Double consonant + -ed: permitted, travelled, robbed, slipped, preferred, regretted, planned.
2. Begin — began, break — broke, buy — bought, build — built, catch — caught, come — came, do — did, drink — drank, eat — ate, find — found, get — got, have — had, know — knew, make — made, pay — paid, run — ran, see — saw, swim — swam, speak — spoke, take — took, tell — told, think — thought, understand — understood, wake — woke, wear — wore, write — wrote.
3. To bring — brought, to sleep — slept, to keep — kept, to read — read, to grow — grew, to show — showed, to say — said, to fly — flew, to put — put, to shake — shook, to leave — left, to give — gave, to cost — cost, to blow — blew, to meet — met, to lose — lost, to forget — forgot, to feel — felt.
I overslept and missed my train,
Slipped on the sidewalk in the pouring rain,
Sprained my ankle, skinned my knee,
Broke my glasses, lost my keys,
Got stuck in the elevator, it wouldn’t go,
Kicked it twice and stubbed my toe,
Bought a pen that did not write,
Took it back and had a fight,
Went home angry, locked the door,
Crawled into bed, couldn’t take any more.
5. It was Sunday yesterday. The weather was horrible and my parents and me were at home. But I really was happy to stay at home. My mother was busy cooking a delicious dinner and my father and me were fond of playing chess. First I was not lucky, but then my father was surprised with my success. When our tournament was over, I was proud of my victory. After dinner there was an exciting show on TV. It was very funny. In the evening I was tired a bit. But I was glad to spend the day with my parents.
6. It was Monday. I got up at seven o’clock, brushed my teeth, had a shower and went to the kitchen to have breakfast. My mother cooked breakfast for all the family and my elder sister washed the dishes after breakfast as she started her work later. I left home at eight o’clock. My lessons began at half past eight and I had enough time to meet my friends. We went to school together and exchanged the opinions about the weekend. After school I hurried home and had dinner. After a short rest I did my homework and tidied my room. Then I played computer games. When my parents came home we had supper and watched TV.
7. An angry woman ran into the baker’s shop and said. «I sent my son for two pounds of cookies this morning but when I weighed them there was only one pound. I suggest you to check your scales». The baker looked at the woman calmly and then replied. «Madam, I suggest you to weigh your son».
8. 1) Sue didn’t dance a lot at the party yesterday. 2) We didn’t finish our project three days ago. 3) It wasn’t very cold yesterday. 4) They didn’t fly to Athens last week. 5) Our teacher didn’t tell us about extinct animals at the last lesson. 6) The children weren’t at the zoo last Sunday. 7) I didn’t meet him many years ago. 8) Ted didn’t wash his car last week. 9) The train didn’t arrive five minutes ago. 10) You didn’t speak to him yesterday. 11) Amanda and Polly didn’t travel around Great Britain last summer. 12) We weren’t very tired yesterday. 13) Henry didn’t buy this motor-bike a year ago. 14) She didn’t finish working late in the evening. 15) Our lesson didn’t begin fifteen minutes ago.
9. 1) didn’t break; 2) tried, didn’t move; 3) missed, didn’t know; 4) was, didn’t hear; 5) asked, didn’t answer; 6) wasn’t, decided; 7) didn’t feed; was; 8) didn’t read, got; 9) waited, didn’t come; 10) didn’t think, were.
10. Two boys were arguing when a man came UP to them. The man asked. «Why are you arguing?» One boy answered. «We found a ten dollar bill and decided to give it to whoever tells the biggest lie». «You should be ashamed of yourselves», said the man. «When I was your age I didn’t even know what a lie was». The boys gave the ten dollars to the man.
11. 1) Did Andy show me his new car yesterday? 2) Did Helen forget about the meeting? 3) Did we order the dessert some minutes ago? 4) Did they watch a new thriller at the cinema? 5) Did the weather change in the morning? 6) Did the girl sweep the floor in the kitchen? 7) Did I find your note near my front door? 8) Was it very cold in the evening? 9) Did little Bob drink milk in the morning? 10) Did Fiona translate this text two days ago? 11) Were they at the exhibition last Friday? 12) Did we see a strange object in the sky? 13) Was the baby frightened by a big dog? 14) Did you write a wonderful essay? 15) Did Borys put the money into his pocket?
12. 1) Yes, he did. 2) No, they didn’t. 3) Yes, he was. 4) Yes, I did. 5) No, they weren’t. 6) Yes, it did. 7) Yes, I did. 8) Yes, she was. 9) No, he didn’t. 10) No, I wasn’t.
13. 1) She didn’t choose the dress for the party. 2) Did Alice go shopping yesterday? 3) We spoke to our coach yesterday. 4) Ben didn’t agree to help me. 5) Did they listen to music in their room in the evening? 6) Molly had lunch half an hour ago. 7) You were in a hurry yesterday. 8) Did Fred pay the bill? 9) They didn’t bring me the disc. 10) Were you in the hospital yesterday? 11) Did Larry take my wallet? 12) They didn’t see me yesterday. 13) The bus departed ten minutes ago. 14) Was it cold yesterday? 15) Wendy didn’t take a shower in the evening.
14. 1) Did you see my hat? — Yes, I did. It was on the hat-stand yesterday. 2) Did Teddy buy butter yesterday? — No, he didn’t. He left his wallet at home. 3) Did Dolly water the flowers yesterday? — No, she didn’t. She watered them two days ago. 4) Did it snowyesterday? — No, it didn’t. The weather was sunny but cold. 5) Were you late for the train? — No, I wasn’t. I caught a taxi and was just in time. 6) Did David and Lora have a good time at the seaside? — Yes, they did. They staved in a comfortable hotel and met a lot of new friends. 7) Did Samantha read this article? — No, she didn’t. I gave her this magazine only some minutes ago. 8) Were you happy to win the cup? — Yes, I was. I trained a lot to win this competition. 9) Did your watch cost a lot? — No, it didn’t. I bought it on a sale. 10) Did Kate wake up late ? — No, she didn’t. She woke UP at seven o’clock.
15. 1) The weather was wonderful yesterday. 2) We didn’t get your message yesterday. 3) Did you see this play? — Yes, I saw it last month. 4) She cleaned the flat and cooked supper. 5) Did your brother like the party? — Yes, he did. He met a lot of interesting people there. 6) The teacher was pleased with my answers. 7) She stopped and looked at the watch. It was half past seven. 8) The old woman was happy to see her grandchildren. 9) I wasn’t at home yesterday. I visited my Cousin. 10) Did your sister stay at home yesterday? — Yes, she did. She had a headache and decided to have a rest. 11) Sorry, I didn’t understand your question. 12) They played volleyball on the playground after the lessons. 13) Did you write a dictation yesterday? — No, we didn’t. 14) I didn’t phone you because I didn’t know your phone number. 15) Did he bring you a dictionary? — Yes, he brought one two days ago.
16. 1) Where was Alan last month? When was Alan at the seaside? 2) What did Mike sell a week ago? When did Mike sell his car? 3) Who gave him this disc last week? Whom did I give this disc last week? 4) How did they walk along the street? 5) Who was at the exhibition yesterday? Where were the children yesterday? 6) Whose cousin made a model ship two days ago? When did his cousin make a model ship? 7) Who was late because of the rain? Why were they late? 8) What did she buy at the market yesterday? How much meat did she buy at the market yesterday? 9) Who wanted to send you a postcard? Whom did Max and Bob want to send a postcard? 10) When did we pass three exams? How many exams did we pass last year?
17. 1) Who played tennis in a new court last Sunday? What did they play in a new court last Sunday? Where did they play tennis last Sunday? 2) What did she do yesterday? How many articles did she translate yesterday? When did she translate two articles? 3) Who was in the swimming-pool three days ago? Where was he three days ago? How many days ago was he in the swimming-pool? 4) What did we do yesterday? Whom did we send the e-mail letter yesterday? When did we send you the e-mail letter? What kind of letter did we send you yesterday? 5) Who was in the gym half an hour ago? Where were the pupils half an hour ago? When were the pupils in the gym?
18. A man bought a parrot which could already talk. However, the man soon discovered that the parrot mostly knew bad words. At first he thought it was funny, but then it became tiresome, and finally, when the man had important guests, the bird’s bad words embarrassed him very much. As soon as the guests left, the man shouted at the parrot angrily, «That language must stop!» But the bird continued telling bad words. Now the man was really angry. He grabbed the parrot and put it into the refrigerator. But it had no effect. From inside the refrigerator, the parrot still said nasty words. Then the man opened the door of the freezer, threw the bird into it, and closed the door. This time there was silence. After two minutes, the man opened the door and removed the very cold parrot. Slowly the shivering parrot walked up the man’s arm, sat on his shoulder and spoke into his ear, sounding very frightened, «I’ll be good, I promise... Those chickens in there... what did they say?»
19. 1) What parrot did the man buy? — He bought a parrot which could talk. 2) When did the bird’s words embarrass the man? — The bird’s bad words embarrassed the man when he had important guests. 3) Why did the man become angry? — The man became angry beacause the parrot continued to tell bad words. 4) Where did the man throw the parrot? — The man threw the parrot into the freezer. 5) Why was the parrot frightened? — The parrot was frightened because it saw the chickens in the freezer.
20. 1) Where was Susan yesterday? — She went to a birthday party.— Who had the party? — Angela had. She was fifteen yesterday. 2) Who phoned a few minutes ago? — It was your friend Eric. He wanted to invite you to the cinema. 3) Did you watch this film? — Yes, I did. I watched it some days ago.— How did you like it? — Well, not very much. It seemed to be rather boring. 4) How many subjects did she study last year? — She studied twelve subjects. She also attended the Music Studio. 5) Where were you during your last holidays? — My parents and me went to China. We visited some very interesting places. — Did you enjoy your trip? — Of course, we did. 6) Did your sister go shopping yesterday? What did she buy? — Well, she went to a new shopping centre and bought a pair of nice shoes and a pretty hat there. 7) Why was Dick late for the lecture? — He overslept and missed the bus. 8) When did the concert begin? — It began twenty minutes ago. 9) Who was at the meeting yesterday? — Well, there were a lot of people, but I didn’tmeet anyone I know. 10) Did Bill repair his mobile phone? — No, he didn’t. His parents promised him to buy a new one.
21. 1) What did she do yesterday? — She cleaned the room and planted flowers in the garden. 2) Where were you last Tuesday? — We took the children to the theatre. 3) When did you come home yesterday? — We came home at eight o’clock in the evening. We got very tired and didn’t phone you. 4) How did they spend the weekend? — They visited their relatives. 5) Did she return books to the library? — Yes, she went to the library three days ago. 6) Did the children go for a walk yesterday? — No, they didn’t. It rained yesterday and the children watched cartoons on TV. 7) Where did he put my camera? — It was on your desk yesterday. 8) What film did you watch yesterday? — It was a very exciting adventure film. We liked it very much. 9) What did she want to tell me about? — She wanted to tell you about her travel to France. 10) How many invitations did you send? — Yesterday we sent seven invitations.
22. 1) reads; 2) read; 3) met; 4) meet; 5) rains; 6) rained; 7) have; 8) had; 9) misses; 10) missed, was; 11) drink, drank; 12) go; 13) was, didn’t go; 14) doesn’t often get; 15) got.
23. 1) What does Diana usually do in the evenings? — She usually goes for a walk with her friend. 2) What did Ben do yesterday? — He helped his father in the garage and then he plaуed football with other boys. 3) Did Robert call his dentist last Tuesday? — No, he didn’t. 4) Where do you usually spend your winter holidays? — We often go to the mountains, but last winter we went to Italy. 5) Where did she spend her last weekend? — She visited her grandparents in the village. 6) Does your Granny cook jam every summer? — Yes, she does. 7) Who gave you this note yesterday? — My neighbour. 8) When did his training finish yesterday? — It finished at half past seven. 9) When does this TV show usually finish? — It always finishes at seven o’clock. 10) Who phones you every evening? — My friends.
24. — Where were you last Friday, Helen? I wanted to invite you to a disco club, but your mother told me you had some business.
— Quite right, Vicky. You know I am fond of gardening and there was a flower exhibition last Friday. So I went there to buy some seeds and flowers.
— Did you buy anything, Helen?
— Yes, I did. I bought the seeds of some rare roses and tulips.
— How often do such exhibitions take place in our town?
— Not often. They usually take place twice a year. I always visit them. It is always a good chance for me to know more about plants. And did you have a good time at the disco-club last Friday, Vicky?
— Yes, I did. I met Jane and Tony there and we danced a lot.
— Did you come home late then?
— Oh, yes! My parents were angry with me. But I promised not to come home so late any more. So now everything is all right.
25. 1) Every year they spend two weeks in the country. 2) Last year they didn’t go to the mountains. 3) Sometimes she buys this magazine. 4) Last week she forgot to return me the disc. 5) How often does your friend visit you? — We meet very often. 6) Why didn’t you phone me yesterday? — Sorry, I was busy. 7) Where does she usually buy vegetables? — She always buys vegetables in the market. 8) Where did you buy this shirt? — I bought it on the sale yesterday. 9) Whom did she give my book yesterday? — She gave your book to her cousin. 10) Who waits for you every evening? — My friend does.
1. Regular verbs: to stay — stayed, to love — loved, to try — tried, to persuade — persuaded, to listen — listened, to improve — improved, to travel — travelled, to thank — thanked, to study — studied, to wash — washed, to stop — stopped, to miss — missed, to rob — robbed, to remember — remembered, to slip — slipped.
Irregular verbs: to come — came, to bring — brought, to get — got, to think — thought, to go — went, to buy — bought, to know — knew, to sing — sang, to forget — forgot, to lose — lost, to write — wrote, to drive — drove, to be — was/were.
2. 1) She didn’t look at the picture with great attention. Did she look at the picture with great attention? 2) They weren’t in the village yesterday. Were they in the village yesterday? 3) The performance didn’t begin ten minutes ago. Did the performance begin ten minutes ago? 4) Andy didn’t work a lot last year. Did Andy work a lot last year? 5) It wasn’t cool in the evening. Was it cool in the evening? 6) Martha didn’t know his address. Did Martha know his address? 7) We didn’t hear this story yesterday. Did we hear this story? 8) You weren’t upset last night. Were you upset last night? 9) They didn’t study Economy last term. Did they study Economy last term? 10) He didn’t teach me to swim. Did he teach me to swim?
3. 1) Who took their child to the circus yesterday? Whom did they take to the circus yesterday? Where did they take their child yesterday? When did they take their child to the circus? 2) Who was in the office yesterday morning? Where was she yesterday morning? When was she in the office? 3) Whose sister helped me to tidy our flat last Saturday? Whom did my sister help to tidy оur flat last Saturday? What did my sister help me to do last Saturday? When did my sister help me to tidy our flat? 4) Who was in the forest two days ago? Where were his cousins two days ago? How many days ago ware his cousins in the forest? 5) What did John do last Monday? Whom did John send an invitation last Monday? What did John send yоu last Monday? When did John send you an invitation?
4. 1) The Ronalds bought a new microwave a week ago. 2) Daniel didn’t thank me for my help. 3) The boys didn’t break this window yesterday. 4) Who gave you this present? 5) How long did it take you to get to our town yesterday? — It took me two hours. 6) What did mother prepare for breakfast? — She made you some sandwiches and a cup of tea. 7) Who translated this article last week? — I did. 8) Did Pamela iron my trousers yesterday? — No, she didn’t. 9) When did they come from their vacations? — They returnedhome a week ago. 10) Did your Granny tell you about my visit? — Yes, she did.
5. 1) My Grandpa grows strawberry every summer. 2) I knew about your visit some days ago. 3) The sun didn’t shine yesterday. 4) My father doesn’t always drive to his work. 5) Who usually helps you about the house? 6) Who helped you to bake the cake we ateyesterday? 7) The water in this lake is usually warm in summer. 8) It wasn’t cloudy yesterday. 9) When did the tourists arrive yesterday? — They arrived late in the evening. They were very tired. 10) What time does your sister usually get UP in the morning? — She always gets UP at half past six.
6. 1) Last year he took part in the sport competitions for the first time. 2) We sometimes have dinner with our friends. 3) She didn’t translate this article yesterday. 4) Who showed you this photo? 5) He usually doesn’t give his camera to his friends. 6) Where did they go last summer? — They went to the mountains. 7) What library does she usually take books from? — She always takes books from the school library. 8) What song did your friend sing in the concert last week? — It was some new song. 9) Who cleans your room? — Usually I clean my room myself, but last week my mother cleaned it. 10) Did you watch the sport news yesterday? — No, I was in the swimming-pool.
ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ ДОКОНАНИЙ ЧАС (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE)
1. Become, broken, bought, chosen, gone, drunk, driven, found, got, grown, had, kept, left, made, seen, read, slept, swum, sent, taken, thought, woken, written.
2. Given, understood, blown, fallen, run, known, done, taught, paid, said, shown, spoken.
3. 1) have; 2) begun; 3) has; 4) broken; 5) have; 6) we; 7) have; 8) had; 9) I; 10) gone; 11) drawn; 12) he; 13) have; 14) She; 15) chosen; 16) has.
4. 1) You have washed the dishes. 2) They have bought a new computer. 3) She has washed her skirt. 4) I have painted the fence. 5) The dog has paten a piece of meat. 6) Sheila and Elsa have made a cake. 7) My father has read this newspaper. 8) Henry has ordered a cup of coffee. 9) The children have bought ice cream. 10) The rain has stopped. 11) Mrs Franks has lost her key. 12) Sarah has gone to the supermarket. 13) We have passed the exam successfully. 14) Joe has left this book at home. 15) Nick and Alex have seen this film.
5. 1) We have just returned from the journey. 2) I have seen my boss today. 3) Helen has already decorated her room. 4) My cousins have never been to this cinema. 5) Max has bought a magazine today. 6) You have spent a lot of money this month. 7) Ian and Peter have already repaired the radio. 8) I have never driven a car. 9) We have got some letters this week. 10) The dog has just run away.
6. 1) Since yesterday; 2) for two weeks; 3) since last month; 4) since 1998; 5) for five days; 6) since last Friday; 7) for a week; 8) for four hours; 9) since 5 o’clock; 10) for a year.
7. 1) for; 2) since; 3) for; 4) since; 5) for; 6) for; 7) since; 8) since; 9) for.
8. 1) She hasn’t found a wallet on the road. 2) We haven’t tidied our cottage house. 3) The weather hasn’t changed. 4) Liz hasn’t left you a note. 5) They haven’t moved to another hotel. 6) I haven’t caught a big fish. 7) Pupils haven’t learned this poem. 8) Mike hasn’t booked the tickets for us. 9) The plane hasn’t landed. 10) The doctor hasn’t prescribed some medicine.
9. 1) A son comes up to his father and asks, «Is it good to punish anybody for something this person hasn’t done?» «Well, I haven’t dоnе my homework, Dad». 2) Old doctor: You have cured your patient. What is there to worry about now?
Young doctor: I don’t know which of the medicines has cured him.
10. 1) have played; 2) has already set; 3) haven’t returned; 4) has already risen; 5) hasn’t told; 6) haven’t got; 7) has just bought; 8) haven’t discussed; 9) has never been; 10) has just received; 11) hasn’t finished; 12) have never done; 13) have just gone; 14) have never heard; 15) haven’t met.
11. David has already booked the ticket. David hasn’t packed the suitcase yet. David hasn’t bought sunglasses yet. David has already repaired the camera. David has already reserved the room in the hotel. David has already asked Mrs Lane to feed the cat. David hasn’t sent the message to Peter yet.
12. 1) Have we been to the theatre? 2) I have painted the walls in my bedroom. 3) Has Richard turned on the radio? 4) Have they Explained this rule to me? 5) Have Amy and Ron gone to play tennis? 6) Has Molly made a cup of tea? 7) Have his parents gone to the market? 8) Has Nelly typed three letters? 9) Has the parrot flown away? 10) Have the students prepared for the exams?
13. 1) Yes, she has. 2) No, I haven’t. 3) Yes, he has. 4) Yes,(they have. 5) No, it hasn’t. 6) No, I haven’t. 7) Yes, they have. 8) No, he hasn’t. 9) Yes, it has. 10) No, they haven’t.
14. Has Nancy ever won a competition? — Yes, she has. Has Nancy ever driven a car? — Yes, she has.
Have Ron and Bill ever jumped with a parachute? — Yes, they have. Have Ron and Bill ever visited New York? — Yes, they have. Have Ron and Bill ever won a competition? — No, they haven’t. Have Ron and Bill ever driven a car? — Yes, they have.
Have you ever jumped with a parachute? — Yes, I have/No, I haven’t. Have you ever visited New York? — Yes, I have./No, I haven’t. Have you ever won a competition? — Yes, I have./No, I haven’t. Have you ever driven a car? — Yes, I have./No, I haven’t.
15. 1) Have the Whites moved into their new flat? — No, they haven’t. But they have already bought new furniture. 2) Has Adam paid the electricity bill yet? — No, he hasn’t. He hasn’t got his salary yet. 3) Have you been to the supermarket today? — No, I haven’t. My mother hasn’t told me what to buy so far. 4) Has Kevin found his driving licence? — No, he hasn’t. But he has found the key he lost a month ago. 5) Has Sue spoken to her parents about starting her own business? — Yes, she has. 6) Have you cooked dinner? — Yes, I have. And I have already set the table. 7) Has your brother watched this film? — No, he hasn’t, but his friends have just invited him to the cinema to watch it. 8) Has Julia ever skied? — No, she has never skied. 9) Have Jeff and Olga ever been to Prague? — Well, they have just gone there. 10) Have you met our teacher today? — Yes, I have.
16. 1) Who has been to Rome? Where have they been? 2) What has she done? What house has she sold? 3) Whom has he phoned three times? How many times has he phoned your sister? 4) Whose parents have gone to the seaside? Where have her parents gone? 5) What doll has Dolly bought for her younger sister? For whom has Dolly bought a nice doll? 6) Who has taken my dictionary? Whose dictionary have you taken? 7) What have we done? Where have we watered the flowers? 8) What has Alex learned? How many poems has Alex learned? 9) Whom has Linda met in the park? Where has Linda met her aunt? 10) Who has discovered a new planet? What have the scientists done?
17. 1) Who has built a big garage? What has my father done? What has my father built? 2) Who has swept the floor in -the hall? What has Elsa swept in the hall? Where has Elsa swept the floor? 3) Whose boss has made five calls since morning? How many calls has our boss made since morning? 4) Who has told her about the concert? Whom have we told about the concert? What have we told her about? 5) Whose brother has fallen from a big tree? What tree has my brother fallen from? Where has my brother fallen from?
18. 1) My mother has given me money to buy a bottle of milk. 2) The car hasn’t stopped at the traffic lights. 3) Have you seen this film yet? 4) Where have they gone? 5) They haven’t left the house yet. 6) What music has she chosen for the party? 7) Have your parents returned from the tour yet? 8) Mr Gate has crashed his new car. 9) How many books has he bought? 10) Has Tony met his lawyer today?
19. 1) The headmaster comes up to Johnny and says, «I have heard complaints about you, Johnny, from all your teachers. What have you done? «Nothing, sir», answers Johnny. «Exactly», says the headmaster in a sad voice. 2) Father returns home from his work and asks his children: «What have you done today to help your mother?» «I have dried the dishes», says his son. «And I have picked up the pieces», adds his daughter.
20. 1) Why is your hair wet? — I have just washed it. 2) How long has your sister lived in this flat? — She has lived here for three years. 3) Have Janet and Richard invited you to their wedding party? — Yes, they have. But I haven’t chosen a present for them yet. 4) What has Sally cooked for supper today? — She has made your favourite chicken salad. 5) Where have they gone? — They have gone to the Art exhibition. They haven’t been there yet. 6) Has Harry graduated from university? — No, he hasn’t. 7) Can I buy a ticket for the train? — Sorry, your train has just departed. 8) The manager has just gone to the bank. 9) What has happened? — Den has broken your favourite cup. 10) What a smell! I hope you haven’t burnt the meat.
21. 1) Mother has just come home. 2) I haven’t read your article yet. 3) What have they done? — They have just washed the dishes. 4) He has known my parents for ten years already. 5) They have lived in our town since 2001. 6) Where have you been? — I have just returned from the market. 7) Who has phoned you? — It’s my friend. We haven’t seen each other for five years. 8) Whom has she left the note to? — She has left the note to her parents. 9) Have you ever been to this museum? — No, I have never been there. 10) Have you seen your cousin today? — Not yet.
22. 1) has translated; 2) translated; 3) have just planned; 4) planned; 5) have taken; 6) took; 7) learned; 8) saw; 9) arrived; 10) bought.
23. 1) My little brother has made a model plane. He made it two days ago. 2) His cousins have visited him. They visited him last Saturday. 3) It has stopped snowing. It stopped snowing an hour ago. 4) Tony has written an essay. He wrote it last Thursday. 5) Andy and Martin have passed their driving test. They passed it a week ago. 6) Her grandparents have bought her a new computer. They bought it in October. 7) Eric has broken his arm. He broke it last Wednesday. 8) My father has taught me to swim. He taught me to swim last summer. 9) You have been in the Alps. You were there during last winter holidays.
24. 1) Mr and Mrs Grey have gone to Spain. They flew there a week ago. 2) I haven’t skated since I was a schoolgirl. 3) The children have just finished decorating the New Year Tree. Our father brought it yesterday. 4) Have you typed the letter? — Yes, I have. I typedit fifteen minutes ago and asked Sarah to send it. 5) Where have your parents been? — They have just returned from the cinema. They came home twenty minutes ago. 6) Why did Paul look so happy yesterday? — He won a big sum of money in the lottery. He has already bought a new mobile phone. 7) Has Sammy had dinner yet? — No, he hasn’t. He returned from school a few minutes ago. 8) Did Vicky vacuum the carpet in your room yesterday? — No, she didn’t. 9) When did the lesson begin? — It began at nine o’clock. 10) They have had a car accident. Their car crashed into a tree by the road last Monday.
25. Dear Angela,
I have just found a few minutes to write to you about my rest in the summer camp. I have been here for five days already. Our group arrived at the camp last Friday and we have had busy days since then.
I have met a lot of new friends here. On Sunday we went boating on the lake. It was fun! I haven’t gone boating for two years and my friend never did it before. So our boat turned upside down and we got completely wet. It’s luck we can swim! But our small adventure didn’t make us upset. I have already learned some new songs. A boy from our group taught me to sing them a few days ago. And yesterday we went on an excursion to an ancient castle. It was a very exciting trip! I have already prepared a souvenir for you. But sorry, I have not much time. We are going to have a football match.
See you soon,
26. 1) How long have you known Anna? — I have known her for eight years already. 2) When did she tell you this story? — She told it to me last month. 3) Has he done the homework yet? — No, he hasn’t. He had dinner five minutes ago. 4) Have you been to this cinema yet? — Yes, we were there last Sunday. 5) Has Bob returned from the shop yet? — Not yet. He went there ten minutes ago. 6) What has she lost? — She has lost her credit card. 7) When did your brother return home? — He hasn’t returned home yet. 8) My friend has sold his bike. He sold it some days ago. 9) Who has written this note? — Den. 10) Where have you put my photos? — I have just put them on your desk.
1. Broken, bought, come, chosen, done, drunk, eaten, fallen, flown, got, given, had, heard, known, left, seen, sent, swept, taken, told, won, written.
2. 1) A little girl hasn’t painted a funny picture. Has a little girl painted a funny picture? 2) We haven’t visited this town. Have we visited this town? 3) The kettle hasn’t boiled. Has the kettle boiled? 4) They haven’t understood the task. Have they understood the task? 5) Ben hasn’t broken his leg. Has Ben broken his leg? 6) My mother hasn’t got a postcard from her friend. Has my mother got a postcard from her friend? 7) We haven’t had breakfast. Have we had breakfast? 8) Alice hasn’t gone to Egypt. Has Alice gone to Egypt? 9) Tom hasn’t prepared his report. Has Tom prepared his report? 10) You haven’t cut the grass in the yard. Have you cut the grass in the yard?
3. 1) Who has just had lunch in a cafe? What have we just had in a cafe? Where have we just had lunch? 2) What has she done for us? What has she made for us? For whom has she just made some sandwiches? 3) Whose books has mother put into the bag? What has mother put into the bag? Where has mother put my books? 4) Who has had five lessons today? How many lessons have they had today? 5) Who has known you for seven years? Whom have I known for seven years? For how many years have I known you?
4. 1b; 2c; 3b; 4a; 5c; 6c; 7a; 8b; 9a; 10c.
5. 1) What has he just told? — He has told that the group of tourists left our town last night. 2) They have already left for Greece. They haven’t been there yet. 3) What book did you show me five minutes ago? 4) Where have they been this year? — They have already been to Poland. They went there three months ago. 5) Has Mr Folly paid the bill? — Yes, he has. He paid the bill an hour ago. 6) When did Polly come home? — She hasn’t returned home yet. 7) Have they ever taken a big sum of money from the bank? — No, they haven’t. 8) When did Clara water the flowers? — She hasn’t watered them yet. 9) Have the workers finished their work? — Yes, they painted the walls yesterday. 10) Have you ever taken Tommy to the zoo? — Yes, we have. We went there last Sunday.
6. 1) Has your friend returned from Italy? — Yes, he has. I met him in the airport two days ago. 2) Has she sent the letters yet? — No, she hasn’t typed them so far. 3) Haven’t I shown you my photos? — You showed them last week. 4) When did she go to Great Britain? — She hasn’t gone there yet. 5) Have you met Nelly today? — No, I haven’t seen her today. 6) When did he buy this disc? — He bought it three days ago. 7) Where have you been this year? — We have been to the seaside. We were there two months ago. 8) Whom has she just talked with? — She has just talked with her brother. He returned from Japan a week ago. 9) How long has she known you? — We have known each other for six years already. 10) What dress have you chosen? — I haven’t chosen the dress yet.
МИНУЛИЙ ТРИВАЛИЙ ЧАС (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
1. 1) I was going home at 4 o’clock yesterday. 2) We were playing basketball at 6 o’clock last Sunday. 3) She was talking with her friend for forty minutes yesterday. 4) You were washing the window in the afternoon yesterday. 5) Nick was riding his bike all the evening. 6) Sheila and Dora were waiting for a bus for half an hour. 7) They were preparing for the party all day yesterday. 8) I was learning the poem for an hour. 9) Dick was painting the walls in his room from 2 to 6 o’clock last Wednesday. 10) Eve and Tony were skating all day last Saturday.
2. 1) was having; 2) were playing; 3) was running; 4) was speaking; 5) were driving; 6) was ironing; 7) were sleeping; 8) was listening; 9) was dusting; 10) were playing.
3. When the chief came into the office at noon, Amy was speaking on the phone, and Hugh was having lunch. Sheila and Mary were drinking coffee. Jim was solving a crossword. Angela was speaking to Tommy and Brian was playing computer games. Lilian was reading a magazine.
4. 1) while; 2) when; 3) as; 4) while; 5) when; 6) while; 7) when; 8) when; 9) as; 10) while.
5. 1d; 2f; 3a; 4c; 5b; 6e.
6. 1) when; 2) when; 3) while; 4) when; 5) while; 6) when; 7) when; 8) While; 9) when; 10) when.
7. 1) The teacher wasn’t explaining the exercise to the pupils. 2) Amanda wasn’t travelling around Africa at that time. 3) We weren’t having a Music lesson at ten o’clock yesterday. 4) I wasn’t doing the shopping yesterday. 5) Martin wasn’t visiting his aunt at this time yesterday. 6) The girls weren’t preparing for the concert. 7) They weren’t flying to Wales at 6 o’clock yesterday. 8) It wasn’t raining hard all day last Tuesday. 9) Mike and Jess weren’t walking in the park last evening. 10) He wasn’t choosing the books in the library then.
8. 1) Angela wasn’t singing a song, she was dancing. 2) I was cooking potatoes, I wasn’t cooking fish. 3) The boys were watching a film, they weren’t watching the news. 4) My mother wasn’t washing the dishes, she was ironing the clothes. 5) He was building the house, he wasn’t building the garage. 6) They were gathering berries, they weren’t gathering mushrooms. 7) You weren’t listening to music, you were reading the book. 8) Ben was repairing his bike, he wasn’t repairing his car.
9. 1) weren’t listening, were reading; 2) was taking; 3) were having; 4) wasn’t planting; 5) was carrying; 6) weren’t decorating, were preparing; 7) was giving, weren’t listening; 8) wasn’t taking, was giving; 9) was arriving; 10) wasn’t waiting.
10. The cafe often stayed open until after midnight, because people came to eat and drink there while they were waiting for trains. That man wasn’t eating, and wasn’t drinking. He was sleeping. The wife looked at the man several times, but he still was sleeping.
11. 1) Were we having lunch in the canteen? 2) Was she singing a lovely song? 3) Were you speaking to your boss? 4) Was George sitting in the armchair by the fireplace? 5) Were Jane and Margaret going to the airport? 6) Was the baby crying? 7) Was it getting dark? 8) Were we waiting for my cousin? 9) Was the woman watching the children on the playground? 10) Were the tourists taking photos in front of the palace?
12. 1) A man was fishing on the bank of the river. 2) Were they making notes during the lecture? 3) She wasn’t smiling any more. 4) Polly and her cousin were having tea. 5) Were you digging in the garden? 6) Mike was hanging a picture in the living-room. 7) Sue wasn’t swimming in the swimming-pool. 8) Were they waiting for the doctor? 9) I wasn’t looking at the actors. 10) She was speaking in a friendly way.
13. Was Willy listening to the news at 8 o’clock? — Yes, he was. Was Willy looking through the mail at 11 o’clock? — No, he wasn’t. Were Liz and Pam washing the dishes at 2 o’clock? — Yes, they were. Were Liz and Pam vacuuming the carpet at 3 o’clock? — Yes, they were. Were Liz and Pam listening to the news at 8 o’clock? — No, they weren’t. Were Liz and Pam looking through the mail at 11 o’clock? — No, they weren’t. Was Margaret washing the dishes at
2 o’clock? — No, she wasn’t. Was Margaret vacuuming the carpet at
3 o’clock? — No, she wasn’t. Was Margaret listening to the news at
8 o’clock? — Yes, she was. Was Margaret looking through the mail at 11 o’clock? — Yes, she was.
14. 1) Were you washing the clothes at 4 o’clock yesterday? — No, I wasn’t. I was tidying my room at that time. 2) Was Lucy doing the shopping when you met her? — Yes, she was. 3) Were they translating the text in the afternoon? — No, they weren’t. They were preparing for the Maths test. 4) Were Alison and Rita sitting in a cafe at three o’clock? — Yes, they were. They were eating ice cream. 5) Was Steve playing computer games all the evening? — No, he wasn’t. He was doing his homework. 6) Was Barbara sunbathing in the morning yesterday? — Yes, she was. 7) Were the children helping their grandparents yesterday? — Yes, they were. They were gathering fruit in the garden. 8) Were you sleeping at four o’clock yesterday? — Yes, I was. 9) Was Phil speaking to the receptionist when you came into the hall of the hotel? — No, he wasn’t. He was having breakfast in the cafe. 10) Were you packing your luggage When the taxi arrived? — No, I wasn’t.
15. 1) We were writing a dictation at ten o’clock yesterday. 2) They were having breakfast at half past seven. 3) I wasn’t watching TV at this time yesterday. I was washing the dishes in the kitchen. 4) She was speaking to her teacher for twenty minutes. 5) At this time last Tuesday we were returning from the supermarket. 6) Was he waiting for you at seven o’clock yesterday? — Yes, he was. 7) Were you working in the garden yesterday afternoon? — No, we were visiting our aunt. 8) Was your sister speaking to you on the phone at six o’clock yesterday? — Yes, we were speaking for half an hour. 9) Were the children preparing for the holiday yesterday evening? — Yes, they were decorating the hall all the evening. 10) Was he sleeping at two o’clock yesterday? — No, he was learning a poem.
16. 1) What was she doing at two o’clock yesterday? When was she visiting her dentist? 2) Who was having an English lesson at ten o’clock last Monday? What lesson were they having at ten o’clock last Monday? 3) Where were we driving yesterday evening? When were we driving towards the village? 4) What was he painting last Saturday? When was he painting the roof of the garage? 5) Whom were you waiting for at the bus stop? What were you doing at the bus stop? 6) Whose aunt was speaking to the shop-assistant in the supermarket? Where was my aunt speaking to the shop assistant? 7) How were we walking? Why were we walking quickly? 8) What was the dog doing in the yard? Where was the dog barking? 9) Who was sunbathing on the beach? Where were they sunbathing? 10) What was she painting in her room? What was she doing in her room?
17. 1) Who was playing tennis in the tennis court? What were the girls playing in the tennis court? Where were the girls playing tennis? 2) What was the cat doing on the sofa? Where was the cat sleeping? 3) Who was crossing the street at the traffic light? What were we crossing at the traffic light? 4) What was he explaining to his brother? Whom was he explaining the task to? 5) How was the woman walking along the road? Where was the woman walking slowly?
18. 1) Where were you going yesterday evening? — I was going to the railway station to meet my uncle. 2) Where was your sister shopping yesterday morning? — Well, she was shopping in a new shopping centre all day yesterday. 3) How long were they preparingfor the test last Sunday? — They were preparing for the test from 2 to 6 o’clock. 4) What book was he reading at five o’clock yesterday? — He wasn’t reading. He was translating a short story for his French lesson. 5) What was Dick doing yesterday evening? — He was playing a new computer game all the evening. 6) Why were Chris and Sam laughing so loudly? — Because they were watching a comedy film. 7) Who was singing that nice song when we came into the hall? — Му friend was singing. 8) Why were you baking a cake yesterday morning? — Because I was waiting for the guests. 9) Whom was she speaking to when I met her? — She was speaking to her coach. 10) Whose car was Bill driving yesterday? — He was driving his cousin’s car.
19. Mrs Jones was getting dinner ready when her little son Tim came into the kitchen with a happy smile.
«What were you doing all the morning, Timmy?» his mother asked.
«Well, I was playing Postman», replied little Tim.
«But how could you play without letters?» wondered his mother.
«Oh, but I had letters. I was looking in your old suitcase and found a pile of letters tied round with a ribbon. I posted one letter under every door in the street».
20. 1) What were you doing at five o’clock yesterday? — We were cooking supper and waiting for guests. 2) Where was she going yesterday morning? — She was going to the dentist. 3) What film was your brother watching in the cinema yesterday? — He was watching a new horror film. 4) Where was she waiting for me? — She was waiting for you near the theatre. 5) What article were you reading yesterday? — I was reading an article about the latest scientific discoveries. 6) Why was he driving so fast? — He was hurrying to the railway station. 7) When was Tom swimming in the swimming- pool yesterday? — He was swimming from four to five. 8) What was your brother doing yesterday morning? — He was repairing a bike yesterday morning. 9) Who was Anna speaking to at two o’clock yesterday? — She was speaking to a secretary. 10) What were the children doing after the lessons yesterday? — They were preparing for the sport competitions.
21. 1) When I came home yesterday my mother was cooking dinner and my father was working on the computer. 2) We were choosing the flowers when we saw Nick. He was speaking to somebody near the metro. 3) Witty was writing a report from five to eight yesterday. 4) While Maria was dusting the furniture her brother was vacuuming the carpets. 5) First Martin turned off the light and then he locked the door. 6) When the parents returned home, the children were sleeping. 7) It was getting dark when they were leavingthe restaurant. 8) What were you doing when I phoned you yesterday? — I was preparing for the English exam. 9) Where was Mike riding when you met him yesterday afternoon? — He was riding to the post-office. 10) When did your sister finish reading this book? — She was reading it all day yesterday and finished reading late in the evening.
22. It was Jimmy’s birthday and he got a lot of nice presents from his family. One of the presents was a beautiful drum. Of course, Jimmy liked his drum very much. He was playing with it all days long and was making much noise, but his mother didn’t mind. His father was working during the whole day and he didn’t hear that horrible noise. But one of the neighbours didn’t like it. So one morning a few days later he took a sharp knife and went to Jimmy’s house while Jimmy was hitting his drum.
23. Journalist: You are a very brave man, Mr Johns. How did you catch the burglar?
Mr Johns: Well, I was going along the street to meet my wife. When I was passing the bank I saw a man. He was carrying a heavy bag and looked strange in black gloves and a mask. I understood that something bad was happening at that time. Suddenly I saw my wife on the other side of the road. She was standing and waving to me.
J: What did you do then?
Mr J: I ran towards the stranger in a mask and hit him. He fell down and dropped the bag. The bag opened and the money fell down on the pavement. At that time my wife took her mobile phone and called the police.
J: Did anybody else see you?
Mr J: Sure! Two women were walking just behind me. They saw me hitting the stranger and started crying.
J: And what about the burglar?
Mr J: He wanted to run away, but I was holding him on the sleeves of his jacket. We were fighting but he had no chance! At that moment the police car arrived.
J: Thank you for the interview, Mr Johns. You are a real hero!
24. 1) The boy phoned his friend at seven o’clock yesterday. 2) While she was talking on the phone her brother was haying supper. 3) She was packing a suitcase when the taxi arrived. 4) He took the coat, put it on and left the room. 5) What were the children doing when you returned home? — They were watching TV. 6) We were preparing for the party all the evening yesterday. 7) Who were you talking with when I met you yesterday? — I was talking with my friend. 8) He was listening to music while he was driving his car to the hotel. 9) What was she telling when we came? — She was telling about new projects. 10) What music were they listening when the news programme began?
1. 1) They weren’t listening to the radio programme at six o’clock yesterday. Were they listening to the radio programme at six o’clock yesterday? 2) Gregory wasn’t doing an English exercise at four o’clock. Was Gregory doing an English exercise at four o’clock? 3) The children weren’t flying the kite in the afternoon. Were the children flying the kite in the afternoon? 4) The doctor wasn’t examining the patient at ten o’clock. Was the doctor examining the patient at ten o’clock? 5) You weren’t painting the front door yesterday morning. Were you painting the front door yesterday morning? 6) Jane wasn’t opening her presents in the bedroom. Was Jane opening her presents in the bedroom? 7) We weren’t training in the gym yesterday evening. Were we training in the gym yesterday evening? 8) The gardener wasn’t whitewashing the trees last Tuesday. Was the gardener whitewashing the trees last Tuesday? 9) Ron wasn’t speaking to his friend after the lessons. Was Ron speaking to his friend after the lessons? 10) People weren’t waiting for the train on the platform. Were people waiting for the train on the platform?
2. 1) What was Anthony feeding in the stables in the afternoon? Where was Anthony feeding the horses in the afternoon? When was Anthony feeding the horses in the stables? 2) Who was telling about our visit to the circus? What were we telling about? What visit were we telling about? 3) Who was giving the instructions to your workers? What were you giving to your workers? Whom were you giving the instructions? 4) What was my friend doing on the river last Sunday? Where was my friend sailing last Sunday? When was my friend sailing on the river? 5) Who was typing her article for the magazine yesterday evening? Whose article was she typing yesterday evening? What was she typing for the magazine yesterday evening? When was she typing her article for the magazine?
3. 1) when; 2) while; 3) while; 4) when; 5) while; 6) when; 7) when; 8) while; 9) when; 10) while.
4. 1) Peter was writing the invitations for the party at seven o’clock last Saturday. 2) The postman wasn’t delivering the mail at four o’clock yesterday. 3) Were you doing the shopping all day last Sunday? — No, I wasn’t. 4) What was Oscar reading all the evening yesterday? — He was reading the latest computer journal. 5) Whom were they speaking to at three o’clock yesterday? — They were speaking to their manager. 6) Where were you walking at two o’clock yesterday? — I was walking to the library. 7) Whose motor-bike was Johnny riding all the evening last Friday? — He was riding his uncle’s motorbike. 8) Was Maria swimming in the swimming-pool? — No, she wasn’t. She was cutting the grass in the backyard. 9) What film were they watching in the evening? — They were watchinga thriller. 10) Why was Nick hurrying to the metro yesterday morning? — Because his friends were waiting for him there.
5. 1) Frank was playing a computer game when his father returned home yesterday. 2) Helen gave the money to the shop-assistant, took a toothpaste and left the shop. 3) We were decorating the room while Steve was hanging the posters on the walls. 4) Mike was running downstairs when suddenly he fell down and hurt his knee. 5) The teacher was writing something on the blackboard while the pupils were reading the text. 6) When Mr Barnes came into his office yesterday morning, his secretary was speaking on the phone. 7) Lin was looking through some advertisements when somebody rang the doorbell. 8) The man opened the door of the car, got into and started the engine. 9) Kate and Pam were having tea in the sitting-room when they heard the news on the radio. 10) You werehaving a shower while I was setting the table for supper.
6. 1) She was preparing for the exam at six o’clock yesterday. 2) While Anna was slicing bread her friend was making tea. 3) The woman was tidying the kitchen when her little daughter broke the cup. 4) Were you waiting for us at eight o’clock yesterday? — Yes, I was. 5) They were discussing this question from two to four yesterday. 6) While little girls were playing badminton their Granny was reading a newspaper. 7) What was mother cooking when we left home yesterday? 8) What was he speaking to the doctor about when we met them? 9) We were standing near the house when the taxi came. 10) She took the flowers and smiled.
МИНУЛИЙ ДОКОНАНИЙ ЧАС (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
1. 1) Brian had returned books to the library before last Thursday. 2) We had known the results of the test before two o’clock yesterday. 3) I had come to the office before lunch time. 4) You had made the order before we came into the cafe. 5) Sally had sent the letters before her boss returned from the bank. 6) The ferry had reached the port by three o’clock yesterday. 7) The performance had finished by eight o’clock in the evening. 8) They had built a new hospital before the end of April. 9) Max had had dinner by four o’clock. 10) The baby had woken up before you left home.
2. 1) had watched; 2) had sent; 3) had already visited; 4) had moved; 5) had happened; 6) had stopped; 7) had got; 8) had made; 9) had met; 10) had made.
3. Mike had returned from the village two days before. He had visited his grandparents. Mike’s life in the village had really been exciting that summer. He had learned to do a lot of useful things. His uncle had taught Mike to drive a car. Mike’s grandfather had taken Mike hunting. Mike was very happy because he had never held the hunting rifle before. Mike had even taken part in the horse-racing competition and had won the third place. Mike’s friend Pete had made a photo of Mike holding the prize on the horse back.
4. But the king didn’t believe what the fortune teller had predicted. The king remembered what the fortune teller had told him and thought that she had caused the death of his wife. After the soldiers had brought the fortune teller to the king, he reminded her of what she had predicted. The fortune teller realized that the king had decided to kill her.
5. 1) We hadn’t told him about the time of the meeting. 2) She hadn’t washed the vegetables for the salad. 3) You hadn’t caught a small fish by that time. 4) The burglars hadn’t robbed the bank. 5) A zookeeper hadn’t fed the animals by twelve o’clock. 6) David hadn’t eaten all the sandwiches by two o’clock. 7) They hadn’t been to this town before. 8) I hadn’t done all the arrangements by Saturday. 9) Alice hadn’t shown me her paintings before. 10) You hadn’t forgotten about her request.
6. Mr Samuel hadn’t set up a new computer program before Christmas. Mr Samuel hadn’t typed the report for his boss before Christmas. Mr Samuel had painted his car before Christmas. Mr Samuel had repaired the camera before Christmas. Mr Samuel hadn’t built a garage before Christmas. Mr Samuel had sent Christmas cards to his relatives and friends before Christmas. Mr Samuel hadn’t paid the electricity bill before Christmas. Mr Samuel had prepared presents for his wife and children before Christmas.
7. He decided to go back to the place he had lived before. Everything had changed. The places he had visited disappeared. The man was very hungry and remembered about a small cafe where he had had dinner before, but there wasn’t a cafe any more. «I had taken a pair of shoes to the shoemaker before I went to prison, but I hadn’t received them back», the man thought. The man showed the shoemaker the ticket and explained that he had left him a pair of shoes twenty years before.
8. 1) Had Mary booked the tickets before? 2) Had we been to this exhibition? 3) Had you received the invitation before Wednesday? 4) Had the bus arrived before 5 o’clock? 5) Had Tom heard that story before? 6) Had they gone to the railway station before 6 o’clock? 7) Had my father returned from his business trip by the weekend? 8) Had we met Eric before the lesson? 9) Had the taxi come by 7 o’clock? 10) Had they used this key before?
9. Had Simon ridden a camel before? — No, he hadn’t. Had Simon gone scuba diving before? — Yes, he had. Had June and Rose visited the Eiffel Tower before? — Yes, they had. Had June and Rose eaten Yorkshire pudding before? — Yes, they had. Had June and Rose ridden a camel before? — No, they hadn’t. Had June and Rose gone scuba diving before? — No, they hadn’t. Had Emma visited the Eiffel Tower before? — No, she hadn’t. Had Emma eaten Yorkshire pudding before? — Yes, she had. Had Emma ridden a camel before? — Yes, she had. Had Emma gone scuba diving before? — No, she hadn’t.
10. 1) We had already given our projects to the teacher. 2) Sandra had done the shopping before the New Year Eve. 3) You hadn’t phoned me by the end of the week. 4) I hadn’t tried such a delicious cake before. 5) Had. your sister reserved the hotel room beforehand? — Yes, she had. 6) Had Mr Smith discussed that problem with his lawyer? — No, he hadn’t. 7) Clara had never been to the Pyramids before. 8) Had you taken part in this festival before? — No, I hadn’t. 9) Mark had finished his work by 6 o’clock yesterday. 10) Had Nigel found any information in the Internet by last Tuesday? — Yes, he had.
11. He had just cashed a check, but he didn’t want to carry too much money with him. The next morning the clerk said that he hadn’t taken any money from the man. As the man had a lawyer as an eyewitness to the second hundred-dollar bill, the clerk couldn’t say he hadn’t taken it. This time the clerk said he had already given the bill to the man. But the lawyer insisted that he had seen the man giving the money to the clerk, but he hadn’t seen the clerk returning the money. The lawyer promised to call the police if the clerk ha.d forgotten about the bill.
12. 1) We had returned home by seven o’clock yesterday evening. 2) She had passed all the exams by last Tuesday. 3) They hadn’t finished the work by eight o’clock yesterday. 4) Your sister hadn’t told us the news by the end of the break yesterday. 5) Had you bought the flowers before the party yesterday? — Yes, we had. 6) Had they played tennis before dinner yesterday? — No, they hadn’t. 7) The tourists had arrived before supper yesterday. 8) We hadn’t received your message by five o’clock yesterday. 9) She hadn’t moved to a new house by the end of last week. 10) Had you already prepared the report by last Wednesday? — Yes, I had.
13.1) Who had translated three articles by five o’clock yesterday? What had she done by five o’clock yesterday? How many articles had she translated by five o’clock yesterday? By what time had she translated three articles yesterday? 2) Who had come to the cinema by the beginning of the film? Where had we come by the beginning of the film? 3) Who had reached the camp before the sunset? What had they reached before the sunset? 4) What had you done by the end of the day? How many invitation cards had you written by the end of the day? What had you written by the end of the day? 5) What theatre had he been to three times before? Where had he been three times before? How many times had he been to this theatre before?
14. 1) You hadn’t left the hotel by our arrival yesterday. 2) How many letters had she typed by the end of the day? 3) Had he had dinner by that time? 4) My cousin hadn’t been to this museum before. 5) I had got your message two days before. 6) What had he done by the end of last week? 7) What places had they visited by the end of their vacations? 8) Whom had he phoned before his departure? 9) She had bought a new fridge by the end of last week. 10) Ben had taken the medicine by five o’clock yesterday.
15. 1) What time had the participants arrived at the conference last Wednesday? — They had arrived by nine o’clock in the morning. 2) How many clients had he served by the end of the day? — He had served twelve clients. 3) Had the performance finished by nine o’clock yesterday? — No, it hadn’t. 4) Unfortunately Samantha had never used this computer program before. 5) Whom had Robert seen during his last visit to our town? — He had met some of his friends and relatives. 6) What hotel had you chosen to stay at during your last trip? — I had staved at the Hilton Hotel. 7) Pam had had such an experience before. 8) Had Steve been to our Theme Park before this visit? — Yes, he had. 9) Which street had they, lived in before they moved? — They had lived in Oak Street. 10) By what time had your grandparents finished their work in the garden yesterday? — They had finished their work by six o’clock.
16. 1) was watering; 2) had already watered; 3) had packed; 4) was speaking, was watching; 5) took, put; 6) had left, delivered; 7) had had, came; 8) was vacuuming; 9) came up, sat down; 10) wanted, had already departed.
17. 1) returned, found; 2) phoned, had left; 3) had arrived, bought; 4) said, had already met; 5) remembered, hadn’t told; 6) put, had fallen; 7) began, entered; 8) told, hadn’t found; 9) switched off, went; 10) had eaten, returned.
18. 1) was washing, came; 2) got, had already left; 3) was listening, was making; 4) was walking, heard; 5) turned off, realized, hadn’t saved; 6) was driving, remembered, hadn’t taken; 7) walked, had written; 8) met, was choosing, had had; 9) was reading, noticed, hadn’t mentioned; 10) was looking, understood, had pressed.
19. When Jack came to school, the lesson had already begun. Mr White looked angrily at Jack and asked. «Why are you late, Jack?» «You see, Mr White, on my way to school I met a man who had lost a hundred dollar bill». «Were you helping that man to look for it all this time?» the teacher asked. «No, all this time I was standing on it», answered Jack.
20. 1) When I saw your brother I understood that he had recently returned from the vacation. 2) She showed us the picture which her husband had finished some days before. 3) The woman read the letter which she had got from her sister in the morning. 4) While his wife was watching a film on TV, he was reading a newspaper which he had bought in the morning. 5) Mike phoned me after he had come home. 6) Had you washed your hands before you sat down to have dinner? 7) We were drinking coffee in the cafe when my friend remembered that he hadn’t turned off the computer in the office. 8) Ann started to work in our bank after she had graduated from university. 9) Where did they go after they had met you? 10) Had you switched off the light before you left home?
1. 1) She hadn’t prepared all the documents by four o’clock yesterday. Had she prepared all' the documents by four o’clock yesterday? 2) They hadn’t agreed about the delivery of the goods by the end of last week. Had they agreed about the delivery of the goods by the end of last week? 3) The scientists hadn’t predicted the flood long before. Had the scientists predicted the flood long before? 4) Dolly hadn’t given first aid before the arrival of the ambulance. Had Dolly given first aid before the arrival of the ambulance? 5) Mr Franks hadn’t read the report by five o’clock yesterday. Had Mr Franks read the report by five o’clock yesterday? 6) Daniel hadn’t received the driving licence some years before. Had Daniel received the driving licence some years before? 7) We hadn’t arranged the conference before last Friday. Had we arranged the conference before last Friday? 8) You hadn’t answered all the letters by two o’clock yesterday. Had you answered all the letters by two o’clock yesterday? 9) Nick hadn’t studied French a year before. Had Nick studied French a year before? 10) Julia hadn’t completed her test half an hour before the end. Had Julia completed her test half an hour before the end?
2. 1) Who had worked in this hospital some years before I met you? What had you done in this hospital some years before I met you? Where had you worked some years before I met you? 2) How many tests had Wendy checked by three o’clock yesterday? What had Wendy checked by three o’clock yesterday? By what time had Wendy checked ten tests yesterday? 3) Whose teacher had we spoken to before the meeting? Who (Whom) had we spoken to before the meeting? When had we spoken to her teacher? 4) Who had discussed all the details with his partner a week before? What had Richard discussed with his partner a week before? With whom had Richard discussed all the details a week before? 5) Who had planned their route to the lake long before? What had they planned long before? Where had they planned their route to long before?
3. 1) My parents had never skied in the mountains before. 2) Had she asked you for help? 3) How many tickets had you sold by seven o’clock yesterday? 4) The climbers had found this cave two years before. 5) Adam had arrived to the camp before the sunrise. 6) I had received your e-mail by the end of the working day. 7) Had the hurricane stopped by the end of the day? 8) Whom had they spoken to before the conference? 9) His cousins hadn’t visited this country before. 10) The children had planted the trees by twelve o’clock yesterday.
4. 1) had reduced; 2) woke up, was, turned on; 3) remembered, had already watched; 4) had never skated, took; 5) had stopped, left; 6) started, arrived; 7) understood, had made; 8) had, had finished; 9) asked, had paid; 10) felt, had painted.
5. 1) came up, was speaking; 2) paid, had chosen; 3) read, returned; 4) was still raining, got; 5) had checked, turned off; 6) was giving, realized, hadn’t reminded; 7) was cooking, understood, hadn’t bought; 8) came, were discussing, had invented; 9) got, had flown up; 10) was playing, found, had lost.
6. 1) The boys had played two games of chess by six o’clock yesterday. 2) She hadn’t looked through all the documents by the end of the working day yesterday. 3) How many messages had you received by last Monday? — I had received seven messages. 4) Before she left home she had written a note to her brother. 5) When we came to the grandparents they were gathering apples in the garden. 6) After the lessons had finished they went to the park. 7) When Ben was going home he remembered that he hadn’t bought milk for the cat. 8) When we were listening to his story I remembered that I had already heard something like that. 9) Helen saw her friend after the bus had stopped. 10) Tom said that he had already repaired his car.
ТЕПЕРІШНІЙ ДОКОНАНО-ТРИВАЛИЙ ЧАС (THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE)
1. 1) I have been reading this book for three days. 2) We have been playing volleyball for twenty minutes. 3) She has been cleaning the flat for more than an hour. 4) Peter has been swimming for half an hour. 5) Anna has been speaking on the phone for an hour now. 6) You have been waiting for a bus for ten minutes only. 7) Nelly and Mary have been doing the shopping since early morning. 8) It has been snowing since last night. 9) Jack and his friend have been riding bikes for three hours now. 10) The teacher has been explaining a grammar rule since the beginning of the lesson.
2. 1) has been washing; 2) have been writing; 3) has been driving; 4) have been looking; 5) has been painting; 6) have been doing; 7) have been working; 8) has been blowing; 9) has been collecting; 10) have been discussing.
4. 1) You haven’t been writing a report since morning. 2) We haven’t been working in the garden for three hours. 3) I haven’t been typing letters since ten o’clock. 4) Tom hasn’t been running for twenty minutes. 5) A cat hasn’t been sitting in the tree for an hour. 6) Jane hasn’t been studying English for two years. 7) They haven’t been building this house for more than a year. 8) My parents haven’t been travelling for a week. 9) I haven’t been having a lesson for fifteen minutes now. 10) They haven’t been walking since afternoon.
5. 1) has been fishing; 2) hasn’t been packing; 3) have been ironing; 4) hasn’t been wearing; 5) haven’t been walking; 6) have been painting; 7) has been reading; 8) hasn’t been raining; 9) have been making; 10) has been trying.
6. 1) Has he been boating for four hours? 2) Have we been skating since eleven o’clock? 3) Has Lucy been learning this poem for twenty minutes? 4) Have you been writing this article since afternoon? 5) Have my parents been working in the hospital for thirteen years? 6) Has the music been playing for three hours? 7) Have we been speaking since five o’clock? 8) Has Beth been taking a bath for thirty-five minutes? 9) Have they been preparing for the test for two days? 10) Has the baby been crying for half an hour?
7. 1) Has Eric been playing computer games since morning? — No, he hasn’t. 2) Has Eric been tidying the room for ten minutes? — Yes, he has. 3) Have Kate and Emma been walking in the park for an hour? — No, they haven’t. 4) Has Diana been tidying the room for three hours? — No, she hasn’t. 5) Has Diana been writing an essay for 15 minutes? — Yes, she has. 6) Have Kate and Emma been playing computer games for 25 minutes? — No, they haven’t. 7) Have Kate and Emma been tidying the room since yesterday? — No, they haven’t. 8) Has Diana been playing computer games since last Sunday? — No, she hasn’t. 9) Have Kate and Emma been writing an essay since 6 o’clock? — Yes, they have. 10) Has Diana been walking in the park since 5 o’clock? — Yes, she has.
8. 1) Has Jenny been waiting for her flight in the airport since twelve o’clock? — No, she hasn’t. She has been waiting for her flight for forty minutes now. 2) Can I talk with you? — Sorry, I’m busy. I have been looking for one important paper for more than twenty minutes now and can’t find it. 3) Is Ed at home? — No, he is in the gym. He has been training since five o’clock. 4) Has your mother been working as a manager for ten years? — No, she hasn’t. She has been working as a manager for eighteen years. 5) Is Philip fixing the washing-machine? — Yes, he has been fixing it since nine o’clock. 6) Alison and Cindy haven’t been painting the walls in the room for two hours. They have been working since morning. 7) The Petersons have been building their house for three years now. 8) Is mother in the kitchen? — Yes, she has been cooking since four o’clock. 9) You look tired! — Well, I have been gathering strawberries for more than two hours. 10) Where is Ben? — He is in his room. He has been listening to music since afternoon.
9. 1) Who has been speaking to his friend for an hour? To whom has he been speaking for an hour? How long has he been speaking to his friend? 2) Who has been whitewashing the trees in the garden for two hours? What have we been doing in the garden for two hours? Where have we been whitewashing the trees for two hours? What have we been write washing in the garden for two hours? 3) Who has been telling us about your work since five o’clock? Whom have you been telling about your work since five o’clock? Whose work have you been telling us about since five o’clock? What have you been telling us about since five o’clock? 4) What has she been doing for half an hour? What has she been translating for half an hour? How long has she been translating this text? 5) What have they been having in the canteen since one o’clock? Where have they been having lunch since one o’clock? How long have they been having lunch in the canteen?
10. 1) What has she been reading since ten o’clock? 2) Where have we been driving so long? 3) Den hasn’t been riding his motor-bike since three o’clock. 4) Dolly and Carol have been planting flowers in the greenhouse for about an hour. 5) How long has Brian been learning English? 6) Has Linda been preparing for her test since eight o’clock? 7) Whom have you been talking with for fifty minutes? 8) Where have they been playing tennis since afternoon? 9) The baby has been sleeping for three hours now. 10) We haven’t been climbing this mountain for an hour.
11. She has been speaking for forty-five minutes now. Her father has been waiting for an important call since afternoon and he is becoming angry. «How long have you been speaking. Kate?» cries her father.
12. 1) Put on your raincoat. It has been raining since night. 2) Is Frank in his room? What has he been doing? — He has been preparing for the French test. 3) Are Sue and Liz still in the garden? They have been watering the flowers for an hour now! — No, they haven’t been watering the flowers. They have been weeding for more than an hour. 4) How long have you been travelling around the country? — I have. been travelling for two weeks now. 5) Ron should be careful. He has been sunbathing since eight o’clock. 6) Whom has your boss been shouting at? — He has been shouting at his new manager. She has been working in this office for only three days. 7) Cindy is worried. She has been waiting for her parents to come home since six o’clock. 8) What have they been writing since three o’clock? — They have been writing an article for the scientific journal. 9) Aren’t Julia and Andrew at home yet? — They are still preparing for the conference in the library. They have been preparing for this conference for a week now. 10) How long has Mr Kane been washing his car? — He has been washing it for more than an hour now.
13. 1) They have been writing a dictation for half an hour already. 2) My sister has been cleaning the room since morning. 3) Have the boys been swimming in the swimming-pool for more than an hour now? 4) He hasn’t been watching TV since morning. 5) Have you been reading this book for four days? — No, Ї have been reading it for two days only. 6) What has she been doing for three hours? — She has been preparing for the exams. 7) How long have the children been playing in the park? — They have been playing since five o’clock. 8) What has your brother been telling about for twenty minutes already? — He has been telling about his parrot. 9) What article has he been writing since morning? — He has been writing an article about a famous scientist. 10) What have they been discussing for more than an hour now? — They have been discussing the latest news.
14. 1) are walking; 2) has been driving; 3) have already written; 4) often wakes up; 5) are flying; 6) haven’t paid; 7) hasn’t phoned; 8) is happening; 9) has been writing; 10) has made.
15. 1) at the moment; 2) usually; 3) since; 4) yet; 5) just; 6) for; 7) sometimes.
16. 1) Paula is cooking dinner now. She has been cooking since eleven o’clock, but she hasn’t prepared meat yet. 2) Sally and James are gathering raspberries in the garden now. They have been gathering raspberries for two hours, but they haven’t gathered enough for jam by now. 3) We are preparing for exams at the moment. We have been preparing since nine o’clock but we haven’t revised all the rules by now. 4) What is Mary doing now? — She is taking a shower. She has been washing in the bathroom for half an hour now. 5) Where is Dick? — He is repairing his motorbike in the garage at the moment. He has been repairing it for two days and he hasn’t finished yet. 6) Is Vicky busy? — No, she is watching some programme on TV at the moment. She has been watching TV since twelve o’clock. 7) Are you reading anything now? You have been reading for more than an hour now. What are you reading? — I am reading a report of my manager at the moment. 8) Has Elsa made sandwiches yet? — No, she hasn’t. She has been making them for fifteen minutes now. She is slicing cheese for the sandwiches at the moment. 9) Is it snowing outdoors now? — Yes, it is. It has been snowing since yesterday evening. 10) This sportsman is exhausted. He has been running for more than an hour now. Look! He is running more slowly!
17. 1) Where are you going. Witty? — I’m going to the swimming-pool. I go there three times a week. 2) Has Mike spoken to his coach yet? — No, he hasn’t. His coach has been having a training for half an hour now so Mike is waiting for him at the moment. 3) What has Ann been cooking since five o’clock? — She has decided to make a cake for your birthday, party and she has been baking it for an hour now. At the moment she is whipping cream for it. 4) Whom is your brother waiting — for at the bus stop? — He is waiting for our mother. He always meets her after work and helps her to carry bags. 5) Look! The children are flying a kite! They have been flying it since afternoon. They often fly one when the weather is perfect for it. 6) Where are Ted and Nick? — They have just gone to the gym. They often play basketball there in the evening. I know that they are having a competition next week. Their team has been preparing for this competition for three weeks now. 7) What does Jessica usually do in the evenings? I seldom see her walking in the park.— She is busy with studying. She often has German lessons in the evenings. She has been learning German for four years now. But tonight she is visiting her aunt.
A man walks into a shop and sees a cute little dog. He asks the shopkeeper, «Does your dog bite?» The shopkeeper answers. «No, my dog doesn’t bite». The man tries to pet the dog but the dog bites him. The man shouts. «You have just told me that your dog doesn’t bite!» «But it isn’t my dog», replies the shopkeeper.
19. Dear Samantha,
I’m writing to you from San Diego. It is in the south-west of the USA. We have been travelling around the United States for two weeks now. We have already been to New York, Washington, San Francisco and Los Angeles. These cities are magnificent! Phil has taken so many wonderful photos! San Diego isn’t so big as San Francisco or Los Angeles, but there is much to see here, too. We have been here for two days, but we haven’t visited all the places of interest yet. Our guide takes us to different museums and exhibitions every day. We usually come back to the hotel late in the evening, have supper and go to bed. The hotel we are staving at is small, but comfortable. In two days we are going to Philadelphia and then back to New York. I’m looking forward to seeing you! I want to tell you so much! I promise to phone you from the airport.
See you soon,
20. — Don’t bother me. I’m writing a message to my girlfriend.
— But you have been writing it for twenty minutes now. Why are you writing so slowly?
— Because she can’t read fast.
21. 1) Has he finished his report already? — Not yet. He has been reading it for twenty minutes now. 2) How long have you been waiting for a bus? — We have been waiting for more than ten minutes. 3) Has Ann bought a present for Mark already? — Not yet. She has been choosing the present for half an hour already. 4) How many articles have you looked through already? — Seven. I have been reading articles since morning but I haven’t found the necessary information yet. 5) What countries have they visited already? — They have already been to six countries. They travel every year. 6) Has she had breakfast yet? — No, we have just cooked breakfast. 7) Tom has been painting the car for two hours now but he has painted only half of it. 8) What do you usually do after dinner? — I often take the children to the park. 9) Where is your Granny? — She is watching TV in her room. She always watches her favourite serial at this time. 10) How long has she been learning English? — She has been learning English for five years already.
1. 1) Alan has been mowing the lawn for forty minutes now. 2) You have been skiing since eleven o’clock. 3) Jack has been talking with the policeman for fifteen minutes now. 4) We have been teaching you to ride a bike for two hours now. 5) They have been building the stadium for more than a year now. 6) Helen has been vacuuming the carpets since four o’clock. 7) I have been looking for my wallet for twenty minutes. 8) It has been raining since morning. 9) We have been discussing about the route of our journey since ten o’clock. 10) The teacher has been reading my essay for ten minutes.
2. 1) Sammy hasn’t been eating for fifteen minutes now. Has Sammy been eating for fifteen minutes now? 2) We haven’t been watching this football match since half past two. Have we been watching this football match since half past two? 3) They haven’t been digging the trees for an hour. Have they been digging the trees for an hour? 4) My mother hasn’t been talking with the doctor for ten minutes. Has my mother been talking with the doctor for ten minutes? 5) Alice hasn’t been waiting for you since five o’clock. Has Alice been waiting for you since five o’clock? 6) Gary hasn’t been playing golf for an hour and a half. Has Gary been playing golf for an hour and a half? 7) They haven’t been living in this hotel for a week now. Have they been living in this hotel for a week now? 8) The inspector hasn’t been asking questions for two hours now. Has the inspector been asking questions for two hours now? 9) She hasn’t been sleeping since afternoon. Has she been sleeping since afternoon? 10) You haven’t been cooking since nine o’clock. Have you been cooking since nine o’clock?
3. 1) Who has been writing a letter to your friend for an hour? What have you been writing for an hour? Whom have you been writing a letter to for an hour? 2) Who has been watching the performance since six o’clock? What have they been doing since six o’clock? What have they been watching since six o’clock? 3) What has he been doing for three hours now? Where has he been driving to for three hours now? How long has he been driving to Warsaw now? 4) What have we been doing for two hours? Whose plan have we been discussing for two hours? How long have we been discussing your plan? 5) Who has been arguing with me for half an hour? With whom has she been arguing for half an hour?
4. 1) We have been having the conference since ten o’clock. 2) The boys have been fishing for three hours now. 3) Has Jane been skating since four o’clock? — No, she hasn’t. 4) Have they been building the house for a year now? — Yes, they have. 5) How long have you been watching the race? — I have been watching the race for twenty minutes now. 6) What have they been doing since morning? — They have been decorating the hall for the party. 7) With whom has Fred been playing tennis? — He has been playing tennis with Dick. 8) Whose call has Cathy been waiting for? — She has been waiting for a call from her boss. 9) The doctors have been operating on the patient for five hours now. 10) How long has the police been investigating this murder? — They have been investigating this murder for three weeks.
5. 1) I don’t understand what you are talking about now.— I’m trying to explain you the main points of this case. 2) Is it still snowing? — Yes, it has been snowing since yesterday evening. 3) Whom is she speaking to? — She is sneaking to her mother. She always phones her after school and tells the news. 4) What lesson are Kate and Sally having at the moment? — They are having an Italian lesson. They always have Italian lessons on Wednesdays. They have been learning Italian for four years. They want to be interpreters. 5) Where is Margaret? — She is planting flowers in the yard. She has been working there since morning and she has already done a large piece of work. 6) What is Henry looking for in his bedroom? — He is looking for his passport. He often forgets where he puts it. Henry has been searching for his passport for twenty minutes now. 7) Is your mother busy? — Oh, she is preparing supper in the kitchen. She has been cooking since three o’clock. She has just baked a meat pie and now she is cutting some vegetables for salad. 8) DO you know what direction we are going now? We have been walking for three hours and we haven’t reached the camp yet.
6. 1) The girls have been playing volleyball for fifteen minutes now. 2) He hasn’t been talking with us for three days already. 3) She has been looking for this house for forty minutes now. 4) How long have you been waiting for the secretary? — I have been waiting for half an hour. 5) My sister has been studying the history of this country for two years already. 6) Where is Ann? — She is writing something in her room. She has been writing since morning and she hasn’t even had breakfast yet. 7) Does he always come to the swimming-pool on Tuesday? — Yes, he does. He has been swimming since he was five. Now he is preparing for an international competition. 8) Are you drinking coffee? — Yes, I am. I like coffee with milk. And do you like coffee? — No, I don’t, I prefer tea. I have just drunk a cup of a wonderful tea. 9) What film are they watching? — They are watching an action film. They have been watching it for more than an hour. 10) Where are your parents now? — They are travelling around Europe. They have been travelling for a week. They have already visited three countries.
МОДАЛЬНІ ДІЄСЛОВА (MODAL VERBS)
1. 1) could; 2) will be able to; 3) had to; 4) mustn’t; 5) may; 6) won’t allow; 7) can; 8) will have to; 9) couldn’t, can; 10) will be able to.
2. 1) Jane could play the violin a year ago, but now she can play well. She will be able to play in the concert in two months. 2) You might watch this film yesterday. I will allow you to go for a walk when you finish your homework. Your friend may visit you today. 3) Oscar had
to take aspirin an hour ago. He must go to bed right now. He will have to visit the doctor in three days. 4) My friend can speak French very well. He could speak French when he was twelve. I think he will be able to go to university in France in his future. 5) We must clean the flat now. We had to clean the flat yesterday, but we had a lot of homework to do. We will be able to go shopping tomorrow evening. 6) Tony and Den might go to the cinema yesterday. If they have already had dinner, they may play computer games. Their parents will allow the boys to go to the river next Saturday.
3. 1) Henry can’t play volleyball very well. Can Henry play volleyball very well? 2) We couldn’t help you with house chores yesterday. Could we help you with house chores yesterday? 3) Dolly mustn’t look after her little cousin. Must Dolly look after her little cousin? 4) They may not go. fishing with Bob. May they go fishing with Bob? 5) Alex couldn’t return me this disc yesterday. Could Alex return me this disc yesterday? 6) He may not give you sweets after dinner. May he give you sweets after dinner? 7) Mary mustn’t translate this text. Must Mary translate this text? 8) I can’t make a cup of tea for them. Can I make a cup of tea for them? 9) You mustn’t take care of your sister. Must you take care of your sister? 10) The doctor can’t examine you. Can the doctor examine you? 11) Nick couldn’t ski last winter. Could Nick ski last winter?
4. 1) Jack and Paul may ride bikes but they may not ride fast. 2) Amy could skate last year but could she ski? 3) You may watch the cartoon but you may not watch the film. 4) I must paint the roof but must I paint the fence? 5) Eric can read in French but can he speak French? 6) Children must eat fruit but they mustn’t eat many sweets. 7) At the age of two Betty could walk but she couldn’t speak. 8) You may take my car but you may not drive without a licence.
5. 1) may; 2) can; 3) can’t; 4) can; 5) can; 6) may; 7) can’t; 8) can.
6. 1) He can use a computer. 2) We mustn’t help you. 3) She may take my dictionary. 4) I can’t show you the way to the airport. 5) My sister can’t drive a car. 6) Can you tell me your address? — Yes, I can. 7) Can Bob play the guitar? — No, he can’t. 8) Can we leave a note for you? — Yes, you can. 9) I mustn’t worry. 10) She couldn’t come to your place yesterday. 11) He had to send the message yesterday. 12) Could you speak at the age of two? — Yes, I could. 13) We won’t be able to buy flowers tomorrow.
7. 1) Who can swim in the lake in summer? What can the boys do in summer? Where can the boys swim in summer? When can the boys swim in the lake? 2) Who must buy a present for our mother? What must we do for our mother? What must we buy for our mother? Whom must we buy a present for? 3) Who may listen to music in her room? What may Pam do in her room? What may Pam listen to in her room? In whose room may Pam listen to music? Where may Pam listen to music? 4) Who could ski in the mountains in winter? What could they do in winter? Where could they ski in winter? When could they ski in the mountains?
8. Who can play table tennis? Where can your friend buy flowers? When may Fred and Dick discuss this problem? When must Julia visit her grandparents? How can his cousin play table tennis? Who could get to the theatre in time? Where can we have lunch?...
9. 1) В: Can a kangaroo jump higher than the Eiffel Tower?
A: Yes, because the Eiffel Tower can’t jump!
2) A: Meet my new born brother.
В: Oh, he is so handsome! What’s his name?
A: I don’t know. I can’t understand a word he says.
3) Teacher. How can we get some clean water?
Student: Bring the water from the river and wash it.
10. 1) Who can play the piano? — My sister can. 2) When must he return the camera? — He must return the camera today. 3) At what age could your brother read? — He could read at the age of six. 4) What may she do? — She may watch a cartoon. 5) Where must Peter put the key? — He must put the key on the shelf near the door. 6) Who must read the report? — A representative of our delegation must read the report. 7) How can I help you? 8) Where could they go yesterday? — They could go to the theatre. 9) How could your friend play basketball a year ago? — He could play worse than now. 10) What must I tell your Granny?
11. 1) must; 2) have to; 3) have to; 4) must; 5) have to; 6) must; 7) has to; 8) must; 9) must; 10) has to.
12. Pupils have to wear uniform. They don’t have to be late for school. They have to do homework. They don’t have to miss the lessons. Pupils don’t have to make a noise during a lesson. They have to bring books to school. They don’t have to interrupt the teacher’s explanation. They have to study hard. Pupils have to prepare for tests and exams. They don’t have to study on Sundays.
13. 1) Mother: Did you enjoy your first day at school?
Girl: First day? Do you mean I have to go back tomorrow?
2) She says to the driver: «You must take me to the station. You must drive slowly and carefully. You mustn’t go on the red traffic light and you mustn’t rush round the corners as the road is very wet». «All right, madam», replies the driver. «But if we have an accident what hospital do I have to take you to?»
14. 1) Sam has got a toothache so he has to visit his dentist today. 2) Did we have to prepare all the documents yesterday? — No, you didn’t. 3) It’s my day off tomorrow so I won’t have to go to the office. 4) It was raining yesterday so Frank had to take his umbrella. 5) Sally has recovered so now she doesn’t have to stay in bed any more. 6) Sheila and Marion can’t come to our party because they have to study for the test tonight. 7) Do you have to type all these letters today? — Yes, I do. 8) My aunt arrives tomorrow so I will have to meet her at the railway station. 9) It was very warm yesterday and Jessie didn’t have to put on her warm sweater. 10) Does Clara have to fill in this report right now? — No, she doesn’t. 11) Let’s go shopping now so that we won’t have to do it tomorrow. 12) Did Mike have to book the hotel room yesterday? — Yes, he did.
15. 1) could; 2) will be able; 3) can; 4) wasn’t able to; 5) was able to; 6) won’t be able to; 7) weren’t able to; 8) couldn’t, can.
16. — You are a champion skater now, but could you skate in your childhood?
— No, I couldn’t. I even couldn’t/wasn’t able to think about skating because I was afraid of this kind of sport. But I could play the violin very well then and my teacher thought I was able to become a famous musician.
— But how did you manage to learn to skate?
— Well, my father was fond of skating. One day he took me to the skating-rink to teach skating. When I went on the ice for the first time I felt very excited. I couldn’t/wasn’t able to think of anything else. But suddenly I fell down and broke my arm. After that accident I wasn’t able to become a musician. So I had nothing to do but learn to skate. — I Can you play the violin now?
— Unfortunately I can’t.
— Do you go in for other kinds of sport?
— Well, I can ski and swim. And I can play computer games. I hope one day I will be able to take part in some computer-gaming competition.
— I wish you luck then.
17. 1) He must phone me today. 2) We may/might meet our cousins. 3) Your little brother could be near the sandpit. 4) The plane can’t arrive on time in such bad weather. 5) Our teacher can’t still be at school. 6) Your parents could/may/might give you some good advice. 7) Nick may/might buy the cake. 8) They must be of the same age. 9) The situation can’t be so bad.
18. — Why do you look so sad, Dave?
— I have quarrelled with my parents. They don’t want to buy me some necessary things.
— What things?
— A new MP3 player.
— Oh, Dave, MP3 player can’t be a necessary thing! You must be joking!
— No, I really need it! You know I’m fond of rap and my life may/might be much better with music. I could listen to my favourite music on the way to school or somewhere else.
— But if your parents refuse to buy it you mау try to make some agreement with them. You must just be a good son and a good pupil. In this case your parents mav/might be very pleased with you and will buy you a MP3 player.
— Well, I hope your advice could be really helpful. OK, I must try! Although I’m afraid, to be a good son and a good pupil mav/might be not an easy task!
19. 1) Our neighbours must be at work now. 2) We are late. Our teacher may get angry. 3) This can’t be her phone number. She has recently changed her number. 4) My brother may/might forget about the meeting. 5) You may/might think that this question isn’t so important. 6)43he can’t be surprised. She knew about it beforehand. 7) Your classmates could have other tasks. 8) Your brother must have this magazine. I gave it to him a week ago. 9) These girls may/might be sisters. 10) I think it may/might rain.
20. 1) — Can I watch TV a little longer today, Mum?
— I’m sorry, you can’t. Little children mustn’t watch TV late at night.
2) — May/could I talk with the manager, please?
— One moment, please. Sorry, the manager is out at the moment but you may leave a message for him.
3) — Can I use your camera, Dad?
— Of course, you can. But be careful with it.
4) — Might/could I see your passport, please?
— Here you are. May I go now?
— Yes, please. Good luck.
5) — You mustn’t smoke here. There is a special sign.
— Excuse me, please.
6) — Can I ride a bike after dinner?
— Of course -you can. But you can’t ride too fast because it’s very dangerous.
7) — Excuse me. Could/might I make a call from your phone, please?
— Sorry you can’t. The line is engaged at the moment.
21. 1) You may use the computer if you have any work. 2) You can’t watch TV. You haven’t done the homework yet. 3) Pupils can’t use calculators at the Maths lessons. 4) Can I take your suitcase? 5) Could I borrow your car, please? 6) He can’t stay with us. 7) You mustn’t leave a car here. 8) He may join us if he wants. 9) Could/ might I look at your calculations, please? — Of course, you can. 10) Can I have an apple? — First you may wash your hands and then you can have an apple.
22. Bobby should/ought to stay in bed. He should/ought to call the doctor. Bobby shouldn’t/oughtn’t to go out. He shouldn’t/oughtn’t to drink cold lemonade. He should/ought to drink warm tea or milk with honey. Bobby should/ought to take an aspirin. He shouldn’t/oughtn’t to eat an ice cream. He shouldn’t/oughtn’t to go to school. Bobby should/ought to take vitamins.
23. — My family has just moved to another town and I have no friends here yet. What should I do to make friends?
— I think you should try to make friends among your new classmates. First, you oughtn’t to be rude. You ought to smile when you speak to people. Then you should try to be helpful. Remember, a friend in need is a friend indeed!
— But school isn’t the only place to meet new friends.
— Of course not. You oughtn’t to be confined to school and home only. You should join some club or a gym. Hobby is a wonderful chance to meet interesting people and new friends. You shouldn’t be afraid of communicating. If you are a sociable person it isn’t a problem for you to make friends with somebody.
25. 1) could; 2) will; 3) would; 4) can; 5) shall; 6) would; 7) will; 8) shall; 9) will; 10) can.
26. Shop assistant: Can I help you, Miss?
Miss: Yes, I’m looking for a present for my friend.
S: What kind of present would you like?
M: Can I have a look at that photo frame?
S: Of course. Here you are.
M: Could you show me the bigger one, please?
S: Certainly, Miss.
M: They both look nice but I think I will take the bigger frame.
S: Good choice. Shall I pack it for you?
M: Yes, please.
1. 1) She can’t tell me everything about it. Can she tell me everything about it? 2) We mustn’t come to school in time. Must we come to school in time? 3) They couldn’t prepare the project yesterday. Could they prepare the project yesterday? 4) We may not take the ball to play. May we take the ball to play? 5) My sister doesn’t have to tidy her room. Does my sister have to tidy her room? 6) You shouldn’t read this article. Should you read this article? 7) Eddy didn’t have to walk the dog in the afternoon. Did Eddy have to walk the dog in the afternoon? 8) We can’t help her with the work. Can we help her with the work? 9) She shouldn’t put her coat on. Should she put her coat on? 10) You mustn’t follow the instructions. Must you follow the instructions?
2. 1) Who can bake a pie for our party? What can you do for our party? What can you bake for our party? 2) What must I do on Tuesday? Whom must I visit on Tuesday? When must I visit my grandparents? 3) What could she do at the age of nine? What language could she read at the age of nine? At what age could she read English? 4) What should you do with your parents? To whom should you speak about your problem? Whose problem should you speak to your parents about? What should you speak to your parents about? 5) What does he have to do in the evening? Whose doctor does he have to phone in the evening? Whom does he have to phone in the evening? When does he have to phone his doctor?
3. 1d; 2g; 3a; 4f; 5c; 6b; 7e.
4. 1b; 2c; 3b; 4a; 5b; 6c; 7a; 8c; 9a; 10a.
5. 1) He could count to twenty at the age of five. 2) She can translate this article rather quickly. 3) The teacher says we have to learn this poem by heart. 4) It was very dark and he wasn’t able to drive the car quickly. 5) They must be at home now. 6) I must take my younger brother to the doctor. 7) You should ask the teacher about it. 8) Can I help you? 9) Shall I buy some ice cream? 10) You mustn’t tell them about it. 11) Your friend may use my computer. 12) Can you help me with my homework? 13) What picture would you like to buy?
ПАСИВНИЙ СТАН ДІЄСЛІВ (THE PASSIVE VOICE)
1. 1) The rooms are cleaned every day. 2) The luggage is checked by the customs officer. 3) The dog is walked twice a day. 4) English and French are spoken in Canada. 5) Lemonade is sold in plastic bottles. 6) The Internet is used all over the world. 7) Christmas is celebrated on 25th of December in England. 8) Cakes are made by confectioners. 9) Time is shown by clocks and watches. 10) Football is played in different countries.
2. 1) are made; 2) are seen; 3) is grown; 4) are reported; 5) are fed; 6) is produced; 7) are used; 8) is visited; 9) is situated; 10) are kept.
3. 1) This hotel isn’t constructed by a famous architect. Is this hotel constructed by a famous architect? 2) This fact isn’t forgotten. Is this fact forgotten? 3) Students aren’t taught in colleges. Are students taught in colleges? 4) Airplanes aren’t flown by pilots. Are airplanes flown by pilots? 5) Rumours aren’t spread quickly. Are rumours spread quickly? 6) Oil isn’t made of seeds. Is oil made of seeds? 7) Breakfast isn’t served at 8 o’clock. Is breakfast served at 8 o'clock? 8) Cars aren’t repaired at the service centres. Are cars repaired at service centres? 9) This vase isn’t made of glass. Is this vase made of glass? 10) Managers aren’t wanted in this company. Are managers wanted in this company?
4. 1) are known; 2) aren’t caught; 3) is paved; 4) is known; 5) isn’t felled; 6) are hatched; 7) is painted.
5. 2) How often are the letters written? — The letters are written once a week. 3) How many phone calls are made? — A lot of phone calls are made. 4) How often are the computer games played? — The computer games are never, played. 5) When is the report prepared? — The report is prepared on Fridays. 6) How many pills are taken? — Four pills are taken. 7) How often are the flowers watered? — The flowers are watered three times a week.
6. 1) are exhibited; 2) are performed, are performed; 3) are ... made, are made; 4) are ... sold, are sold; 5) Is ... published, isn’t, is published; 6) aren’t made, are made; 7) is ... delivered, is delivered; 8) is ... cut, is cut; 9) is usually chosen, is chosen; 10) Are ... produced, are produced.
7. The Statue of Liberty was created by a French architect Bartholdi. It was made in France. The statue was built 11 years and when it was ready, it was taken to the USA by ship. A huge base for the statue was prepared by the Americans on one of the islands two miles from Manhattan. A lift and 390 steps were made so that the visitors could reach the crown top of «Lady Liberty» and admire the view of the area. The Statue of Liberty was recognized as a symbol of American freedom. Ninety years later the statue was restored by a team of French and American experts.
8. The mail was read in the morning. The meeting for the boss was arranged. The manager wasn’t phoned. The flowers were watered. The train tickets weren’t booked. The report wasn’t retyped. The list of possible clients was prepared. The e-mail to the lawyer was sent. Three rooms in the hotel weren’t reserved for the partners.
9. 1) This statue was made of marble. 2) The report wasn’t typed yesterday. 3) Were the letters delivered two hours ago? 4) When was the building destroyed? 5) Why was the room painted? 6) Was the bridge constructed ten years ago? 7) That suit was sold yesterday. 8) Whom was the message sent to? 9) When was a new school opened? 10) The photos weren’t taken in Brighton.
10. A poor young artist was asked to paint a portrait of a rich lady. When the portrait was finished, it was shown to the lady’s friends. Some of them thought that it was too realistic and the artist was suggested to change some details in the portrait. But the artist didn’t want to change anything. Then one of the friends had an idea. «Let’s show the portrait to the lady’s dog and we’ll see if the picture is good or bad», he said. So the picture was delivered to the lady’s house and her dog was brought before the portrait. As soon as the dog saw the picture, it began to lick it all over. The lady was pleased and everybody congratulated the artist.
11. 1) will be finished; 2) will be performed; 3) will be received; 4) won’t be completed; 5) was operated; 6) will be arranged; 7) will be signed; 8) won’t be paid; 9) won’t be discussed; 10) won’t be repaired.
12. 1) Fruit will be served in some minutes. 2) The painting of this artist won’t be exhibited in the gallery. 3) Will the Mona Lisa be shown to the tourists? 4) When will the computers be transported to our country? 5) Why will the museum be closed? 6) What film will be shown tomorrow? 7) Where will the keys be left? 8) What route will be offered for the excursion? 9) Will the assembly hall be decorated tomorrow? 10) What will the manager be asked about?
13. 1) was; 2) will be; 3) is; 4) will be; 5) was; 6) are; 7) was; 8) will be; 9) will be; 10) is.
14. 1) was cleaned; 2) are built; 3) will be published; 4) are whitewashed; 5) is grown; 6) wasn’t discovered, was discovered; 7) will be delivered; 8) are produced; 9) was used; 10) will be introduced.
15. England and France are separated by the English Channel. In the past people and goods were transported from one country to another by ferries only. This way of transporting wasn’t convenient enough so the idea to build a channel under the sea was offered in 1802 by a French engineer. Work started at the end of the 19th century but was interrupted by different political and practical problems. The building was resumed in the 1980s, and the tunnel was opened on May 6, 1994. It was named The Channel Tunnel and at that time it was recognized as the longest tunnel and one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World. Today the travel from France to England takes about three hours and 35 minutes of this time is spent in the underwater tunnel. But the engineers of both countries develop different ideas so that the work of the tunnel will be improved in the nearest future.
16. 1) The tickets for the plane will be brought in an hour. 2) This car was painted three months ago. 3) Computers are used by all the pupils of our school. 4) Where is fresh milk sold? 5) When was the steam engine invented? 6) This advertisement won’t be typed. 7) Paper is made of wood. 8) This church was built in the Last century. 9) Who was this museum founded by?
17. 1) gives; 2) were met; 3) will be introduced; 4) describes; 5) were told; 6) will show; 7) arrested; 8) will be given; 9) produces; 10) was designed.
18. 1) A lot of flowers are planted in our town every spring. 2) The bill will be paid in the hotel. 3) This project was discussed at the meeting yesterday. 4) New sourses of energy were invented by the scientist of this Institution. 5) The invitations for the party will be sent in two days. 6) Two little girls were frightened in the park by a big dog. 7) Cameras are forbidden in the museums. 8) What will be ordered for dessert? 9) His car is washed every Sunday. 10) When will the programme of the conference be sent? 11) A lot of berries are gathered every summer. 12) How often is this room used for lectures? 13) What newspapers were bought yesterday?
19. 1) with; 2) by; 3) by; 4) with; 5) by; 6) with; 7) by; 8) by; 9) by; 10) by.
20. 1) The homework must be done. 2) The ball can be used in the gym. 3) The dishes must be washed. 4) The essay should be written. 5) The dog should be fed. 6) This question could be discussed yesterday. 7) The things must be packed. 8) The documents couldn’t be signed yesterday. 9) Mobile phones can’t be used during the lesson. 10) Loud music shouldn’t be played here.
21. 1) The new book is talked about. 2) The play in the theatre was laughed at. 3) The photos were looked at with great interest. 4) The opera will be listened to with great pleasure. 5) Your kitten can be taken care of. 6) The secretary must be sent for. 7) Some fresh newspapers were looked through. 8) The flowers were sent away. 9) The heater will be switched off in the room. 10) The radio must be turned on.
22. 1) The letter is being written now. 2) The oranges are being bought now. 3) Sandwiches are being made now. 4) The newspaper isn’t being read at the moment. 5) The song isn’t being sung now. 6) Are the candles being lit now? 7) What lecture is being given now? 8) Whose report is being listened to at the moment? 9) Are the news being reported at the moment? 10) Is the interview being given now?
23. 1) was being listened to; 2) was being washed; 3) was being vacuumed; 4) was being checked; 5) was being discussed; 6) was being baked; 7) were being typed.
24. 1) This computer isn’t being used now. 2) The room is being cleaned. 3) The report was being listened to for half an hour yesterday. 4) Your suit was being ironed for twenty minutes yesterday. 5) Is he being waited for? 6) Was your room being painted for a long time yesterday? — Yes, it was being painted for three hours. 7) Dinner is being cooked. 8) Are the invitations being written? — Yes, they are. 9) My car was being repaired the whole day yesterday. 10) She is being asked now.
25. 1) has already been published; 2) has just been informed; 3) haven’t been arrested; 4) have already been put up; 5) hasn’t been finished; 6) Have ... been packed, haven’t; 7) has been learned; 8) have been prepared; 9) has ... been used; 10) has already been exhibited.
26. 1) The information is being looked for at the moment. 2) A new series of clothes has just been designed. 3) The road was being paved with stones. 4) He must be asked for help. 5) The woman has been thanked for her advice. 6) The joke was being laughed at. 7) We have been invited to a party. 8) This application can be rewritten. 9) The papers are being blown away by the wind. 10) The town has been destroyed by the fire.
27. 1) is being served; 2) should be thrown; 3) will be delivered; 4) were robbed; 5) has just been introduced; 6) were being rescued; 7) has already been told; 8) are usually held; 9) is being explored; 10) must ... be paid.
28. 1) This theatre was built last year. 2) The photos will be made tomorrow. 3) The sick man is being examined now. 4) Fish shouldn’t be bought at the market. 5) Vitamins must be taken regularly. 6) He is being spoken to now. 7) Have the presents been prepared yet? 8) The pupils have already been told the results of the test. 9) Have the sandwiches been made yet? 10) What is being discussed now?
1. 1) This exhibition isn’t visited by many tourists. Is this exhibition visited by many tourists? 2) He wasn’t given spaghetti for supper. Was he given spaghetti for supper? 3) The article won’t be translated tomorrow. Will the article be translated tomorrow? 4) This bill mustn’t be paid at once. Must this bill be paid at once? 5) The students aren’t being prepared for the test. Are the students being prepared for the test? 6) The tickets shouldn’t be shown to the conductor. Should the tickets be shown to the conductor? 7) First aid hasn’t been given to the injured person. Has first aid been given to the injured person? 8) The tables weren’t being served at that time. Were the tables being served at that time? 9) The robbers haven’t been arrested by now. Have the robbers been arrested by now? 10) The instructions couldn’t have been given yesterday. Could the instructions have been given yesterday?
2. 1) turn off; 2) is being sold; 3) with; 4) have just been; 5) was being operated on; 6) by; 7) should be taken; 8) should visit; 9) with; 10) will be announced.
3. 1) Loud music is being heard from the living-room now. 2) The festival is held in our city every year. 3) Was the lecture attended by all the students yesterday? 4) A taxi hasn’t been called yet. 5) The room must be aired every day. 6) The cake has already been eaten by the children. 7) Will the essays be handed tomorrow? 8) The show was being performed at five o’clock yesterday. 9) Have the suitcases been brought to the hotel room yet? 10) When was this university founded? 11) Whose car is being repaired now? 12) What pizza has just been ordered? 13) The message wasn’t received yesterday. 14) This invitation should be accepted. 15) What questions will be discussed tomorrow?
4. 1) The tickets will be bought tomorrow. 2) The witnesses of the accident are being looked for. 3) This book can be found in the library. 4) His friend has just been introduced to us. 5) The bill should be checked at once. 6) Our best students are given grants. 7) The freshman wasn’t laughed at by the pupils in their class. 8) The film was being talked about. 9) The guide wasn’t being listened to. 10) My camera mustn’t be taken.
5. 1) This event isn’t often remembered in our town. 2) She was invited to the theatre yesterday. 3) My computer will be repaired tomorrow. 4) They were shown a lot of beautiful paintings in the museum yesterday. 5) This vase shouldn’t be put on the shelf. 6) They have just be told about the history of our town. 7) When was this plate broken? 8) Where may/can this note be left? 9) What will be cooked for dinner tomorrow? 10) This article is being translated now.
УМОВНІ РЕЧЕННЯ (CONDITIONAL SENTENCES)
1. 1e; 2h; 3g; 4f; 5c; 6a; 7d; 8b.
2. 1) need, go; 2) is, should; 3) If; 4) when; 5) finishes, will come; 6) when; 7) will miss, don’t; 8) helps, has; 9) have, will buy; 10) is, watch.
3. 1) We’ll have dinner when mother cooks meat. 2) If Henry gets a driving licence, he will buy an expensive car. 3) As soon as my mother returns home, we’ll go shopping. 4) Frank will get up when the alarm clock rings. 5) I’ll stay at home until you phone me. 6) Sandra will work in the garden till it gets dark. 7) As soon as I have any news, I’ll tell you. 8) She’ll be angry if Ben doesn’t walk the dog. 9) When our teacher checks the test-papers, we’ll know the results.
4. 1) run, will catch; 2) don’t cry, are; 3) falls, will catch; 4) is, will play; 5) miss, runs; 6) don’t have, begins; 7) don’t strike, is; 8) shuts, steals; 9) leads, will fall.
5. 1) come, will be; 2) will visit, go; 3) will prepare, finishes; 4) do, won’t get; 5) won’t fall asleep, make; 6) won’t have, doesn’t eat; 7) will be, fail; 8) talks, needs; 9) go, am; 10) manages, will go.
6. 1) unless; 2) if; 3) If; 4) if; 5) unless; 6) if; 7) if; 8) unless; 9) if; 10) unless.
7. 1) If you speak quickly, they won’t understand you. 2) If she doesn’t take her umbrella, she’ll get wet. 3) If He forgets about the meeting, his boss will be very angry. 4) If you drive so fast, you will have an accident. 5) If you don’t leave now, you will be late for the train. 6) If they train a lot, they will win the competition. 7) If she doesn’t consult the dictionary, she won’t translate such a difficult text. 8) If we don’t take a rest, we won’t reach the camp before night. 9) If they don’t hurry, they will miss the beginning of the performance.
8. 1) «If I catch another, I’ll have one», said the boy. 2) The friend says, «If I guess right, will you give me one of them?» The first boy says, «If you guess right, I’ll give you both of them!» 3) «If you promise not to believe everything your child always says happens at school, I’ll promise not to believe everything your child says happens at home».
9. a) If Vicky studies hard, she will pass her school final exams successfully. If she passes her school final exams successfully, she will enter university. If she enters university, she will get good education. If she gets good education, she will find a good job. If she finds a good job, she will earn a lot of money. If she earns a lot of money, she will travel a lot. If she travels a lot, she will meet a handsome and clever young man. If she meets a handsome and clever young man, she will have a happy family.
b) If Vicky doesn’t study hard, she won’t pass her school final exams successfully. If she doesn’t pass her school final exams successfully, she won’t enter university. If she doesn’t enter university, she won’t get good education. If she doesn’t get good education, she won’t find a good job. If she doesn’t find a good job, she won’t earn a lot of money. If she doesn’t earn a lot of money, she won’t travel a lot. If she doesn’t travel a lot, she won’t meet a handsome and clever young man. If she doesn’t meet a handsome and clever young man, she won’t have a happy family.
10. 1) If you buy some fruit, I’ll prepare a fruit pie. 2) We’ll come to her party if she invites us. 3) He will hang the picture when he has time. 4) If you don’t help me, I won’t clean the flat quickly. 5) If you eat with dirty hands, you’ll have a stomachache. 6) I always use a dictionary if I don’t know the meaning of the words. 7) What do you do in the evening when you have free time? 8) How will he find necessary information if he doesn’t have the Internet? 9) Where will they go if the lecture finishes early? 10) What will she do if you don’t phone her?
11. 1) If she had enough money, she would buy some new clothes. 2) If he knew the law, he wouldn’t consult the lawyer. 3) If you took an aspirin, you wouldn’t have a headache. 4) If we had a country house, we would go there for the weekend. 5) If she knew English, she would understand the words of this song. 6) If I didn’t oversleep,
I would meet them at the station. 7) If he knew about this fact, he would change his opinion. 8) If the boy didn’t play with the knife, he wouldn’t cut his finger. 9) If she broke the vase, she would tell her mother about it.
12. 1) listened, would know; 2) would have, were; 3) could, would take; 4) wouldn’t be, didn’t return; 5) listened, would understand; 6) would come, got; 7) had, would give; 8) would ... buy, had; 9) would ... visit, planned; 10) would ... learn, wanted.
14. 1) If I were you, I would go to the hairdresser’s. 2) If 1 were you, I would tidy it. 3) If I were you, I would look for a highly paid job. 4) If I were you, I would go shopping. 5) If I were you, I would see the dentist. 6) If I were you, I would use the dictionary. 7) If I were you, I would have an early night. 8) If I were you, I would ask my parents for advice. 9) If I were you, I would take some driving lessons.
15. You would feel better if you had something in it. You would feel better if you had something in it.
16. «If I were you, I would take a smaller fish».
17. I wish my salary wasn’t very small. I wish my boss didn’t shout at me. I wish I had time for lunch. I wish I didn’t go on business trips so often. I wish I had time to play with my children. I wish I had another job.
18. I wish my mother wouldn’t make me clean my room every day. I wish my father would take me to the driving courses. I wish my Granny wouldn’t teach me to cook. I wish I would go to the night club every Saturday. I wish my parents wouldn’t make me study Biology.
19. 1d; 2g; Зі; 4a; 5h; 6b; 7c; 8f; 9e.
20. 1) do, will; 2) would show, finished; 3) wants, feels; 4) wouldn’t, didn’t; 5) won’t, don’t; 6) didn’t, wouldn’t; 7) would leave, managed; 8) have, will; 9) took, would; 10) would, were.
21. 1) would go; 2) win; 3) would study; 4) gets; 5) had; 6) wouldn’t give; 7) are; 8) weren’t; 9) arrives; 10) wouldn’t get.
22. 1) If you eat a lot of fruit, you’ll be healthy. 2) We’ll have time to buy the tickets if he isn’t late. 3) If I were you, I wouldn’t ask so many questions. 4) I wish I had my own car. 5) If she had higher education, she would find a better job. 6) I wish I would travel a lot in the future. 7) They would agree with me if they knew about my plan. 8) If I were you, I wouldn’t leave her alone. 9) I wish we were friends. 10) He would have more free time if he didn’t work so much.
1. 1) If I see Tom, I’ll tell him the news. 2) If you wait for me, I’ll go to the market with you. 3) If we had a yacht, we would sail around the world. 4) If your room were tidy, you wouldn’t look for your things. 5) They’ll watch TV as soon as she cleans the flat. 6) If children didn’t play with matches, a fire wouldn’t break out. 7) He won’t read your e-mail letter unless he turns on his computer. 8) We would help her if she told the truth. 9) They’ll play a game of chess when father returns home. 10) If the train didn’t arrive later, we wouldn’t meet you here.
2. 1) unless; 2) could; 3) will; 4) would; 5) if; 6) didn’t; 7) would; 8) would take; 9) wouldn’t; 10) didn’t.
3. 1) If I were you, I would wash the car. 2) If I. were you, I would buy a new pair of jeans. 3) If I were you, I would call the doctor. 4) If I were you, I would phone your grandparents. 5) If I were you, I would prepare for the test. 6) If I were you, I would ask your teacher to explain the rule to you. 7) If I were you, I would join your friends for a picnic.
4. 1) don’t get; 2) brought; 3) would lend; 4) shouts; 5) were; 6) would take; 7) will move; 8) would visit; 9) would be; 10) reads.
5. 1) If he takes medicine, he will recover soon. 2) If she didn’t get the message, she would phone us. 3) If I were you, I wouldn’t promise this. 4) I wish my mother bought me new jeans now. 5) If you gather some apples, I’ll bake an apple pie. 6) We would finish the work quickly if you helped us. 7) I wish we would buy the tickets to the concert tomorrow. 8) Tom will go fishing with his brother tomorrow if it doesn’t rain. 9) If I were you, I wouldn’t eat so much. 10) I would bring you this book if you asked me.
НЕПРЯМА МОВА (REPORTED SPEECH)
1. 1) says; 2) said; 3) told; 4) said; 5) tells; 6) told; 7) told; 8) said; 9) said; 10) told.
2. 1) told; 2) said; 3) told; 4) told; 5) told; 6) told; 7) said; 8) told; 9) said; 10) told.
3. 1) has; 2) was; 3) could; 4) is; 5) had; 6) had to; 7) would; 8) has; 9) could; 10) had.
4. Ann’s father said that pupils had holidays four times a year. Her grandfather said that he couldn’t read at her age. Ann’s grandmother said that she would prepare a big cake for her. Her younger brother said that he should go to school with her.
5. 1) Jack said that he was repairing the radio. 2) Fred said that his cousin usually went to the gym after school. 3) Ann said that she had never been to the Theme Park. 4) Andrew said that he couldn’t remember the number of his flat. 5) We said that we had returned home at five o’clock. 6) I said that I was hungry. 7) She said that her aunt would take her to the exhibition. 8) Our teacher said that he/she knew about that fact. 9) My father said that I might play the computer a bit longer. 10) Sally said that they were discussing the play at that time. 11) Tony said that he had just finished his report. 12) The waiter said that the taxi was waiting for us. 13) I said that I didn’t agree with Paul. 14) Henry said that he had ordered a cup of hot chocolate. 15) Tim said that our/their trip wouldn’t be long. 16) Jane said that she hadn’t bought the magazine. 17) A little girl said that she couldn’t ride a bike. 18) The policeman told the driver that his car was moving too fast. 19) Julia said that Ken’s boots were very dirty. 20) Den said that the doctor hadn’t come yet.
6. Mary told her Granny that she hadn’t been to school because she had felt badly. She said she had had a horrible headache. Mary said that her mother hadn’t called the doctor. Mary told her Granny that she had just had dinner. She said that she hadn’t done her homework yet. Mary said that her parents had been to the theatre on Tuesday. Mary said she was going to Pam’s birthday on Friday. Mary told her Granny that she would meet her at the bus station. Mary said that they could buy the pills for her. Mary told her Granny that father would drive her back home in the evening.
7. 1) Sally said that people can’t live without air. 2) Mark said that he would be in time for the meeting. 3) Johnny said that his father could sail a yacht. 4) The teacher said that the planets of the Solar System move around the Sun. 5) Dolly said that mothers always take care of their children. 6) Sam said that Athens is the capital of Greece. 7) A little boy told us that he hadn’t touched our dog. 8) Mother told her child that there are thirty-one days in December. 9) Ben said happily that they would celebrate Christmas in a week. 10) Jessica told Vicky that she had just read a very interesting article.
8. 1) Helen suggested going to the park to Molly. 2) Daniel promised his mother that he would tidy his room in the evening. 3) The woman advised her son to help his friend. 4) Andy reminded Ted to send the e-mail. 5) Nora asked Nick to help her with the luggage. 6) A little girl refused to stay at home alone. 7) Jane begged her mother to let her go to the party. 8) Frank agreed to give his camera to the friend for a day. 9) The teacher explained to the pupils that the Moon is smaller than the Earth. 10) Mrs Sunders forbad her daughter to take the jam from the fridge.
9. 1) Mother ordered Ron to show her his exercise-book. 2) The teacher told the pupils to open their books and read the text. 3) Eddy asked Nick to tell them about his adventure. 4) The librarian ordered/ told the children not to make a noise. 5) The doctor asked Betty to open her mouth. 6) Mr Green asked the waiter to bring them the bill. 7) Alice told her little sister not to drink cold milk. 8) Father ordered/told Sam not to turn on the computer. 9) The policeman asked the driver to show him his driving licence. 10) Martin asked his Mum to make him a cheese sandwich.
10. Mr Mendes asked Jeff to remind the clients to pay their bills. He agreed to look through the documents for the conference. Mr Mendes forbad Sally to use the office phone for her private talks. He reminded Ben to order three rooms for the participants of the conference in the hotel. He advised Jane to send the advertisement to the local newspaper. Mr Mendes told Ron not to play computer games during his working day. He asked Cindy not to be late for the appointment with the representative of the bank.
11. 1) Molly asked Vicky if she often visited her aunt. 2) Martin asked Den if his friend played table tennis. 3) Mother wondered if her- daughter would help her with the washing up. 4) Helen asked if her Granny had bought any apples for her. 5) Sam asked if Mike had written an essay. 6) The doctor asked the patient if he often had headaches. 7) George asked if his father had repaired his bike. 8) The shop-assistant wondered if the customer had tried the shoes on. 9) The waiter asked if we would have anything for dessert. 10) Mother asked Pam if she was watching TV. 11) Angela asked Emmy if anything was wrong. 12) Ted wondered if his parents were going to the theatre. 13) The guide asked the tourists if they understood English. 14) The child asked his mother if he might play football with his friends. 15) Granny wondered if Sally could go shopping for her. 16) The teacher asked the pupils if he should speak louder. 17) Alice wondered if her friend had seen that film. 18) Jane asked the conductor if she had to show him her ticket. 19) Granny asked if Tommy was hungry. 20) The professor wondered if the student had learnt Erench at school.
12. The tourists asked the guide if he had planned their tour beforehand. They wanted to know if they were going to the museum. They asked the guide if he spoke Spanish. The tourists asked the guide if he would tell them about the history of the castle. They asked the guide if he had ever been inside the tower. They wondered if the guide would show them the best shop to buy the souvenirs. They asked the guide if he could speak a bit louder. The tourists wondered if they could take some photos.
13. Two women were speaking in the park. Mrs Stone said that she had the perfect son. Mrs Franks asked if her son smoked and Mrs Stone answered that her son didn’t smoke. Then Mrs Franks wondered if her son drank whisky. Mrs Stone said that he didn’t drink whisky. Mrs Franks- asked if her son ever came home late and Mrs Stone denied. Mrs Franks agreed that Mrs Stone had the perfect son and wondered if he was a student. Mrs Stone said that her son would be six months old the next Wednesday.
14. A little boy came up to an old man, who was looking through the telescope at the sky. He asked if the old man could see everything in the sky with that telescope. The man told the boy that it was so. Then the boy asked if the man could find the balloon he had lost in the morning.
15. 1) Robert asked John what time he came back from the swimming- pool. 2) The shop-assistant asked the lady what size of dress she needed. 3) A man asked the policeman how he could get to the railway station. 4) The teacher asked the boy what exercise he had written. 5) Helen asked her sister where she was going. 6) A woman asked why a little girl was crying. 7) Frank asked Bob what time it was. 8) A man asked his wife what she had cooked for supper. 9) A manager asked the secretary who was waiting for him. 10) Pam asked Mark where they would go after the lecture. 11) Henry asked his Mum where his shirt was. 12) Vicky asked Den what present he had bought for Mary. 13) Jim asked Victor when he had bought his car. 14) Granny asked the children who had broken her cup. 15) Joe asked how much the tickets were. 16) Margaret asked the driver what time the bus arrived to Manchester. 17) The secretary asked the man what she could do for him. 18) Dick asked why Paul was so angry. 19) Jessica asked why Liz had cut her hair. 20) Amanda asked her classmate what time the lesson would begin.
16. The doctor asked how Colin felt. He wondered where Colin felt the pain. The doctor asked how Colin had hurt his leg. He wanted to know when it had happened. The doctor asked if Colin could move his toes. He wondered who had put him the bandage. The doctor asked if Colin had taken any medicine.
17. What have you prepared for the lesson? Have you all done your homework? What questions do you want to ask me about the grammar rules? Which exercise was the most difficult? Open your books and revise the grammar rule, please. Bobby, will you go to the blackboard and write a sentence? Bobby, can you explain the spelling of the words in the sentence? I give you a good mark for your answer, Bobby.
18. Ted asked his father why all those people were running. Father answered that they were running a race to get a cup. Then Fred wondered who would get the cup. His father explained that the person who won would get the cup. In a minute Fred asked why all the others were running then.
19. 1) Kate said that she hadn’t seen Roy that day. 2) Vicky asked Jane where they were going that night. 3) The teacher told the pupils that they would pass their exam the next month. 4) Philip told his friend that his mother had bought him those trainers a week before. 5) Pam said she would bring Jane that magazine the following day. 6) The baby-sitter told the woman that the children were playing on the playground then. 7) Andy said that he had spoken to his coach an hour before. 8) Henry told his sister that he had only had a sandwich for breakfast that day. 9) Beth said she was happy to be there again. 10) The policeman told the woman that he hadn’t seen her car there five minutes before. 11) The teacher asked why Bob hadn’t been at school the previous day. 12) Angela asked if Mary would go shopping the following day. 13) Laura asked what Nina was reading then. 14) Andrew asked if Paul could find any mistakes there. 15) Rachel asked if Sam was leaving the next day.
20. Bill said he had heard John’s dog howling the previous night. He added that if it howled the next day, it was a sure sign of death. John was surprised and wondered who would die. Bill answered that the dog would die.
21. Milly: Oh, it will be a great surprise for all my admirers. The work was finished two weeks ago and the film will be on next month.
Journalist: What do you think about your work in the new film?
M: Oh, last year was very hard for me, but the work was very interesting and sometimes dangerous.
J: What are your plans for the nearest future?
M: Next year I am going to star in a new historical film, but I would like to keep the details in a secret.
1. 1) said; 2) told; 3) told; 4) said; 5) said; 6) told; 7) said; 8) said; 9) told; 10) told.
2. 1) was; 2) will; 3) had bought; 4) the day before; 5) is; 6) will; 7) the previous year; 8) are; 9) the next day; 10) had, that.
3. 1) Greg asked if Ron could meet him at two the next day. 2) Pamela said that she was ironing Jim’s trousers. 3) Tony asked what time the bus departed. 4) The policeman ordered to go out of the car. 5) Susan suggested going to a cafe to Betty. 6) Tracy said she had already fed the cat. 7) Mrs Jones asked where the little girl lived. 8) Patrick asked Nick not to open the window. 9) Elsa said she hadn’t been to that shopping centre yet. 10) Paul asked Julia what she was going to do that day. 11) Helen asked Mum what she would cook for supper. 12) Tom said that that film had really been exciting. 13) The secretary said that Mr Grey would sign the contract the following day. 14) My neighbour asked how I liked the concert. 15) Little Beth told her Dad that they had never been to the circus. 16) Mary said that penguins can’t fly. 17) Brian asked not to phone him too late. 18) Ronald asked
Dick where he had been. 19) Sue asked Irma what newspaper she was reading. 20) Eric asked if he might have a piece of cake.
4. 1) The teacher asked why John was late. John answered that he had to wash his neck and ears. But he promised that it won’t happen again. 2) The teacher wondered if it was possible for a single person to make so many mistakes. The pupil answered that it wasn’t any single person, because his father had helped him. 3) The son-student reminded his sister, that it would be Dad’s birthday the next day. He wondered what they would do for their father. The daughter-student replied that they would allow him to take his car for a day.
5. Kate’s mother phoned Kate and said:
— Didn’t you forget to buy a loaf of bread on your way home from school?
— What have you had for dinner, dear?
— Did you get any marks at school?
— Don’t forget to clean the flat, because we will have guests in the evening.
— Kate, you shouldn’t water the flowers because I already did it in the morning.
— We will go shopping together tomorrow, dear, and we will buy you some lovely dress.