Дидактичні матеріали до спецкурсу «Країнознавство Великобританії» II семестр. Плани-конспекти уроків - В. В. Кончіч 2016
Practical training «The Science of Great Britain»
Aims and objectives:
- to introduce and practice vocabulary, grammar;
- to develop interactive skills based on the country study; to develop skills in reading and speaking;
- to expand students' knowledge about prominent British scientists.
Greeting. Introducing the topic
T. Good morning! Today we’re going to work on the topic «The Science of Great Britain».
Task 1. Answer the questions.
1. What is the role of science?
2. How can scientific progress influence people’s life?
3. What recent scientific achievements can you name?
II. THE MAIN PART
Task 2. Ask questions and complete the text.
What society?, known simply as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence.
Founded When?, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the «Royal Society of London». The Society today acts as What?, receiving a parliamentary grant-in-aid. The Society acts as the UK’s Academy of Sciences, and funds research fellowships and scientific start-up companies.
The Society is governed by What?, which is chaired by Society’s President, according to a set of Statutes and Standing Orders. Who? are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the Society, who are themselves elected by existing Fellows. There are currently How many? Fellows. The current President is Lord Rees of Ludlow. Since When?, the Society has been based at 6-9 Carlton House Terrace, a Grade I listed building in central London that underwent a substantial renovation between 1999 and November 2003.
Functions and activities
The Society has What?. It supports modern science; it finances approximately How many? research fellowships both early and late career scientists, along with innovation, mobility and research capacity grant. Its Awards, prize lectures and medals all come with prize money intended to finance research, and it provides media skills courses for research scientists. When?, the Society opened the Royal Society Enterprise Fund, intended to invest in new scientific companies and be self-sustaining, funded (after an initial set of donations on the 350thanniversary of the Society) by the returns from its investments.
Through its Science Policy Centre, the Society acts as What?. It publishes several reports a year, and serves as the Academy of Sciences of the United Kingdom. Since When?, government problems involving science were irregularly referred to the Society, and by 1800 it was done regularly. The Society now formally acts as Her Majesty Government’s chief scientific adviso, and is the United Kingdom’s Academy for Sciences.
The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is What?. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by Whom? as the «Royal Society of London». The Society today acts as a scientific advisor to the British government, receiving a parliamentary grant-inaid. The Society acts as What?, and funds research fellowships and scientific start-up companies.
The Society is governed by its Council, which is chaired by Society’s President, according to What?. The members of Council and the President are elected from and by its Fellows, the basic members of the Society, who are themselves elected by Whom?. There are currently 1,314 Fellows. The current President is Who?. Since 1967, the Society has been based Where?.
Functions and activities
The Society has a variety of functions and activities. It supports What?; it finances approximately 700 research fellowships both early and late career scientists, along with innovation, mobility and research capacity grant. What? come with prize money intended to finance research, and it provides media skills courses for research scientists. In 2008, the Society opened What?, intended to invest in new scientific companies and be self-sustaining, funded (after an initial set of donations on the 350th anniversary of the Society) by the returns from its investments.
Through its Science Policy Centre, the Society acts as an advisor to the European Commission and the United Nations on matters of science. It publishes What?, and serves as the Academy of Sciences of the United Kingdom. Since the middle of the 18th century, government problems involving science were irregularly referred to the Society, and by 1800 it was done regularly. The Society now formally acts as What?, and is the United Kingdom’s Academy for Sciences.
Task 3. Listen to the text. Agree or disagree the statements. Expound the point of view given in the statement or prove that it is false.
Sir Isaac Newton when he was a boy, was more interested in making mechanical devices than in studying. He made a windmill which could grind wheat and corn, and he made a water clock and a sundial. His teachers thought of him as a poor student.
He wanted to go to college, but he didn’t have the money to go. He enrolled at the lowest entry. In this position he had to serve the other students by running errands for them. He even ate the leftovers of their meals, but he would do anything to get an opportunity to learn. Even when he was in college, he was not outstanding and received no awards.
When the university shut down because of the plague, he went home and continued to study on his own. He had a notebook with 140 blank pages and he began to fill them with notes as he read and experimented.
His childlike curiosity led him to make some very important discoveries when he became a man. Within a period of a year and half he made three great discoveries.
One day when he was drinking tea in the garden, he saw an apple fall to the ground. He started thinking about why it fell, and finally concluded that the same force which caused the apple fall to also kept the moon in orbit around the earth. This same force, gravity, also kept the planets in orbit around the sun.
The apple fall to to his three basic laws of motion: An object in motion tends to remain in motion unless an external force stops it; an object moves in a straight line unless some force diverts it; and for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. He didn’t publish his findings for a long time. Edmund Halley, an astronomer, urged him to publish the things he had learned.
His second discovery was about light and the properties of light. He spent months in a darkened room doing experiments. He passed a beam of sunlight through a prism and discovered that the beam of light was broken down into different colors. His conclusion: something that appears green, such as grass, looks green because it reflects the green light in the sun and absorbs most of the other colors.
Some of his experimenting was dangerous. He would look at the sun, (something his mother had told him never to do), and he would stare at the reflection of the sun in a mirror until he lost his sight. Then he shut himself up in a dark room for several days until his vision finally returned.
He also made a reflecting telescope to use in his studies.
Newton’s third great discovery was in the field of math when he developed a kind of math we call calculus. He was just 24 years old at the time. However, he did not publish his findings for about 20 years, and by then someone else had figured out the same thing. Newton said the man had stolen his idea. There was a bitter debate over which man made the discovery. Newton got his friends to say he was the one. However, 200 years later, it was decided that both men had come to the same conclusion without help from the other one.
By the time he was in his mid 50’s he had worn himself out and suffered from exhaustion. Some were even afraid he might have mercury poisoning caused by his experiments.
In 1696 he became the head of the mint where the coins were made. There was a lot of counterfeiting. People were making their own coins. So the mint started replacing all the coins with new coins. Newton would dress up in disguises so no one would know him, and he would go out on the streets of London to try and catch the counterfeiters. He was successful in capturing the people who were responsible.
Sir Isaac Newton never married. It is said he was very generous with his nieces and nephews and with the scientists who helped him in his work.
1. Sir Isaac Newton, when he was a boy, was interested in studying.
2. He was very rich.
3. He has never studied of his own.
4. Within a period of two years and half he made three great discoveries.
5. He concluded that the same force which caused the apple fall to also kept the moon in orbit around the earth.
6. His second discovery was about fire.
7. Newton’s third great discovery was in the field of math when he developed a kind of math we call calculus.
8. He lost his sight and his vision has never returned.
9. He published his findings at once.
10. Someone else figured out the same discovery.
11. By the time he was in his mid 50’s he had worn himself out and suffered from exhaustion.
12. In 1697 he became the head of the mint where the coins were made.
13. Sir Isaac Newton had two wives.
14. He was very generous.
Task 4. Use the previous exercise to retell the text.
Task 5. Read the text and answer the questions.
Michael Faraday, (22 September 1791 — 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current, and established basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology.
As a chemist, Michael Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.
Although Faraday received little formal education and knew little of higher mathematics, such as calculus, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. Some historians of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science. Faraday’s law of induction states that magnetic flux changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force.
Faraday was the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a position to which he was appointed for life.
Albert Einstein kept a photograph of Faraday on his study wall alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell.
Faraday was highly religious; he was a member of the Sandemanian Church, a Christian sect founded in 1730 that demanded total faith and commitment. Biographers have noted that «a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded Faraday’s life and work».
1. Who is Michael Faraday?
2. What did he discovered?
3. What formed the foundation of electric motor technology?
4. What did he discovered as a chemist?
5. Did he receive a good education?
6. What does the law of induction state?
7. Who kept a photograph of Faraday on his study wall? Why?
8. What was the role of religion in his life?
Task 6. Read the text and find 10 mistakes.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, (30 August 1871 — 19 October 1937) was a British-New Zealand chemist and physicist who become known as the father of nuclear physics. In early work he discovered a concept of radioactive half life, proved that radioactivity involved the transmutation of one chemical element to another, and also differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 «for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances».
Rutherford performed his more famous work after he received this prize. In 1911, he postulate that atoms have their positive charge concentrated in a very small nucleus, and thereby pioneered a Rutherford model, or planetary, model of the atom, through his discovery and interpretation of Rutherford scattering in his gold foil experiment. He is widely credited with first splitting the atom in 1917, and leading first experiment to «split the nucleus» in a controlling manner with two students under his direction, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton in 1932.
III. SUMMING UP
Task 7. Answer the questions.
1. What learned societies do you know? What is the most famous among them?
2. What British scientists can you name? What are their discoveries?
Discoveries that changed our world.
Additional material to the topic «The Science of Great Britain»
Task 8. Read the text and find 10 mistakes.
ENGLISH INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES
Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Babbage, Charles Darwin, Stephen Hawking, Christopher Wren, Alan Turing, Francis Crick, Joseph Lister, Tim Berners-Lee, Andrew Wiles and Richard Dawkins. Experts claim that an earliest concept of a metric system was invented with John Wilkins, first secretary of the Royal Society at1668. As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th century. Famous English Newton, Michael Faraday, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Joseph Priestley, J. J. Thomson, Charles engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
Inventions and discoveries of the English includes: the first industrial spinning machine, the first computer and the first modern computer, the World Wide Web along with HTTP and HTML, a first successful human blood transfusion, the vacuum cleaner, the lawn-mower, the seat belt, the hovercraft, the electric motor, the microphone, steam engines, and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory. Newton developing the ideas of universal gravitation, Newtonian mechanics, and infinitesimal calculus, and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity. Others inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon, tarmac, the rubber band, the mousetrap, «cat’s eye» road safety device, joint development of the light bulb, steam locomotives, the seed drill, the jet engine and many modern techniques and technologies using in precision engineering.
Task 9. Answer the questions.
1. What prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics can you name?
2. Whom was the earliest concept of a metric system invented by?
3. Who was the first secretary of the Royal Society in 1668.
4. What country is a birthplace of the Industrial Revolution?
5. What inventions and discoveries of the English can you name?
6. What is Newton famous for?
Task 10. Discovery (invention) that changed our world.