Дидактичні матеріали до спецкурсу «Країнознавство США». Плани-конспекти уроків
Lecture and practical training «The history of the USA»
Aims and objectives:
- to introduce and practise vocabulary, grammar;
- to develop skills in reading and speaking;
- to gain knowledge and interest in the history of the country.
Greeting. Introducing the topic
T. Good morning! Today we’re going to work on the topic «The history of the USA».
Task 1. Answer the questions.
1. How do you think who were the first inhabitants in the USA?
2. What main periods in the history of the USA can you name?
3. How can you describe them?
II. THE MAIN PART
Reading and grammar. Jigsaw reading
Task 2. Ask questions and complete the text.
The history of the United States traditionally starts with What? in the year 1776, yet its territory was occupied first by Whom? since prehistoric times and then also by European colonists mostly following the voyages of Christopher Columbus starting in When?. The Thirteen Colonies won independence from the British Empire in the American Revolution and as states ratified the Articles of Confederation and then the Constitution in 1789 as the basis for the United States federal government.
The US territory grew westward Where? but was opposed on the frontier by Native Americans, Mexico, and others, and domestically by those fearing the expansion would shift the balance of power from one region to another. Who? in the Southern states became a divisive issue between North and South, requiring compromises for further expansion. The election of Whom? triggered a crisis as eleven slave states seceded to found the Confederate States of America in 1861, and led to the catastrophic, How many years? American Civil War. The South was defeated and, in the Reconstruction era, the US ended slavery, began extending rights to African Americans, and readmitted secessionist states with loyal governments. The present 48 contiguous states were admitted by early When?
The US rose as an industrialized power by the early 20th century. Changes in lifestyle led to What?, which pushed for reform in industry and politics and is associated with women’s suffrage and Prohibition (the latter failed by 1933) Initially committed to neutrality, the US eventually entered World War I in When?, and despite US attempts to foster the League of Nations, popular support remained isolationist.
The Soviet Union and the US emerged as opposing superpowers after the war and began the What? confronting on other fronts including an arms race, the Space Race, and intervention in Europe and eastern Asia. Liberalism reflected in the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War peaked in the When? before giving way to conservatism in the early 1980s. The Cold War ended when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, leaving the US to prosper in the booming Information Age economy that was boosted, at least in part, by What?. International conflict and economic uncertainty heightened by 2001 with the September 11 attacks and subsequent War on Terror and the late-2000s recession.
The history of the United States traditionally starts with the Declaration of Independence in When?, yet its territory was occupied first by the Native Americans since prehistoric times and then also by European colonists mostly following the voyages of Whom? starting in 1492. The Thirteen Colonies won independence from the British Empire in the American Revolution and as states ratified the Articles of Confederation and then the Constitution in When? as the basis for the United States federal government.
The US territory grew westward across North America but was opposed on the frontier by Whom? and others, and domestically by those fearing the expansion would shift the balance of power from one region to another. Slavery of Africans in the Where? became a divisive issue between North and South, requiring compromises for further expansion. The election of Abraham Lincoln triggered a crisis as eleven slave states seceded to found the Confederate States of America in When?, and led to the catastrophic, four-year What?. The South was defeated and, in the Reconstruction era, the US ended slavery, began extending rights to African Americans, and readmitted secessionist states with loyal governments. The present 48 contiguous states were admitted by early 1912.
The US rose as an industrialized power by the early 20th century. Changes in lifestyle led to the Progressive movement, which pushed for reform in What? and is associated with women’s suffrage and Prohibition (the latter failed by 1933) Initially committed to neutrality, the US eventually entered What in 1917, and despite US attempts to foster the League of Nations, popular support remained isolationist.
The Soviet Union and the US emerged as opposing superpowers after the war and began the Cold War confronting on other fronts including an arms race, the Space Race, and intervention in Where?. Liberalism reflected in the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War peaked in the When? before giving way to conservatism in the early 1980s. The Cold War ended when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, leaving the US to prosper in the booming Information Age economy that was boosted, at least in part, by information technology. International conflict and economic uncertainty heightened by 2001 with the What? and subsequent War on Terror and the late-2000s recession.
Task 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the right form.
Spanish explorers ... (to come) to what is now the United States beginning with Christopher Columbus’ second expedition, which ... (to reach) Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493; others ... (to reach) Florida in 1513.
Quickly Spanish expeditions ... (to reach) the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. In 1540, Hernando de Soto ... (to undertake) an extensive exploration of the present US and, in the same year, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Native Mexican Americans across the modern Arizona — Mexico border and ... (to travel) as far as central Kansas. The Spanish ... (to send) some settlers, creating the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States at St. Augustine, Florida in 1565, but it ... (to be) in such a harsh political environment that it ... (to attract) few settlers and never ... (to expand). Most Spanish settlements were along the California coast or the Santa Fe River in New Mexico.
Task 4. Complete the text.
Claimed, traded, expansion, broadmindedness, traditionalism, religions, renamed, province, pragmatism
New Netherland, was the 17th century Dutch colonial ... on the eastern coast of North America. The Dutch ... territory from the Delmarva Peninsula to Buzzards Bay, while their settlements concentrated on the Hudson River Valley, where they ... furs with the Native Americans to the north and were a barrier to Yankee ... from New England. Their capital, New Amsterdam, was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan and was ... New York when the English seized the colony in 1664. The Dutch were Calvinists who built the Reformed Church in America, but they were tolerant of other ... and cultures. The colony left an enduring legacy on American cultural and political life, including a secular ... and mercantile ... in the city, a rural ... in the countryside typified by the story of Rip Van Winkle, and politicians such as Martin Van Buren, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt.
Task 5. Complete the text with prepositions.
The 22 parishes ... Acadiana; the Cajun heartland ... Louisiana is highlighted ... darker red. New France was the area colonized . France ... North America during a period extending 1534 ... 1763, when Britain and Spain took control. There were few permanent settlers outside Quebec, but fur traders ranged working ... numerous Indian tribes who often became military allies ... France’s wars ... Britain. The territory was divided ... five colonies: Canada, Acadia, Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and Louisiana. After 1750 the Acadians — French settlers who had been expelled ... the British ... Acadia (Nova Scotia)—resettled ... Louisiana, where they developed a distinctive rural Cajun culture that still exists. They became American citizens ... 1803 ... the Louisiana Purchase. Other French villages along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers were absorbed when the Americans started arriving ... 1770.
Task 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the Passive Voice.
In 1607, the Virginia Company of London established the Jamestown Settlement on the James River, both ... (to name) after King James I. The strip of land along the eastern seacoast ... (to settle) primarily by English colonists in the 17th century, along with much smaller numbers of Dutch and Swedes. Colonial America ... (to define) by a severe labor shortage that employed forms of unfree labor such as slavery and indentured servitude, and by a British policy of benign neglect (salutary neglect) that permitted the development of an American spirit distinct from that of its European founders. Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants. The first successful English colony ... (to establish) in 1607, on the James River at Jamestown. It languished for decades until a new wave of settlers arrived in the late 17th century and established commercial agriculture based on tobacco. Between the late 1610s and the Revolution, the British shipped an estimated 50,000 convicts to their American colonies.
During the Georgian era English officials exiled 1,000 prisoners across the Atlantic every year. One example of conflict between Native Americans and English settlers was the 1622 Powhatan uprising in Virginia, in which Native Americans had killed hundreds of English settlers. The Plymouth Colony ... (to establish) in 1620. New England ... (to settle) primarily by Puritans who established the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630. The Middle Colonies, consisting of the present-day states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, ... (to characterize) by a large degree of diversity. The first attempted English settlement south of Virginia was the Province of Carolina, with Georgia Colony the last of the Thirteen Colonies established in 1733. Several colonies ... (to use) as penal settlements from the 1620s until the American Revolution. Methodism became the prevalent religion among colonial citizens after the First Great Awakening, a religious revival led by preacher Jonathan Edwards in 1734.
Task 7. Read the text and complete the sentences.
FORMATION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The Thirteen Colonies began a rebellion against British rule in 1775 and proclaimed their independence in 1776 as the United States of America. The United States defeated Britain with help from France especially, and also the United Provinces and indirectly from Spain in the American Revolutionary War. The colonists’ 1777 capture of the British invasion army at Saratoga secured the Northeast and led the French into an open alliance with the United States.
In 1781, Washington led a combined American and French army, acting with the support of a French fleet, and captured a large British army led by General Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia, thus virtually ending the land war. Political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset observes, «The United States was the first major colony successfully to revolt against colonial rule. In this sense, it was the first ’new nation’ ».
After the war finally ended in 1783, there was a period of prosperity. The national government was able to settle the issue of the western territories, which were ceded by the states to Congress and became territories (and after 1791 started to become states). Nationalists worried that the new nation was too fragile to withstand an international war, or even internal revolts such as the Shays’ Rebellion of 1786 in Massachusetts. Nationalists — most of them war veterans — organized in every state and convinced Congress to call the Philadelphia Convention in 1787. The delegates from every state wrote a new Constitution that created a much more powerful and efficient central government, one with a strong president, and powers of taxation.
To assuage the Anti-Federalists who feared a too-powerful national government, the nation adopted the United States Bill of Rights in 1791. Comprising the first ten amendments of the Constitution, it guaranteed individual liberties such as freedom of speech and religious practice, jury trials, and stated that citizens and states had reserved rights (which were not specified).
1. The United States defeated Britain with help from ... .
2. In 1781, Washington led ... .
3. Nationalists worried that ... .
4. The delegates from every state ... .
5. Comprising the first ten amendments of the Constitution, it guaranteed individual liberties such as ... .
Task 8. Read the text and put the events into logical order.
ROARING TWENTIES, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, AND WORLD WAR II
Following World War I, the US grew steadily in stature as an economic and military world power. The United States Senate did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles imposed by its Allies on the defeated Central Powers; instead, the United States chose to pursue unilateralism, if not isolationism. The aftershock of Russia’s October Revolution resulted in real fears of communism in the United States, leading to a three-year Red Scare. In 1918 the US lost 675,000 people to the Spanish flu pandemic.
In 1920, the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol were prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Prohibition encouraged illegal breweries and dealers to make substantial amounts of money selling alcohol illegally. The Prohibition ended in 1933 in a failure. Additionally, the KKK reformed during that decade and gathered nearly 4.5 million members by 1924, and the US government passed the Immigration Act of 1924 restricting foreign immigration. The 1920s were also known as the Roaring Twenties, due to the great economic prosperity during this period.
In 1932, Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt promised «a new deal for the American people». a phrase that has endured as a label for his administration and its many domestic achievements. The desperate economic situation, along with the substantial Democratic victories in the 1932 elections, gave Roosevelt unusual influence over Congress in the «First Hundred Days» of his administration. He used his leverage to win rapid passage of a series of measures to create welfare programs and regulate the banking system, stock market, industry and agriculture, along with many other government efforts to end the Great Depression and reform the American economy.
As with World War I, the United States did not enter World War II until after the rest of the active Allied countries had done so. The United States first contribution to the war was simultaneously to cut off the oil and raw material supplies needed by the Empire of Japan to maintain its offensive in China, and to increase military and financial aid to China. Contribution came to the Allies in September 1940 in the form of the Lend-Lease program with Britain.
On December 7, 1941 Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, an American naval base Roosevelt successfully urged a joint session of Congress to declare war on Japan, calling December 7, 1941 «a date which will live in infamy». Four days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 11, Germany declared war on the United States, drawing the country into a two-theater war.
1. The Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt promised «a new deal for the American people».
2. The aftershock of Russia’s October Revolution resulted in real fears of communism in the United States.
3. Germany declared war on the United States, drawing the country into a two-theater war.
4. The US lost 675,000 people to the Spanish flu pandemic.
5. The manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol was prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
6. Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor.
Task 9. Match the dates with the events.
1. In 1918
a) were also known as the Roaring Twenties, due to the great economic prosperity during this period
2. In 1920
b) Democratic presidential nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt promised «a new deal for the American people»
3. The 1920th
c) Contribution came to the Allies in the form of the Lend-Lease program with Britain
4. In 1932
d) Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor
5. In 1940
e) the manufacture, sale, import and export of alcohol was prohibited by the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
6. In 1941
f) the US lost 675,000 people to the Spanish flu pandemic
III. SUMMING UP
Task 10. Answer the questions.
1. What interesting facts from the history of the USA can you name?
2. How can you describe the colonization in the USA?
3. What can you tell about the formation of the USA?
4. Can you name the names of the most outstanding persons who influenced on the history of the USA?
Make the chronological chart of the main periods in history of the USA. (Use Internet sites: en.wikipedia.org./wiki/Wiki;www.wiki.com)
Additional material to the topic «The history of the USA»
Task 11. Read the text below and answer the question (1-6). Choose a, b, c, d.
The story of the United States begins with the thirteen colonies which by the late 18th century had 2.5 million people. In its struggle towards independence, the Declaration of Independence led to the American Revolution in 1776. Between the Revolution against Britain and the American Civil War in 1861, the young nation went through a myriad of storms, politically and socially, in addition to the significant progress it went through. Slavery of Africans was already an issue early in those days, which perhaps contributed to the formation of the Confederate States of America, leading to the Civil War. As the war broke out, lines were drawn on the sands of these United States.
The Civil War was followed by the reconstruction era in which a change in the overall atmosphere brought in a change that comes with growth. Slavery ended, states that broke off from the union were readmitted, and the national government grew stronger. All 48 contiguous states had been admitted in 1912, Alaska and Hawaii were added later in the mid 20thcentury.
Between the 1890s through the 1920s, the progressives ushered in a different tone. People were getting tired with the corruption, waste, and the practice of old politics. The movement saw the advancement of women’s suffrage and the prohibition of alcohol added to the constitution.
When World War I broke out in 1914, the United States had maintained its neutrality under Woodrow Wilson. Wilson tried to keep the US out of the war, but then in 1917 relented and declared war against Germany.
The Wall Street Crash of 1929 came after a decade of prosperous living, the years that followed marked a world wide Great Depression that lasted for ten years. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and other politicians presented the people a form of relief in what was called the New Deal. This brought in various types of programs that included relief, recovery, and reform. Unfortunately, all this did was realign the political landscape that produced the Democratic Party, big political machines in the major cities, so-called intellectuals, and the white south.
December 8, 1941, «A day that will live in infamy...» These words spoken by FDR marked the entry of the United States into its Second World War in less than 25 years. The Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor on that date led to the first use of the atomic bomb. This also marked the defeat of Nazi Germany under the Allied Forces.
The Cold War was born immediately after World War II. Even though there was a brief period of rest for the US during those years following World War II, by 1950, the United States found itself embroiled in the Korean War, 1959 saw the total involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War. Both wars have been described as «proxy wars» wherein a third party is used in a war.
The cold War ended in 1991, but a different kind of War ensued in the decades that followed, the War on Terror. The story of the United States is still being written, and the rest of the world continues to watch with great anticipation.
1. The Declaration of Independence led to ... .
a) the American Revolution b) the American Civil War
c) the World War I d) the Great Depression
2. The Civil War was followed by ... .
a) the decline of the economy b) the reconstruction era
c) the poverty and the hunger d) the destructive era
3. 48 contiguous states had been admitted in ... .
a) 1912 b)1918
c) 1921 d) 1917
4. Who declared war against Germany in 1917?
a) Franklin Roosevelt b) Woodrow Wilson
c) Theodore Roosevelt d) William Taft
5. The Wall Street Crash signaled the beginning of ... .
a) the Civil War
b) the decline of the economy
c) the Great Depression
d) the destructive era
6. The Cold War was after ... .
a) World War II b) World War I
c) Civil War d) the Great Depression
Task 12. Read the text below and decide if the statements (1-6) are True or False.
THE COLD WAR
The years following the World War II gave birth to events we often hear from the history books and the history channel. Cold war battles were fought through proxy wars which includes the Korean War in 1950 and the Vietnam War in 1955. In a battle for supremacy in the area of technology and innovation, the United States officially joined the Space Race in 1957 after it saw the progress the soviets had made.
The United States influenced the rest of the world in all aspects of everyday life not just economically, but also technology, politically, militarily, socially, and culturally. The 1960 elections saw the rise of John Fitzgerald Kennedy into the political arena. Considered a charismatic politician, President Kennedy found himself faced with international conflicts at perhaps what could be called the height of the cold war. Robert F. Kennedy, brother of JFK, as part of the cabinet, was named attorney general.
During his brief three years in office as the US President, John F. Kennedy faced: the growing role of the US in the Vietnam war; the US drive to winning the Space Race; the Bay of Pigs invasion; Cuban missile crisis; the civil rights movement, highlighted by the jailing of Martin Luther King Jr. President Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963 during a visit to Dallas, Texas.
Liberalism and Social Activism. As Lyndon B. Johnson took the oath of office after the assassination of President Kennedy. Johnson introduced and passed through congress what was then known as the Great Society programs. The programs included the end of segregation, civil rights, Medicare, federal aid for education, the extension of welfare benefits, just to name a few. This period has historically been seen as the rise of liberalism in America.
The civil rights movement continued to gain traction, but at a cost. Those from the south opposed this new threat to their way of life. It has been said that institutional racism swept across in many parts of America. Leaders in the movement were led by the likes of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks. The women’s movement also found an audience, not just in the shores of America, but throughout the world. The continuing push for women’s rights coincided with the civil rights movement. Names that stand out in the women’s rights movement included Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem.
While judicial activism by the warren court, social programs doling out money, the United States was fighting two wars internationally the Cold War and the Vietnam War. Social boundaries, feminism, environmental issues, civil rights all became a political force of its own. Many of what was previously accepted as the norm, was being dismissed by the prevailing social and political wind. The Counterculture Movement of the early 1950s into the mid 1970s paved the way events such as the hippie movement, drugs, Woodstock, the Oil Embargo in 1973 by OPEC, and of course, Watergate.
1. Cold war battles were fought through proxy wars which includes the Korean War in 1955.
2. The United States officially joined the Space Race in 1957.
3. Robert Fitzgerald Kennedy, son of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, as part of the cabinet, was named attorney general.
4. President Kennedy was assassinated on October 21, 1961.
5. As Lyndon B. Johnson took the oath of office after the assassination of President Kennedy.
6. Leaders in the civil rights movements were led by the likes Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem.