Країнознавство США ІІ семестр - ПЛАНИ-КОНСПЕКТИ УРОКІВ - 2016 рік

LESSONS 32-33 Practical training "Mass Media in the USA"

Aims and objectives:

- to practise grammar;

- to develop skills in reading;

- to promote group skills work;

- to expand students' knowledge about American mass media.

PROCEDURE

I. INTRODUCTION

Greeting. Introducing the topic

T. Good morning! Today we’re going to work on the topic “Mass Media in the USA”.

Warm up

Task 1. Answer the questions.

1. What is the role of mass media?

2. Why is press called the fourth power of the state?

3. What American newspapers and magazines do you know?

4. How important is TV in our life?

5. Do you think children can be affected by television? How?

6. What is your attitude to the advertisements in mass media?

II. THE MAIN PART

Reading

Task 2. Read and answer the questions.

MEDIA OF THE UNITED STATES

Media of the United States consist of several different types of communications media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites The U.S. also has a strong music industry. Many of the media are controlled by large for-profit corporations who reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and sale of copyrighted material. American media conglomerates tend to be leading global players, generating large revenues as well as large opposition in many parts of the world. Further deregulation and convergence are under way, leading to mega-mergers, further concentration of media ownership, and the emergence of multinational media conglomerates. Critics allege that localism, local news and other content at the community level, media spending and coverage of news, and diversity of ownership and views have suffered as a result of these processes of media concentration.

Theories to explain the success of such companies include reliance on certain policies of the American federal government or a tendency to natural monopolies in the industry.

The organization Reporters Without Borders publishes an annual Press Freedom Index; in 2010 the US was ranked 20th out of 178 countries.

1. What do media of the United States consist of?

2. What are media controlled by?

3. What is the result of media concentration?

4. What is Reporters Without Borders?

Task 3. Jigsaw reading. Ask questions and complete the text.

NEWSPAPERS

Group I

Newspapers have declined in What? over the years. The U.S. does not have a national paper. What papers? are sold in most U.S. cities.

Although the Times’ primary audience has always been the people of New York City, the New York Times has gradually become the dominant national “newspaper of record”. Apart from its daily nationwide distribution, the term means that back issues are archived on microfilm by every decent-sized public library in the nation, and What? are often cited by both historians and judges as evidence that a major historical event occurred on a certain date. The Los Angeles Times and the Wall Street Journal are also newspapers of record to a lesser extent. Although USA Today has tried to establish itself as a national paper, it has been widely derided by the academic world as What? and is not subscribed to (let alone archived) by most libraries.

Apart from the newspapers just mentioned, all major metropolitan areas have their own local newspapers. Typically, a metropolitan area will support How many? major newspapers, with many smaller publications targeted towards particular audiences. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage.

With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by What?; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.

Most general-purpose newspapers are either being printed one time a week, usually on Thursday or Friday, or are printed daily. Weekly newspapers tend to have much smaller circulation and are more prevalent Where?. Major cities often have “alternative weeklies” to complement the mainstream daily paper (s), for example, New York City’s Village Voice or Los Angeles’ LA. Weekly, to name two of the most well-known. Major cities may also support What?.

Probably due to competition from other media, the number of daily newspapers in the U.S. has declined over the past half-century, according to Editor & Publisher, the trade journal of American newspapers. In particular, the number of evening newspapers has fallen by almost one-half since What year?, while the number of morning editions and Sunday editions has grown.

For comparison, in 1950, there were 1,772 daily papers (and 1,450 — or about 70 percent — of them were evening papers) while in 2000, there were 1,480 daily papers (and 766 — or about half — of them were evening papers.)

What? is also slowly declining in America, partly due to the neardemise of two-newspaper towns, as the weaker newspapers in most cities have folded.

The primary source of newspaper income is advertising — in the form of “classifieds” or inserted advertising circulars — rather than circulation income. However, since What time?, this revenue source has been directly challenged by Web sites like eBay (for sales of secondhand items), Monster.com (jobs), and Craigslist (everything).

The largest newspapers (by circulation) in the United States are USA Today, the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times.

Group II

Newspapers have declined in their influence and penetration into American households over the years. The U.S. does not have What?. The New York Times and the Wall Street Journal are sold in most U.S. cities.

Although the Times’ primary audience has always been the people of New York City, the New York Times has gradually become What?. Apart from its daily nationwide distribution, the term means that back issues are archived on microfilm by every decent-sized public library in the nation, and the Times’ articles are often cited by both historians and judges as evidence that a major historical event occurred on a certain date. What papers? are also newspapers of record to a lesser extent. Although USA Today has tried to establish itself as a national paper, it has been widely derided by the academic world as the “Mc-Paper” and is not subscribed to (let alone archived) by most libraries.

Apart from the newspapers just mentioned, all major metropolitan areas have What?. Typically, a metropolitan area will support at most one or two major newspapers, with many smaller publications targeted towards particular audiences. Although the cost of publishing has increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on What?, for their national and world coverage.

With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by individuals or families.

Most general-purpose newspapers are either being printed How often?. Weekly newspapers tend to have much smaller circulation and are more prevalent in rural communities or small towns. Major cities often have What? to complement the mainstream daily paper(s), for example, New York City’s Village Voice or Los Angeles’ LA. Weekly, to name two of the most well-known. Major cities may also support a local business journal, trade papers relating to local industries and papers for local ethnic and social groups.

Probably due What?, the number of daily newspapers in the U.S. has declined over the past half-century, according to Editor & Publisher, the trade journal of American newspapers. In particular, the number of evening newspapers has fallen by almost one-half since 1970, while the number of morning editions and Sunday editions has grown.

For comparison, in 1950, there were 1,772 daily papers (and 1,450 — or about 70 percent — of them were evening papers) while in 2000, there were How many? daily papers (and 766 — or about half — of them were evening papers.)

Daily newspaper circulation is also slowly declining in America, partly due to the near-demise of two-newspaper towns, as the weaker newspapers in most cities have folded.

The primary source of newspaper income is What? — in the form of “classifieds” or inserted advertising circulars — rather than circulation income. However, since the late 1990s, this revenue source has been directly challenged by Web sites like eBay (for sales of secondhand items), Monster.com (jobs), and Craigslist (everything).

The largest newspapers (by circulation) in the United States are What newspapers?

Reading and grammar

Task 4. Fill in the articles where necessary.

MAGAZINES

Thanks to ... huge size of ... English-speaking North American media market, ... United States has ... large magazine industry with ... hundreds of ... magazines serving almost every interest, as can be determined by … glancing at any newsstand in any large American city. Most magazines are owned by one of ... large media conglomerates or by one of their smaller regional brethren.

... U.S. has three leading weekly newsmagazines: ... Time, ... Newsweek and ... U.S. News and World Report. ... Time and ... Newsweek are center-left while ... U.S. News and World Report tends to be center-right. ... Time is well-known for ... naming ... “Person of ... Year” each year, while . U.S. News publishes . annual ratings of . American colleges and universities.

... U.S. also has over ... dozen major political magazines.

Finally, besides . hundreds of … specialized magazines that serve … diverse interests and hobbies of … American people, there are also … dozens of … magazines published by … professional organizations for their members, such as ... Communications of ... ACM (for ... computer science specialists) and ... ABA Journal (for ... lawyers).

Task 5. Read and complete the text with prepositions.

THE INTERNET

The Internet has provided a means ... newspapers and other media organizations to deliver news and, significantly, the means to look up old news. Some organizations only make limited amounts ... their output available ... free, and charge ... access to the rest. Other organizations allow their archives to be freely browsed. It is possible that the latter type obtain more influence, as they are true to the spirit ... freedom ... information ... virtue ... making it free. Anyone who has followed external links only to be confronted ... a pay to view banner, might attest that the reputations ... organizations that charge is not enhanced ... their charging policy, particularly when the same information is available ... sources that don’t charge.

The Internet, ... means ... making available such constantly growing news archives, is, ... effect, writing our history as it happens, ... a level ... detail never ... known. While proprietary archives are slowly exposed to the public … many decades, organizations that maintain immediately updating resources have more control . what will be remembered ... the general public ... the near future.

Task 6. Find 10 grammar mistakes in the text.

RADIO

American radio broadcasts in two bands: FM and AM. Some stations are only talk radio — featuring interviews and discussions — while music radio stations broadcast one particular type of music: Top 40, hip-hop; country, etc. Radio broadcast companies have became increasingly consolidated in recent years. National Public Radio is the nation’ primary public radio network, but most radio stations are commercial and profit-oriented.

Talk radio as a political medium has also exploding in popularity during the 1990s, due to a 1987 repeal of the Fairness Doctrine, which meant that stations no longer had “balance” theirs day by programming alternative points of view. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has recently approved a transition to digital radio technology who allows both FM and AM stations to “piggyback” digital data on top of their existing analog broadcasts. When the transition will be complete at some point in the far future, the analog broadcasts will be replaced with true high-quality digital broadcasts.

A new form of radio that is gaining popularity is satellite radio. The two bigest subscriptions based radio services are Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite, which have recently both merged together to form Sirius XM Radio. Unlike terrestrial radio music channels are commercial free and other channels feature very minimal commercials. Satellite radio also is not regulated with the FCC.

Arbitron, a consumer research company, provides ratings for national and local radio stations in the United States.

Task 7. Open the brackets and make the following text complete.

TELEVISION

Television ... (to be) one of the major mass media of the United States. Ninety-nine percent of American households ... (to have) at least one television and the majority of households ... (to have) more than one. As a whole, the television networks of the United States ... (to be) the largest and most syndicated in the world.

Television channels and networks

There ... (to be) at least five basic types of television in the United States: broadcast, or “over-the-air” television, unencrypted satellite or “free-to-air”, Direct Broadcast Satellite, cable television, and IPTV (internet protocol television).

Over-the-air and free-to-air TV ... (to be) free with no monthly payments while Cable, Direct Broadcast Satellite, and IPTV ... (to require) a monthly payment that ... (to vary) depending on how many channels a subscriber ... (to choose) ... (to pay) for. Channels ... (to sell) usually in groups, rather than singly.

Broadcast television

The United States ... (to have) a decentralized, market-oriented television system. Unlike many other countries, the United States ... (to have) no national broadcast programming service. Instead, local media markets . (to have) their own television stations, which may ... (to affiliate) with or ... (to own) and ... (to operate) by a TV network. Stations may ... (to sign) affiliation agreements with one of the national networks. Except in very small markets with few stations, affiliation agreements ... (to be) usually exclusive: If a station ... (to be) an NBC affiliate, the station ... (not to air) programs from ABC, CBS or other networks.

However, ... (to ensure) local presences in television broadcasting, federal law ... (to restrict) the amount of network programming local stations can ... (to run). Until the 1970s and ’80s, local stations ... (to supplement) network programming with a good deal of their own produced shows. Today, however, many stations ... (to produce) only local news shows. They ... (to fill) the rest of their schedule with syndicated shows, or material produced independently and sold to individual stations in each local market.

The three major networks

The three in the U.S. ... (to be) the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) both of which ... (to date) to the early days of television — (in fact, they both ... (to begin) in the 1920s as radio networks), and thirdly the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) which ... (to begin) its life as a radio network ... (to spin) off from NBC in 1943. In big cities, affiliates of these networks ... (to broadcast) almost always free of charge in the VHF band before the transition to digital television in 2009.

III. SUMMING UP

Speaking

Task 8. Answer the questions.

1. What is the role of mass media?

2. What do you think about American press?

3. What are pros and cons of television?

Home assignment

Write an essay about the influence of mass media on people.





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