Країнознавство США ІІ семестр - ПЛАНИ-КОНСПЕКТИ УРОКІВ - 2016 рік

LESSON 21 Practical training "American Painting"

Aims and objectivees:

- to introduce and practise vocabulary;

- to develop skills in reading, listening and speaking;

- to expand students' knowledge about American painting.

PROCEDURE

I. INTRODUCTION

Greeting. Introducing the topic

T. Good morning! Today we’re going to work on the topic “American Painting”.

Warm up

Task 1. Answer the questions.

1. What American artists do you know? What are they famous for?

2. What American museums and art galleries can you name?

3. What is the role of art?

II. THE MAIN PART

Reading

Task 2. Jigsaw reading. Ask questions and complete the text.

AMERICAN PAINTING

Group I

What? consisted of portraits, as settlers sought to establish their identities in a new world. When? landscapes and scenes of native flora, fauna, and folk customs began to express its unique qualities and illustrate its untapped resources. What? formed the mainstay of subject matter in colonial and federal American art, as immigrants to the New World attempted to bring a semblance of Old World civilization to their wild or, at best, provincial surroundings. When Who? arrived in Rome in 1760, he was the first American artist to study in Europe. Upon seeing the Vatican’s famous classical statue, Which one?, West exclaimed, “My God! How like it is to a young Mohawk warrior!” What comparison? won hearty applause from the connoisseurs. West soon emerged as Who? dropping the allegorical trappings from classical antiquity that had been the norm and basing his work on historical research.

Who? followed West’s example in depicting past and present occurrences with believable accessories and settings. Gilbert Stuart, who studied with West Where?, revitalized the concept of “Grand Manner” portraiture; his Skater is invigorated with a sense of immediacy and activity.

When the Revolutionary War ended When?, artists sought to create a distinctive environment for the ideals of liberty. What concepts? evolved seamlessly into the nineteenth century’s neoclassical style of idealized anatomy, symmetrical composition, and pure colors. Who? bridges this transition toward a more scientific naturalism.

Romanticism, partly engendered by reactions to What?, sought to release the emotions in dynamic design, dramatic spotlighting, and virtuoso displays of palpable paint textures. Such emotional elements mark What? of Benjamin West. Two of West’s later pupils, Who?, helped to introduce romanticism to the United States.

When the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 instantly doubled the nation’s area, Who? began to investigate the native people, flora, and fauna. Who? outnumbered by unschooled artist-craftsmen, such as Edward Hicks, who painted for their own pleasure or on commission from rural patrons. When? landscape painting came to prominence, symbolizing America’s unique natural resources and vast territory. And, with the introduction of photography to the United States When?, the cameraman soon usurped much of the clientele of the portrait painter.

As nineteenth-century Americans sought an appropriate vehicle to express What?, artists turned to images of the land. Who?, the leader of the Hudson River School, portrayed a once-pristine environment threatened by the onslaught of civilization. Spurred on by his romantic idealism, some of Cole’s followers created What?, while others carefully painted what they saw. During What period?, an intimate approach to landscape evolved in New England. The twilight marine paintings of Fitz Hugh Lane are What?, which some scholars have termed “luminism”. Artists seeking nature’s more awesome aspects often traveled far afield: Who? journeyed from the Arctic to below the equator, while other peripatetic painters explored the far western United States, giving tangible expression to America’s dream of Manifest Destiny.

What paintings? depicting everyday life also gained popularity around mid-century. However, What? quickly darkened following the Civil War. Who? expressed a starkly realistic world view. Their What art? demonstrates an uncompromising commitment to truth.

As Americans traveled abroad in increasing numbers When?, a newfound cosmopolitanism emerged. Avant-garde movements such as What? were embraced by American painters who found the style’s look, if not its underlying theory, consistent with their artistic aims. Familiarity with traditional European art also may have inspired a renewed interest in What?; the popularity of such paeans to wealth and acquisition reflects the prevailing spirit of materialism.

Who? flocked to America, only to confront the sobering reality of urban blight and poverty. Who?, an influential artist and teacher, urged his followers to address these pressing issues. Their ostensibly crude subject matter offended critics, who dubbed the New York group the Ash Can School.

As violence, anxiety, and alienation became dominant themes When?, artists expressed dissatisfaction with the dehumanizing aspects of modern life. Whether phrased Where?, or in the language of pure abstraction, these disturbing works seem a far cry from the idyllic aspirations of early nineteenth-century Americans, who — for a brief time — truly believed their country held the promise of paradise.

Group II

Much art of the American colonial period consisted of What?, as settlers sought to establish their identities in a new world. After the new nation achieved its independence, landscapes and scenes of native flora, fauna, and folk customs began What?.

Portraiture formed the mainstay of subject matter in What art?, as immigrants to the New World attempted to bring a semblance of Old World civilization to their wild or, at best, provincial surroundings. When Benjamin West arrived in Rome in 1760, he was Who?. Upon seeing the Vatican’s famous classical statue, the Apollo Belvedere, West exclaimed What?. His astute comparison between a “noble savage” and the “glory that was Greece” won What?. West soon emerged as Europe’s foremost history painter, dropping the allegorical trappings from classical antiquity that had been the norm and basing his work on What?.

John Singleton Copley followed West’s example in What?. Gilbert Stuart, who studied with West in London, revitalized What?; his Skater is invigorated with a sense of immediacy and activity.

When the Revolutionary War ended in 1783, artists sought to create a distinctive environment for What?. The eighteenth century’s classicizing concepts evolved seamlessly into the nineteenth century’s neoclassical style of What?. The large Peale family, several members of which were artists, bridges this transition toward What?.

Romanticism, partly engendered by reactions to the American and French revolutions, sought to release What?. Such emotional elements mark the later paintings of Who? . Two of West’s later pupils, Thomas Sully and John Trumbull, helped to introduce What? to the United States.

When the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 instantly doubled the nation’s area, artists such as John James Audubon and George Catlin began to investigate What?. These academically educated artists were outnumbered by unschooled artist-craftsmen, such as Edward Hicks, who painted In what way?. After the War of 1812, landscape painting came to prominence, symbolizing What?. And, with the introduction of photography to the United States in 1839, the cameraman soon usurped What?.

As nineteenth-century Americans sought an appropriate vehicle to express their national zeal, artists turned to What?. Thomas Cole, the leader of What?, portrayed a once-pristine environment threatened by the onslaught of civilization. Spurred on by his romantic idealism, some of Cole’s followers created pastoral, idyllic views, while others carefully painted What?. During the 1850s, What? evolved in New England.

The twilight marine paintings of Fitz Hugh Lane are paradigms of this elegiac style, which some scholars have termed How?. Artists seeking nature’s more awesome aspects often traveled far afield: Frederic Church journeyed from the Arctic to below the equator, while other peripatetic painters explored What?, giving tangible expression to America’s dream of Manifest Destiny.

Lighthearted genre paintings depicting everyday life also gained popularity When?. However, the mood of the nation quickly darkened following What?. Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer expressed What?. Their mature art demonstrates What?.

As Americans traveled abroad in increasing numbers toward the century’s end, What? emerged. Avant-garde movements such as impressionism were embraced by American painters who found What?, if not its underlying theory, consistent with their artistic aims. Familiarity with traditional European art also may have inspired a renewed interest in still-life painting and aristocratic portraiture; the popularity of such paeans to wealth and acquisition reflects What?.

Optimistic immigrants flocked to America, only to confront What?. Robert Henri, Who?, urged his followers to address these pressing issues. What? offended critics, who dubbed What? the Ash Can School.

As What? became dominant themes in the twentieth century, artists expressed dissatisfaction with the dehumanizing aspects of modern life. Whether phrased in the representational idiom of George Bellows and Edward Hopper, or in the language of pure abstraction, these disturbing works seem a far cry from the idyllic aspirations of early nineteenth-century Americans, who — for a brief time — truly believed What?.

Task 3. Match.

1. Benjamin West

a) was the leader of the Hudson River School

2. John Singleton Copley

b) was an influential artist and teacher

3. Gilbert Stuart

c) followed West’s example in depicting past and present occurrences with believable accessories and settings

4. Thomas Sully and John Trumbull

d) expressed a starkly realistic world view, demonstrated an uncompromising commitment to truth

5. John James Audubon and George Catlin

e) revitalized the concept of “Grand Manner” portraiture

6. Edward Hicks

f) began to investigate the native people, flora, and fauna after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803

7. Thomas Cole

g) expressed dissatisfaction with the dehumanizing aspects of modern life

8. Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer

h) was the first American artist to study in Europe

9. Robert Henri

i) was an unschooled artist-craftsman who painted for their own pleasure or on commission from rural patrons

10. George Bellows and Edward Hopper

j) helped to introduce romanticism to the United States

Task 4. Translate the following word combinations from English into Ukrainian. Use these word combinations to make up your sentences.

1) to establish one’s identities

2) untapped resources

3) the mainstay of subject matter

4) an astute comparison

5) a sense of immediacy and activity

6) on commission from rural patrons

7) to express one’s national zeal

8) the onslaught of civilization

9) an uncompromising commitment to truth

10) the prevailing spirit of materialism

11) the promise of paradise

Reading and speaking

Task 5. Read the text.

MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES OF WASHINGTON

National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC is a world-class art museum that displays one of the largest collections of masterpieces in the world including paintings, drawings, prints, photographs, sculpture, and decorative arts from the 13th century to the present. The National Gallery of Art collection includes an extensive survey of works of American, British, Italian, Flemish, Spanish, Dutch, French and German art.

The National Gallery of Art was opened to the public in 1941 with funds provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. The original collection of masterpieces was provided by Mellon, who was the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and ambassador to Britain in the 1930s.

The collection of the National Gallery of Art has constantly expanded and in 1978, the East Building was added to exhibit 20th century contemporary art including works by Alexander Calder, Henri Matisse, Joan Miro, Pablo Picasso, Jackson Pollock, and Mark Rothko.

Corcoran Gallery of Art

The Corcoran Gallery of Art, a privately funded institution, was founded in 1869 as Washington, DC’s first and largest non-federal museum of art. The historic building was established as a private art gallery to house the extensive collection of Washington banker and philanthropist, William Wilson. Today, the Corcoran is a College of Art and Design and a gallery displaying one of the most comprehensive collections of American art in the world. It is known internationally for its distinguished collection of historical and modern American art as well as contemporary art, photography, European painting, sculpture and the decorative arts.

Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the neighboring Freer Gallery of Art together form the national museum of Asian art for the United States. The gallery features a unique collection that includes Chinese bronzes, jades, paintings and lacquerware, ancient Near Eastern ceramics and metalware, and sculpture from Asia.

The gallery opened in 1987 to house more than 1,000 Asian art objects donated by Dr. Arthur M. Sackler (1913-1987), a research physician and medical publisher from New York City. Since 1987, the gallery’s collections have expanded to include 19th and 20th century Japanese prints and contemporary porcelain; Indian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean and South Asian painting; and sculpture and ceramics from Japan and South and Southeast Asia.

National Portrait Gallery

The National Portrait Gallery tells the stories of America through the individuals who established American culture. Through the visual arts, performing arts, and new media, the Portrait Gallery portrays poets and presidents, visionaries and villains, actors and activists. The museum’s collection of nearly 20,000 works ranges from paintings and sculpture to photographs and drawings. The National Portrait Gallery presents six permanent exhibitions including the expanded “America’s Presidents” as well as “America Origins, 1600-1900”, and “20thCentury Americans” featuring famous sports figures and entertainers.

Smithsonian American Art Museum

The Smithsonian American Art Museum is the home of the largest collection of American art in the world including more than 41,000 artworks, spanning more than three centuries. The exhibits tell the story of America through the visual arts and represent the most inclusive collection of American art of any museum today. It is the nation’s first federal art collection, predating the 1846 founding of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum’s permanent collection will be featured in six installations, including “American Experience”, “American Art through 1940” and contemporary works in the Lincoln Gallery.

National Museum of Women in the Arts The National Museum of Women in the Arts is located in the heart of Washington, DC and is the only museum in the world dedicated solely to celebrating the artistic achievements of women. The museum’s permanent collection features more than 3,000 works of art including a wide range of styles and media by women from the 16th century to the present.

Wilhelmina and Wallace Holladay founded the National Museum of Women in the Arts when they donated more than 250 works by women artists. Since the museum’s opening in 1987, the collection has grown to include the works of more than 800 artists from 28 countries.

Task 6. Agree or disagree. Expound the point of view given in the statement or prove that it is false.

1. National Gallery of Art collection includes an extensive survey of works of American and British art.

2. The National Gallery of Art has been exhibiting 20th century contemporary art since 1978.

3. The Corcoran Gallery of Art tells the stories of America through the individuals who established American culture.

4. The Corcoran Gallery of Art was founded in 1869 as Washington, DC’s first and largest federal museum of art.

5. The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the neighboring Freer Gallery of Art together form the national museum of Chinese art for the United States.

6. The Arthur M. Sackler Gallery is collections include 19th and 20th century Japanese prints and contemporary porcelain.

7. The Portrait Gallery portrays poets and presidents, visionaries and villains, actors and activists.

8. The National Portrait Gallery presents sixteen permanent exhibitions.

9. The Smithsonian American Art Museum is the home of the largest collection of American art.

10. The Smithsonian American Art Museum represent the most inclusive collection of American art of any museum today.

11. The museum’s permanent collection features more than 5,000 works of art.

12. Mellon, who was the U. S. Secretary of the Treasury and ambassador to Britain in the 1930s, founded the National Museum of Women in the Arts.

Task 7 What museum or art gallery would you like to visit? Explain your choice.

Listening

Task 8. Listen to the text.

MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES OF NEW YORK

Guggenheim Museum

The uniquely-shaped building houses one of the more interesting galleries. Its spiraled main gallery, designed by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, allows you to move continuously through the exhibits. The main gallery, which displays sculpture and artwork of a striking range of traditions, and there is an annex which opens up with even more treasures. Try to head there early to avoid the crowds, and whether you come just to view Wright’s memorable building or spend an entire day admiring all the art the vast space has to offer, the Guggenheim is a must-see for art and architecture fans.

Metropolitan Museum of Art

One to put blisters on top of your running blisters, this is one of the world’s largest museums, and you’d have to come back several times to see the entire collection! The Met, as it is more commonly known, features many fascinating permanent exhibits. The massive collection ranges from treasures of Classical Antiquity originating from Greece, Cyprus and Egypt, to works by nearly all the European masters, as well as an extensive collection of American art.

Brooklyn Museum of Art

This museum has one of the best collections of Egyptian Art in the world. Its permanent collection includes Classical and Ancient Middle Eastern Art, and Arts of Africa, the Pacific and the Americas. They have installed 28 period rooms and feature an extensive selection of American Paintings.

The Whitney Museum of American Art

This is one of only a few museums in New York City that focuses entirely on American art. It houses an extensive collection (more than 12,000 paintings, sculptures, prints, drawings and photograph) of 20th century American art. The permanent exhibits occupy one floor of the museum while the other floors are used for temporary exhibits, providing a good overview of the changes in American art over the last century. And if you like what you have seen, the Museum Store offers one of the country’s finest selections of art books and exhibition catalogues related to 20th century American art.

The Frick Collection

This is located in the former mansion of Henry Clay Frick, whose private art collection was made into a museum after his death in the early 20th century. The mansion is a work of art in itself, with some of the rooms of the house having painted walls like the frescoes of a Renaissance church or castle. The museum would appeal mostly to fans of classic 16th to 18thcentury European art, and there’s nothing more recent than 1880’s French Impressionism. Finding your way around can be complicated because the house has several small, out-of-the-way rooms, so you are best to take advantage of free self- guided audio tours.

Task 9. Complete the sentences.

1. The main gallery of Guggenheim Museum displays ... .

2. The Guggenheim is a must-see for ... .

3. Metropolitan Museum of Art is more commonly known as ... .

4. The massive collection of the Met ranges from ... .

5. Brooklyn Museum of Art has one of the best collections ... .

6. Its permanent collection includes ... .

7. The Whitney Museum of American Art is one of only a few museums ... .

8. The Museum Store offers ... .

9. The private art collection of Henry Clay Frick was ... .

10. The museum would appeal mostly to ... .

Task 10. Answer the questions.

1. Why is the main gallery of Guggenheim Museum so unique?

2. What does the Met feature?

3. What museum has one of the best collections of Egyptian Art in the world?

4. What museum focuses entirely on American art?

5. What is the story of the Frick Collection?

III. SUMMING UP

Speaking

Task 11. Answer the questions.

1. What do you remember from the history of American art?

2. What American museums and art galleries can you name?

Home assignment

Write an interview with a famous American painter. (Use Internet sites: en.wikipedia; www.wiki.com)





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