Країнознавство США ІІ семестр - ПЛАНИ-КОНСПЕКТИ УРОКІВ - 2016 рік

LESSONS 24-25 Practical training "Science in the USA"

Aims and objectives:

- to practise grammar;

- to develop skills in reading, listening and speaking;

- to promote group work skills;

- to expand students' knowledge about science in the USA.

PROCEDURE

I. INTRODUCTION

Greeting. Introducing the topic

T. Good morning! Today we’re going to work on the topic “Science in the USA”.

Warm up

Task 1. Answer the questions.

1. What is the role of science?

2. How can scientific progress influence people’s life?

3. What recent scientific achievements can you name?

4. How have they affected the everyday life of people all over the world?

5. How high-tech are you?

II. THE MAIN PART

Reading

Task 2. Jigsaw reading. Ask questions and complete the text.

SCIENCE IN THE USA

Group I

From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged What?. It has done this by promoting a free flow of ideas, by encouraging the growth of “useful knowledge”, and by welcoming creative people from all over the world. What? reflects the desire to encourage scientific activity. It gives Congress the power “to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries”. This clause is the basis of What?.

Two of America’s founding fathers were actually scientists of some repute. Benjamin Franklin conducted a series of experiments that proved What?. Thomas Jefferson was a student of agriculture who introduced various types of rice, olive trees and grasses into the New World.

During the 19th century, What countries? were the leading sources of new ideas in science and mathematics; but if the United States lagged behind in the formulation of theory, it excelled in using applied science. Why? they often had to figure out their own ways of doing things. The result was a flow of important inventions. The great American inventors include Who? (the steamboat);

Samuel F. B. Morse (What?); Who? (the cotton gin); Cyrus McCormick (What?); Who? (the powered flying machine) and Thomas Alva Edison, the most fertile of them all, with more than a thousand inventions credited to his name.

When?, American scientists were increasingly recognized for their contributions to “pure” science, the formulation of concepts and theories. The changing pattern can be seen in the winners of the Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry. During the first half-century of Nobel Prizes (What period?) American winners were in a distinct minority in the science categories. Since 1950, Americans have won approximately half of the Nobel Prizes awarded in the sciences.

Group II

From its emergence as an independent nation, the United States has encouraged science and invention. It has done this by What?. The United States Constitution itself reflects the desire to encourage scientific activity. It gives Congress What power?. This clause is the basis of the U.S. patent and trademark system.

Who? were actually scientists of some repute. Benjamin Franklin conducted a series of experiments that proved that lightning is a form of electricity. Thomas Jefferson was a student of agriculture who introduced What? into the New World.

During the 19th century, Britain, France and Germany were the leading sources of new ideas in science and mathematics; but if the United States lagged behind in the formulation of theory, it excelled in What?. Because Americans lived so far from the well-springs of Western science and manufacturing, they often had to figure out their own ways of doing things. The result was What?. The great American inventors include Robert Fulton (What?); Who? (the telegraph); Eli Whitney (What?); Who? (the reaper); the Wright Brothers (What?) and Thomas Alva Edison, the most fertile of them all, with more than a thousand inventions credited to his name.

In the second half of the twentieth century, American scientists were increasingly recognized for their contributions to “pure” science, the formulation of concepts and theories. The changing pattern can be seen in the winners of the Nobel Prizes in What categories?. During the first half-century of Nobel Prizes (from 1901 to 1950) American winners were in a distinct minority in the science categories. Since 1950, Americans have won approximately How many Nobel Prizes? awarded in the sciences.

Reading and grammar

Task 3. Read the text and put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Information Technologies ... (to include) the ever growing variety of ways in which we ... (to be able to) gather, store, analyze, share, and display information.

Drawing on Max Planck’s quantum theory and Albert Einstein’s explanation of photoelectric phenomena, Bell Laboratories ... (to invent) the transistor in 1948. This solid-state replacement for the vacuum tube ... (to revolutionize) electronics. With the invention of the integrated circuit in 1958, the pace of electronic and computer technology ... (to increase) greatly. Today, millions of integrated circuits can ... (to place) on silicon chips no bigger than postage stamps. Book-sized computers of the 1990s can ... (to outperform) room-sized computers of the 1960s.

Miniaturization . (to cause) prices to spiral downward, making the technology affordable for larger numbers of small businesses, local governments, schools, libraries, families, and individuals.

INTERNET

Much of the innovation that ... (to spawn) today’s information technologies ... (to result) directly from Federal investment in science and technology. Starting in 1969, the Department of Defense ... (to open) its experimental nationwide computer network through the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The National Science Foundation (NSF) ... (to extend) ARPA’s network to civilian academic users in 1987. The Internet ... (to emerge) from the joint effort by Federal agencies and universities . (to advance) networking technology.

More than half of the nation ... (to be) now online. In 2000, 98 % of U.S. schools ... (to have) Internet access. The number of households with Internet access ... (to increase) to 50.5% in 2001. Use of broadband services such as cable, satellite, and DSL ... (to expand) rapidly. Wireless Internet access for notebooks via WLANs in airports, hotels and cafes ... (to become) also increasingly popular.

For the United States, the Information Technology Revolution quietly ... (to change) the way business and government operate. The nation . (to shift) the control of essential processes in manufacturing, utilities, banking, and communications to networked computers. Since 2002, the U.S. economy and national security ... (to be) fully dependent upon information technology and the information infrastructure.

Task 4. Make these sentences passive.

1. Bell Laboratories invented the transistor in 1948.

2. This solid-state replacement for the vacuum tube revolutionized electronics.

3. Miniaturization causes prices to spiral downward.

4. The Department of Defense opened its experimental nationwide computer network through the ARPA.

5. The NSF extended ARPA’s network to civilian academic users in 1987.

6. The Information Technology Revolution quietly changed the way business and government operate.

7. The nation shifted the control of essential processes in manufacturing, utilities, banking, and communications to networked computers.

Task 5. Read the text and put the questions to the following answers.

NUCLEAR SCIENCE

One of the most spectacular and controversial achievements of world science in the second half of the 20th century has been the harnessing of nuclear energy. The concepts that led to the splitting of the atom were developed by the scientists of many countries, but the conversion of these ideas into the reality of nuclear fission was the achievement of U.S. scientists in the early 1940s.

After German physicists split a uranium nucleus in 1938, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard, all of whom had fled to the United States to escape persecution in National Socialist Germany and Italy, concluded that a nuclear chain reaction was feasible. In a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt, Einstein warned that the next step on the part of German scientists would be the construction of “extremely powerful bombs”. This warning led to the Manhattan Project — the United States’ effort to build an atomic bomb before Germany. The development of the bomb and its use against Japan in August of 1945 initiated the Atomic Age.

After the war, the network of researchers, government and military officials, and physicians mobilized for the Manhattan Project began working on government programs to promote both peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear weapons development.

Nuclear power and nuclear medicine are two examples of peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nuclear energy to produce electricity commercially began in the U.S. in 1957. Today, over 100 nuclear power plants produce about 21 percent of all the electricity generated in the United States. A 1979 accident at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania made many Americans uncertain about the safety of nuclear power. Utilities must follow a lengthy series of licensing procedures before a nuclear power plant can be built and operated in the United States.

1. The conversion of the idea of the splitting of the atom was the achievement of U.S. scientists in the early 1940s.

2. Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard had fled to the United States to escape persecution in National Socialist Germany and Italy.

3. The development of the bomb and its use against Japan in August of 1945 initiated the Atomic Age.

4. Nuclear power and nuclear medicine are two examples of peaceful uses of atomic energy.

5. A 1979 accident at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania made many Americans uncertain about the safety of nuclear power.

Task 6. Complete the sentences.

1. One of the most spectacular and controversial achievements of world science in the second half of the 20th century ... .

2. After German physicists split a uranium nucleus in 1938, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard concluded that … .

3. In a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt, Einstein warned that ... .

4. The Manhattan Project is ... .

5. Nuclear power and nuclear medicine are two examples of ... .

6. Today, over 100 nuclear power plants produce ... .

Reading and speaking

Task 7. Read the text.

MEDICINE

As in physics and chemistry, Americans have dominated the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine since World War II. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), the focal point for biomedical research in the United States, has played a key role in this achievement. Begun as a one-room Laboratory of Hygiene in 1887, the National Institutes of Health today is one of the world’s foremost medical research centers, and the Federal focal point for medical research in the U.S.

NIH research has helped make possible numerous medical achievements. Mortality from heart disease, the number-one killer in the United States, dropped 41 percent between 1971 and 1991. The death rate for strokes decreased by 59 percent in the same period. More than 70 percent of the children who get cancer are cured.

With the help of the NIH, molecular genetics and genomics research have revolutionized biomedical science. In the 1980s and 1990s, researchers performed the first trial of gene therapy in humans and are now able to locate, identify, and describe the function of many genes in the human genome. Perhaps the most exciting scientific development in the United States is the Human Genome Project. This was an attempt to construct a genetic map of humans by analyzing the chemical composition of each of the 50,000 to 100,000 genes making up the human body. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, led in the United States by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE), successfully completed the Human Genome Project in April 2003, more than two years ahead of schedule.

Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty used to image the body and treat disease. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique in that it documents organ function and structure, in contrast to diagnostic radiology which is based upon anatomy. Its origins stem from many scientific discoveries, most notably the discovery of X-rays in 1895 and the discovery of “artificial radioactivity” in 1934. Nuclear medicine uses very small amounts of radioactive materials or radiopharmaceuticals, substances that are attracted to specific organs, bones or tissues. The amount of radiation from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to that received during a diagnostic X-ray. The radiopharmaceuticals emit gamma rays that can be detected externally by special types of cameras. These cameras work in conjunction with computers used to form images that provide data and information about the area of body being imaged.

Task 8. Translate the following word combinations from English into

Ukrainian. Use these word combinations to make up your sentences.

1) the focal point

6) in contrast to

2) a key role

7) the discovery of x-rays

3) the number-one killer

8) to provide data and information

4) gene therapy

5) to image the body

Task 9. Answer the questions.

1. What does NIH stand for?

2. What is the National Institutes of Health today?

3. What medical achievements were made possible thanks to NIH research?

4. When was the first trial of gene therapy in humans performed?

5. What is the most exciting scientific development in the U.S.?

6. What is nuclear medicine?

7. What is the difference between nuclear medicine and diagnostic radiology?

Listening

Task 10. Listen to the text.

SPACE

The Space Age has run almost in tandem with the Atomic Age. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first satellite, Sputnik I, and the United States followed with Explorer I in 1958. The first manned space flights were made in the spring of 1961, first by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin and then by American astronaut, Alan B. Shepard, Jr. In 1961, President Kennedy promised that Americans would walk on the moon before the decade was over and in July of 1969, Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon’s surface.

On April 12, 1981, the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia lifted off from its pad at the Kennedy Space Center, six years after the last American astronaut returned from space following the cooperative U.S. / USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Since 1981, there have been nearly one hundred Shuttle missions into Earth orbit, where a variety of scientific and practical activities have been accomplished.

President Ronald Reagan in 1984 committed the U.S. to developing a permanently occupied space station and with NASA invited other countries to join in the project. In 1991, President George Bush and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to joint Space Shuttle-Mir missions that later would lay the groundwork for cooperative space station efforts. President Bill Clinton in 1993 directed NASA to cut the program’s cost and complexity while jump-starting the Station’s research capabilities and bringing Russia into the fold. NASA carried out the President’s directive, and in addition to the Russian hardware already built or under construction for the International Space Station, that nation’s contributions to the program included the nine joint Shuttle-Mir missions conducted from 1994 through 1998.

The redesigned orbiting research center was named the “International Space Station”. It provides more research opportunities, can carry more crew, requires less maintenance, generates higher power, and can handle contingencies more effectively than any spacecraft before it. Sixteen countries (including 11 members of the European Space Agency) today are members of the International Space Station Team.

In January 2004 President Bush announced a new vision for the Nation’s space exploration program. The President committed the United States to a long-term human and robotic program to explore the solar system, starting with a return to the Moon that will ultimately enable future exploration of Mars and other destinations.

From the first tentative steps of the 1969 moon landing to today’s reusable space shuttle, the space program has produced a range of secondary uses of aerospace technology. Communications satellites transmit computer data, telephone calls, and radio and television broadcasts. Weather satellites furnish the data necessary to provide early warnings of severe storms. Space technology has generated thousands of products and services ranging from the lightweight materials used in running shoes to respiratory monitors.

Task 11. Complete the sentences.

1. The Space Age has run almost in tandem with ... .

2. The first manned space flights were made ... .

3. On April 12, 1981 ... .

4. President Ronald Reagan in 1984 ... .

5. President Bill Clinton in 1993 directed NASA to ... .

6. The redesigned orbiting research center was named ... .

7. In January 2004 President Bush announced ... .

8. Communications satellites transmit ... .

Task 12. Agree or disagree. Expound the point of view given in the statement or prove that it is false.

1. In 1957, the United States launched the first satellite, Sputnik I.

2. In July of 1969, Alan B. Shepard, Jr stepped onto the moon’s surface.

3. Since 1981, there have been nearly one hundred Shuttle missions into Earth orbit.

4. In 1991, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to joint Space Shuttle-Mir missions that later would lay the groundwork for cooperative space station efforts.

5. Seventeen countries (including 11 members of the European Space Agency) today are members of the International Space Station Team.

6. In January 2004 President Bush committed the United States to a long-term human and robotic program to explore the solar system.

7. Weather satellites transmit computer data, telephone calls, and radio and television broadcasts.

8. Space technology has generated thousands of products and services.

III. SUMMING UP

Speaking

Task 13. Answer the questions.

1. What are the most exciting current scientific developments??

2. What do you think about space exploration?

Home assignment

Read the list of some important inventions made in the USA. Make a list of top 10 inventions that completely changed people’s life. Explain your choice.

Invention

Year

Inventor

Air conditioning

1902

Willis Haviland Carrier

Invention

Year

Inventor

Airplane, engine-powered

1903

Wilbur & Orville Wright

Animation, motion- picture

1906

J. Stuart Blackton

Bomb, atomic

1945

J. Robert Oppenheimer, et al.

Bomb, thermonuclear (hydrogen)

1952

Edward Teller, et al.

Calculator, electronic hand-held

1967

Jack S. Kilby

Camera, motion picture

1891

Thomas Alva Edison, William K. L. Dickson

Camera, portable photographic

1888

George Eastman

Computer, electronic digital

1939

John V. Atanasoff, Clifford E. Berry

Computer, laptop

1983

Radio Shack Corp.

Computer, personal

1974

MITS (Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems)

Credit card

1950

Frank McNamara, Ralph Schneider (Diners' Club)

Defibrillator

1952

Paul M. Zoll

Detector, home smoke

1969

Randolph Smith, Kenneth House

Electronic mail (e-mail)

1971

Ray Tomlinson

Engine, liquid-fueled rocket

1926

Robert H. Goddard

Escalator

1891

Jesse W. Reno

Film, photographic

1884

George Eastman

Genetic engineering

1973

Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer

Internet

1969

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) at the Dept. of Defense

Jeans

1873

Levi Strauss, Jacob Davis

Laser

1958

Gordon Gould and Charles Hard Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow (invented separately)

Light bulb, incandescent

1879

Thomas Alva Edison

Light bulb, fluorescent

1934

Arthur Compton

Liquid crystal display (LCD)

1963

George Heilmeier

Invention

Year

Inventor

Microwave oven

1945

Percy L. Spencer

Motor, electric

1834

Thomas Davenport

Mouse, computer

1963-64

Douglas Engelbart

Nuclear reactor

1942

Enrico Fermi

Oil well

1859

Edwin Laurentine Drake

Phonograph

1877

Thomas Alva Edison

Photocopying (xerography)

1937

Chester F. Carlson

Photography, instant

1947

Edwin Herbert Land

Polygraph (lie detector)

1921

John A. Larson

Record, long-playing (LP)

1948

Peter Carl Goldmark

Refrigerator

1842

John Gorrie

Respirator

c. 1955

Forrest M. Bird

Revolver

1835-36

Samuel Colt

Satellite, communications

1960

John Robinson Pierce

Skyscraper, steel-frame

1884

William Le Baron Jenney

Steamboat, successful

1807

Robert Fulton

Telegraph

1832-35

Samuel F. B. Morse

Telephone, mobile

1946

Bell Laboratories

Transistor

1947

John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, William B. Shockley

Video games

1972

Nolan Bushnell

Virtual reality

1989

Jaron Lanier

Vision correction, laser

1987

Stephen Trokel

Washing machine, electric

1907

Alva J. Fisher

Wristwatch, digital

1970

John M. Bergey





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