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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Articles

A (before consonants — приголосні) and an (before vowel sounds — голосні) are Indefenite articles.

A and an are the Indefinite articles. They refer to something not specifically known to the person you are communicating with.

Example: I saw an elephant this morning.

We use the definite article the In front of a noun when we believe the hearer/ reader knows exactly what we are referring to.

Example: I saw an elephant this morning. The elephant was really big!

She's got two children: a girl and a boy. The girl's eight and the boy's fourteen.

Singular and Plural Nouns

Singular /однина)

Plural (множина)

a cat

cats

a toy

toys

a family

families

a table

tables

a potato (картоплина)

potatoes

a tomato (помідор)

tomatoes

but. a photo

photos

a piano

pianos

shelf

shelves

knife (ніж)

knives

life

lives

but roof

roofs

safe (сейф)

safes

chief (шеф)

chiefs

a man

men

a woman

women

a child

children

an ox (бик)

oxen

a goose (гуска)

geese

a foot(нога)

feet

a tooth (зуб)

teeth

a mouse (миша)

mice

a louse (блоха)

lice

a fish (риба)

fish

a deer (олень)

deer

a sheep (вівця)

sheep

Past Simple: Regular Verbs

Short answers

Form

✵ We form the affirmative of most regular verbs by adding -ed to the verb.

I return — I returned

✵ Some verbs have Іntegulаr affirmative forms:

I go — I went

We use the Past Simple for:

✵ actions which happened or finished at a definite or stated time In the past. We left the house at 7:30 p. m.

✵ actions which happened repeatedly In the past but do not happen any more. In this case, we can use adverbs of frequency (always, often, usually, etc.).

He often watched football matches with his brother when he was a teenager (but he doesn't any more).

✵ actions which happened Immediately one after the other In the past.

First, he opened the window. Then, he looked down the street and saw a strange black car.

Time Expressions we use with the Past Simple:

yesterday, last nlght/week/year/Monday, etc., a month/two years/three

years, etc. ago, In I960, etc.

Princess Diana died In 1997.

Be going to

Affirmative

Negative

I'm going to work. You’re going to work. He's going to work.

I'm not going to work.

You aren't going to work.

He Isn't going to work, etc.

She's going to work.

It's going to work.

We're going to work.

You’re going to work.

They're going to work.

Interrogative

Am I going to work?

Are you going to work?

Is she going to work?, etc.

Use

We use be going to for:

✵ plans and Intentions we have for the near future.

I'm going to spend next summer sailing around the world.

✵ predictions based on what we can see (evidence) or know.

They sky Is very cloudy. It's going to rain tonight.

Time Expressions we use with be going to:

tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next week/month/year, tonight, soon, In a week/month/year, etc.

Adverbs of Frequency

Always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never, ever, normally, frequently, occasionally, rarely are adverbs of frequency.

Position of the adverbs of frequency

Initial

(at the beginning)

Middle (before the main verb, or after the link verb)

Final

(at the end)

sometimes, usually,

normally, often,

frequently, occasionally

always, never, seldom, rarely, often, usually, sometimes, ever, normally, frequently, occasionally

sometimes,

usually,

normally, often,

frequently,

occasionally

Usually I get up early.

Sometimes I think I'd like to live somewhere else.

I never eat Chinese food.

I am seldom late for school.

We sometimes go out for a meal.

I go to a cafe quite often.

We eat out

occasionally.

Types of Questions

My mother went to the USA last winter.

1. General (загально запитання).

Did my mother go to the USA last winter?

2. Special (спеціальне запитання).

Whose mother went to the USA last winter?

(Питання до підмета або слів, що стосуються підмета, не потребує допоміжних дієслів).

Who went to the USA last winter?

When did my mother go to the USA?

Where did my mother go last winter?

What did my mother do last winter?

3. Alternative (альтернативне запитання).

Did my mother go to the USA or France last winter?

Did my mother go to the USA last or this winter?

4. Disjunctive or tag question (розділове запитання).

My mother went to the USA last winter, didn't she?

Introductory It

This/that/these/those

This (singular) and these (plural) Is used with nouns to show objects or people In closer location to the speaker.

That (singular) and those (plural) Is used with nouns to show objects or people In further location to the speaker.

Degrees of Comparison of the Adjectives



Comparative

Superlative

one-syllable (односкладові)

big

fast

bigger

faster

the biggest

the fastest

two-syllables (-e, -ow, -y,

-er)

happy

narrow

simple

clever

happier

narrower

simpler

cleverer

the happiest

the narrowest

the simplest

the cleverest

two and more syllables

famous

difficult

generous

more famous

more difficult

more generous

the most famous

the most difficult

the most generous

Irregular forms good — better — the best bad — worse — the worst

The

Names of seas, oceans, channels, rivers, groups of Islands

The Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea, the English Channel, the Thames, the British Isles

Names of single Islands, lakes, single mountains, streets, countries, continents (but: the USA, the UK and others having the words «Union' «Kingdom" "United" In their name)

Ireland, (Island) Great Britain, France, lake Ontario, Everest (but the Urals, the Carpathians). Downing Street, Europe






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