Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас для спеціалізованих шкіл з поглибленим вивченням англійської мови - Л.В. Калініна - Генеза 2017 рік
Unit 4 Science and technology
4.2. Inventions in Everyday Life
• a couch potato;
• to be computer addict;
• to visit the chart rooms;
• microwave oven;
• to take something for granted;
• bare necessities;
• to keep in touch with somebody;
• to get in contact with somebody;
• to be hard on somebody;
• technological awareness;
• digital immigrants;
• digital natives;
• to feel comfortable with new technologies;
• labour saving devices.
• Don’t be a bore!
• Thanks goodness!
• No way!
• That’s better!
I. Go Ahead!
Look at the photos and say how these inventions influence the life of people. What impact do they make on you? Follow the example, p. 119.
Example: I believe computers have changed the life of people greatly. We can design programmes using them, play games, find useful information and communicate with friends by skype or e-mail.
Read the dialogue of international friends and say what inventions and technologies they use in their everyday life.
Modern Inventions in Everyday Life
Phil: Hey, everybody. Have a look at my purchases! Three brand new com puter games. The whole treasure!
Helen: Are you a computer addict?
Phil: Not really, but I’m awfully excited about this bit of technology. I enjoy playing games and writing programs myself. I think I succeeded in doing it. One of my new programs can play chess and, surprisingly, it can beat me!
Alison: Well, well, well. Do you think that all wonderful inventions of science and technology are meant only for entertainment?
Paul: Don’t be a bore, Alison. Some of them really are. I’m, for instance, a couch potato. Every time I have a spare minute, I switch from channel to channel and each of them has so much to offer. There is no difficulty in my finding something really terrific and, besides, thank American scientists for their inventing the Internet. It’s an absolutely incredible invention which has so many advantages. You can do so many wonderful things without leaving your place!
Phil: And, moreover, it has become common for young people in all countries to visit the Internet chat rooms. Thanks to that, we’ve found each other!
Helen: You, boys, sound like little kids. Think about technological advances which are changing the lifestyle of millions of people all over the world. Our homes are full not only of hardware, but of many laboursaving devices (such as DVD players or computers or gadgets like computer games and MP3s). When you come from school being very hungry what do you use to prepare a hot meal in no time at all?
Phil: You mean a microwave oven or a toaster?
Helen: I do. And don’t forget a vacuum cleaner, a sewing mashing and a dishwasher. They can take care of lots of our household chores, leaving more time for enjoying ourselves preventing us from groundbreaking work.
Alison: They are absolutely essential. But we take their existence for granted and it is difficult to imagine they are inventions. Modern technology is changing and improving all the time, offering new advances.
Paul: That’s just it. We got used to telephones which made a real scientific revolution in the late 80s. Today a cordless phone and a mobile phone
can’t surprise anybody. They are bare necessities of our everyday life and we are so fond of using them.
Alison: I’m with you on that and I think that a mobile phone is the most useful invention of the 20th century that I can imagine. I can keep in touch with my family and friends whenever I travel or they can get in contact with me if they want we couldn’t dream of having some years ago. Isn’t it fantastic?
Phil: It sure is, and we have no problem operating all these technological innovations, but my parents find using them complicated and difficult. My mum will better use a traditional camera instead of a videophone or a video camera. Thanks goodness, she has learned how to send e-mails and faxes.
Helen: Don’t be too hard on her, Phil, and don’t criticise your parents for their lack of technological awareness. They are digital immigrants, you know, while we are digital natives. Some time in the future when you’ve got children of your own, your ability to deal with new technology will probably decrease and your children will feel more comfortable with new technology than you do. You won’t want them to criticise you then, will you?
Phil: No way. We are lucky to live in a new information society which is changing our lives for better and giving us so much fun and satisfaction. Let the future generation have their own!
Helen: That’s better!
III. Language Track
In the dialogue, find and reproduce exclamatory sentences with correct intonation following the pattern. Practise them with your partner.
1. Read the words below and reproduce their derivations from the text in context. Illustrate them with your own examples.
Example: surprise - surprisingly
Surprisingly, my new computer game can beat me!
Surprisingly, but I can’t do without my mobile phone, which has become a bare necessity for me.
• to invent
• to entertain
• to bore
• to exist
• to satisfy
2. From the text reproduce the technological advances in context and say how friends use them in everyday life.
Example: A brand new computer game
Phil is excited about playing brand new computer games. He succeeded in designing computer programmes himself.
3. Read some additional information about the inventions teenagers discussed in the text “Modern Inventions in Everyday Life”. Choose the photos attributable to the correct information (one is extra). Enlarge the information using new phrases from the text in context.
1. This invention helps not only housewives to cope with dirty plates after dinner, but it is widely used at cafes and restaurants because it saves time. Put dirty dishes on the racks, add special liquid, set the dial and in a few minutes the most unpleasant work is done.
2. In 1945, the engineer of «Raytheon» Percy Spencer was standing in front of the magnetron and felt a candy bar started to melt in his pocket. He was intrigued. Then he placed popcorn kernels in front of the magnetron and the kernels exploded all over the lab. Ten years after Spencer patented «radar range» that cooked with high-frequency radio waves; that same year, the Tappar Stove Co. introduced the first home model of the machine. So short electric waves instead of heat help to prepare food quickly.
3. This bit of technology was invented to mark the official end of humanity’s struggle for survival and the beginning of its quest for a really relaxing afternoon. The first wireless remote was essentially a flashlight. Then Eugene Policy Zenith discovered that direct sunlight also can change channels on the remote-receptive TVs. Later the company came out with a model that used ultrasound. Now we use this thing for controlling a piece of electrical or electronic equipment without having to touch it for turning it off or on.
4. There is not just one inventor of this technological wonder, as the ideas of many scientists and engineers led to it. These ideas were developed in the 1930s and 1940s mostly independently of each other, in Germany, Great Britain and the USA, and were turned into working machines. They were called a program - controlled relay calculators. The Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania developed a machine for military purposes. In 1944 Bell laboratories in New York built a machine, but its memory was too small. Later a universal machine evolved - memory was to be used to store the program in addition to data. Thus the concept of a modern technological advance was born.
5 This invention is here to stay. According to a recent survey, in the UK an overwhelming number of teenagers own one. Parents say that it is a vital way of keeping in touch with their children while teachers are against using them on school premises because they disrupt lessons and destroy learning.
1. From the text, read out the sentences with gerunds in bold and interpret their meanings in context.
2. Complete the instruction and illustrate it with your own examples.
• If you want to express more of your ideas, use the gerunds after ....
3. Complete the sentences.
Example: My friend is interested in designing his own computer programmes.
• Our teacher insists on_______________________________ .
• Many teenagers dream about__________________________ .
• Martin succeeded in_________________________________ .
• Ann is thinking of___________________________________ .
• I strongly object to_________________________________ .
• We all thank scientists for____________________________ .
• My friend is fond of_________________________________ .
• New technologies prevented us from____________________ .
• People look forward to_______________________________ .
IV. Communication Track
a) Speak on the use of modern inventions in your everyday life following the guidelines:
• Which inventions have you got at home?
• What are they called?
• How often do you use them?
• How do they help you in everyday life?
• Which of them are the most or least useful in your home?
• Which ones do you think you need? What for?
b) In pairs, discuss the role of modern inventions in people’s lives completing the dialogue.
Inventions: For and Against
c) In groups, think and decide on five greatest inventions of the 20th century. Rank them in order of importance and explain your ideas.
a) Before you listen
You are going to listen to the text about a new invention “A new Solar Plane”.
Brainstorm with your friends how an ordinary plane may differ from a Solar plane.
b) While you listen
Listen to the text and choose the right endings of the sentences.
1) The first country to design a solar plane was ...
2) The plane flies without ...
b) solar energy;
3) The first flight covered ...
a) 250 metres;
b) 150 metres;
c) 350 metres.
4) Before the flight the plane underwent ...
a) no testing;
b) a lot of testing;
c) several testings.
5) The first flight showed...
a) the correctness of technical choices;
b) the mistakes in the project;
c) the failures of the team.
6) The team of experienced professionals has been working on the plane for ...
a) 2 years;
b) 6 years;
c) 8 years.
7) The team plans...
a) to increase the distance;
b) to increase the speed;
c) to increase the weight.
8) The plane has...
a) 4 electric motors;
b) 4 gas engines;
c) 4 solar batteries.
9) The solar cells are mounted ...
a) on the motor;
b) on the wings;
c) in the pilot’s cabin.
10) The aim of the plane is ...
a) to cover long distances;
b) to investigate new air ways;
c) to fly day and night without fuel.
с) After you listen
In the whole group discuss the possibilities of using solar energy in the 21st century. Illustrate your ideas with examples.
a) Before you write
If you want to talk about a particular subject, write a speech.
• Say about what scientific invention you’d like to talk.
• In groups make a list of words and phrases you’ll use writing your speech so that the people got interested in it.
b) While you write
How to Write a Speech on Scientific Inventions
• Choose a thesis statement you’d like to talk about.
• Try to limit the area of study to a narrower theme.
• Find enough materials on your theme and take notes on interesting points.
• Organise your notes into appropriate paragraphs.
• Start with presenting your topic. Give some comments on the history of a scientific discovery.
• Illustrate your speech with convincing arguments as to the usage of that scientific discovery.
• Summarise other pupils’ arguments and ideas on this invention.
• Support your point of view with a suitable quote.
• Finish your speech with a concluding paragraph evaluating a particular discovery and its future.
- I’d like to give a speech on / about...
- The aim of the report is...
- It’s a well known fact...
- A scientific research suggests that...
- Some people may argue...
- My view is supported by...
- .speak in favour of...
- The data was collected from...
- To support their arguments, I’d like...
- The survey carried out...
- If we look back at...
- Scientists believe that...
- The opponents say...
- In view of all that...
- It remains to be seen, but...
At Home: In your WB, write a speech on the most important for you scientific invention.