Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас для спеціалізованих шкіл з поглибленим вивченням англійської мови - Л.В. Калініна - Генеза 2017 рік
Unit 4 Science and technology
4.3. Who Moves Scientific Progress?
• to stimulate;
• inventive genius;
• to encourage scientific enquiry;
• to be in the vanguard;
• up-to-date technologies;
• to promote the progress of science;
• to claim one’s inventions for the ho nour of the country;
• to be known far and wide;
• to be at ease with;
• thirst for knowledge;
• preventive medicine;
• to go down in history;
• to be the lead man of;
• to launch a space ship;
• Nobel laureates.
• I guess...
• I can’t but mention...
• I dare say...
I. Go Ahead!
Read the names of the subjects you study at school and say what scientists made discoveries in each science. Speak about his/her discoveries.
Example: Isaac Newton and Michael Faraday made great discoveries in physics.
Read the extracts from teenagers’ reports and do the following tasks.
For Part I
Read and say why David Nelson’s heart swells with pride.
For Part II
Read and say what answers to the questions Helen Smith from Great Britain found.
For Part III
Read and say what in Boghdana Vasylko’s opinion stimulates Ukrainian scientists for making discoveries.
Any scientific discovery depends on the government’s encouraging scientific inquiry and technological development. If a country wants to be prosperous, in the vanguard of up-to-date technologies, it should stimulate science and invention. The government of my country follows this rule.
I guess, due to the fact that the US Constitution has been encouraging scientific creativity since its adoption, we have a great number of talented scientists and inventors. They always felt the government support, which promoted the progress of science by creating all conditions for research, securing the exclusive rights to their great discoveries. It made the scientists pay back for their country’s trust and claim their inventions for the honour of the country. Thanks to this wise policy, everybody knows about the greatest scientist Albert Einstein who developed the theory of relativity which completely changed the way scientists understood space and time. The scientists carried our this investigation not at once.
You know that in terms of basic scientific achievements nations are usually judged by the number of Nobel Prizes won by their scientists in different branches: chemistry, psychology, medicine, etc. I’m proud to say that the USA has a number of such scientists: the first Nobel Prize winner was Albert Abraham Michelson who won the 1907 prize in physics for determining the speed light; then came Theodor W. Richards who won the 1914 Chemistry Prize for determining the atomic weights of many chemical elements; in 1930, Karl Laundstemer was awarded a prize for his discovery of human blood groups. This list is rather big. Suffice it to say» that from 1950 up to the present time more American scientists have won Nobel Prizes than the scientists of all nations combined! Our president Obama was also given this prize for his political achievements in 2010. My heart swells with pride for our scientists and inventors. They are truly heroes of the nation. There is no denying it.
David Nelson, the USA
... I think Britain has produced a lot of successful inventions, which made notable scientific contributions to different branches of science. Their names are known far and wide: Isaac Newton and Michael Faraday (physics and chemistry), Charles Darwin and Barry A. Trimmer in biology, Thomas Addison and Alexander Fleming (medicine and biology) and many others. I appreciate their making discoveries. I always ask myself the question: how can one scientist make so many great discoveries in different branches? Why are they at ease with so many different sciences? What makes them do that?
Helen Smith, Great Britain
Getting ready for this report, I’ve, found the answer -it’s thirst for knowledge, a constant desire for experiments in search of explanation of some extraordinary processes or events.
In this, I believe, they found their essence of life. Let me give you only one example - Thomas Young, an English genius and polymath. This scientist is famous for having partly deciphered Egyptian hieroglyphs, describing the characterization of elasticity, that came to be known as “Young’s modules”, founding physiological optics, developing the method of tuning musical instruments. Enough to take your breath away, isn’t it? I’m all for his promoting scientific progress in different sciences.
As my future professional interests lie in medicine, I’d like to say a few words about two great scientists Edward Jenner and Alexander Fleming whose remark able discoveries saved humanity from dying out. Janner’s approach, called vaccination or immunisation was a miracle, when in 1796 a lot of people died of smallpox. Today immunization is an important part of preventive medicine, in offering protection from diseases for which there is as yet no effective treatment. Fleming’s discovery of penicillin, the first antibiotic that successfully killed bacteria and cured infections, was a truly revolutionary discovery. For this, Alexander Fleming and his colleagues who helped him to develop penicillin were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1945.
Since I am dreaming of becoming a doctor, may be I’ll also make a discovery in medicine which will be useful for people. Who knows?
...I believe Ukraine has always been the country of advanced science and technology. World priority has first laser data, storage, achievements in machine building, rocket and computer technology and there is no use my enumerating them.
In the field of the physical sciences Ukrainian scientists contributed much to the development of world science. Such scientists as Ivan Pulyui, Anton Komar, Dmytro Ivanenko, Yevhen Zavoisky are the national pride of Ukraine. The renowned Ukrainian scientist Petro Kapitsa who did much in nuclear physics and technologies of super power magnetic fields was awarded the Nobel Prize.
But in my opinion, space research is the very science which made the names of the most outstanding Ukrainian scientists go down in history of world civilisation. The historic roots of many of them stimulated scientists for research.
Olexander Zasyadko, for example, was from the glorious Cossack family and stories of his grandfather, a Cossack gunner about special pipes stuffed with gunpowder, which could f]y and blow up the target, impressed the boy so much that he set himself as an objective to create his own rocket. And he did so, designing combat rockets, which were used during the Russian-Turkish war of 1828-1829. Olexandr Zasyadko’s ideas were developed by other scientists -Kostyantyn Konstantynov who invented a ballistic device and created a rocket ballistic pendulum; Yuri Kondratyuk, who made calculations for the first manned flight to the moon; Mykhailo Yangel who founded his own school in developing rocket and space equipment; Volodymyr Chelomey who headed the creation of the carrier rockets and satellites “Proton”, as well as the orbital station “Saluyt-3” and “Saluyt-5W.
Boghdana Vasylko, Ukraine
I dare say his “Ukrainian roots” of Serhiy Korolyov stimulated him for his great inventions: designing the launching spacecraft “Vostok” and “Vosk- hod”, the first automatic interplanetary station “Zond”, the spacecraft which made real the flight to Venus and Mars and walking in outer space. I believe that young and promising scientists of Ukraine who are working on the problems of space research will not only implement basic theoretical researches of their great predecessors in creation of brand new technologies, but they will also cope with new interesting tasks which life puts forward.
Across Cultures: Sweden
Alfred Nobel — a Swedish engineer and chemist who invented dynamite.
Nobel laureate - a person who received a Nobel Prize.
Sweden - a country in Scandinavia where the ceremony of awarding Nobel Prizes takes place.
III. Language Track
From any part of the reports reproduce 10 words with the sounds /v/ and /w/ in context. Practise saying them in your own sentences.
Example: /v/ No country has a monopoly on inventive genius.
I think that Mykola Amosov is an inventive genius of Ukraine.
1. Study the difference in meaning. From any part, reproduce the words in contexts. Make up your own sentences by analogy.
invention - machine or a tool that someone has made, designed or thought of for the first time.
discovery - a fact or thing someone finds out about when it was not known about before.
Example: The inventions of trains made the life of people much more easier.
Example: The discovery of America by Columbus opened new possibilities for people.
investigation - an official attempt to find out the truth about or the causes of something, such as scientific problem, crime, accident.
Example: Geologists carried out a solid investigation of a crater.
research - serious study of subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas.
Example: Scientists are conducting research in the drugs’ effectiveness.
2. Read the inventions and discoveries the teenagers mentioned in their reports and reproduce words and phrases characterizing them. Enlarge the information on them.
• theory of relativity;
• determination of speed light;
• immunization approach;
• discovery of penicillin;
• combat rockets’ design;
• design of automatic interplanetary stations.
3. Look at the portraits of great scientists teenagers spoke about in their reid reproduce the information about them. Add some more facts about them and their other inventions or discoveries.
1. From the text, reproduce grammar items in bold and interpret their meanings.
2. Complete the instruction and illustrate it with your own example.
• If you want to express your ideas focusing on subject/object/attribute/ adverbial modifier use such gerundial constructions ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .
3. Complete the following sentences with suitable constructions.
Example: I think it’s no good...
I think it’s no good your experimenting with the substance...
1. Scientists all over the world are against...
2. We appreciate Henry Ford...
3. Many great inventions depend on...
4. We are aware of Alexander Flemings’...
5. There’s no harm in biologists’...
6. There is a great risk of...
7. The results of many experiments depend on...
IV. Communication Track
a) Read three fact files below and present one of the scientists and his inventions to your fellow students.
• Worked as a leading surgeon at a mobile field hospital during the Great Patriotic War.
• In 1955 organised a heart surgery clinic.
• In 1983 set up the Institute of cardiovascular surgery where he invented several surgical procedures for treating heart defects.
• Published 5 books "Thoughts and the Heart”, "Notes from the Future", "PPG 22-66", "The Book of Happiness and Misfortunes", "The Voices of Time", which were translated into 30 languages of the world.
• In 2008 was recognised as one of the greatest Ukrainians by the public opinion in the TV show "The Greatest Ukrainians".
• The greatest American inventor and industrial leader in history, born in February 11, 1847, in Milan, Ohio.
• In 1877 invented a foil phonograph.
• Invented the first successful electric light bulb.
• In 1879, invented the 1-st practical lighting system.
• On September 4, 1882 created the first commercial power station which provided light and electricity power to customers.
• The greatest English scientist, who devoted himself to atmospheric physics, using mainly radio techniques.
• In 1924 proved the existence of the layer in the upper atmosphere now called the ionosphere.
• Invented the method called "frequency-modulated radar", which led to a great development of radio research.
• In 1926 discovered a further atmospheric layer 150 miles above ground, which reflects short waves round the earth.
• In 1941 was knighted for the development of radiolocation.
• In 1947 received the Nobel Prize in physics.
Thomas Alva Edison
Edward Victor Appleton
b) In pairs, match the inventors to their inventions and discuss which of them are well-known and widely spread in Ukraine.
B: I think it’s Henry Ford. He was the first who realized the dream of manyAmericans to have a cheap car.
B: Agreed. It was Bill Gates. Everybody knows his name and connects it with computing.
B: Exactly. The bridge bears the name of this great Ukrainian scientist. He was the first to suggest using electric arc welding in building bridges. Nowadays the whole university headed by his son is working on different aspects of electric welding.
B: Me too. A cell phone is something I can’t do without. Thanks to this invention we can keep in touch whenever we want.
B: I can’t agree more. Not for nothing Walter Bagehot famously said: “One of the greatest pains of human nature is the pain of a new idea”.
c) In the whole group, discuss the questions: Why do people become scientists? What are the motifs for making scientific discoveries?
a) Before you listen
You are going to listen to an extract from the extremely popular book of a well- known British scientist Stephen Hawking “A Brief History of Time” and try to predict what the extract will be about.
b) While you listen
Listen to the extract and mark true/false statements.
1. The scientist raises the questions about the Universe.
2. Scientific researches in astronomy gave the answers to the questions.
3. The Greek philosopher Aristotle put forward an argument that the Earth wasn’t a flat plate.
4. The Greeks knew a lot about the Universe because they travelled much.
5. It was another British scientist who demonstrated that our galaxy wasn’t the only one.
6. Edwin Hubble made many calculations to determine distances to other galaxies.
7. The scientist worked out distances to twenty different galaxies by measuring their brightness.
8. Each galaxy contains thousand million stars.
9. It is a well-known fact that our galaxy is slowly rotating.
10. It was proved scientifically that the Sun is no longer a star.
c) After you listen
In the whole class, think and decide what other scientists made discoveries in their studies of the Universe and what their greatest discoveries are.
a) Before you write
If you want to say about your favourite scientist or explain to others the significance of his/her scientific discovery or invention, use a presentation.
• In groups, brainstorm with your friends what scientist you’d like to present.
• Make a list of words and phrases to use in your presentation to show the brilliance of the scientist you’ve chosen.
b) While you write
How to write a presentation about great scientists
• Choose a scientist you’d like to talk about.
• Find enough material to cover the following points about a scientist:
- short biography;
- This report is intended to give...
- Going back...
- A brief summary of...
- It’s important to stress ...
- More than that ...
- It is known far and wide that ...
- a sphere of scientific interests;
- the most important inventions and discoveries;
- contribution to the world science.
• Organise your speech logically.
• Make a presentation in a chronological succession.
• Illustrate your presentation with some quotes of famous people about this scientist.
• Finish your report evaluating the role and contribution of the scientist into the world science. Underline the importance of his / her invention for the present day life.
- Many scientists claim that...
- We are all aware of the fact that...
- Importantly, ...
- To illustrate the idea, I’d like.
- In the way of summing up, I’d like ...
- Quite apart from his / her achievements...
- The following conclusion can be drawn...
- As it can be seen from the findings of this report...
At Home: In your WB, write a presentation about your favourite scientist.