Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас для спеціалізованих шкіл з поглибленим вивченням англійської мови - Л.В. Калініна - Генеза 2017 рік
First Aid Kit
GRAMMAR IN USE
1.1. To identify or give additional information about someone, somebody, something or other use relative clauses which directly follow the noun or pronoun they are describing.
Example: I know the girl who lives nearby.
This is the subject which I like the best.
Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns who or that for people and which or that for places or things.
Example: I have a friend who (that) lives in England.
He lives in the city which (that) is near the sea.
ü to describe people’s possessions use “whose + noun”.
Example: My friend is the man whose working day is well-planned.
ü to use a singular verb if the subject relative pronoun refers to a singular noun. It is plural if it refers to a plural noun.
Example: Martha is my friend who lives in the USA.
Martha and Phil are my international friends who live in different countries.
1.2. To refer to a place or time use a relative clause with where, when or that. Example: I remember the day when I met my friend.
The First Conditional
1.3. To talk about something that is likely to happen in the future as a result of an action or situation, use the lst conditional:
If + Present Simple + will
Example: If the weather is fine, we’ll go to the beach.
ü You can also use be going to, the Future Continuous, Future Perfect, Imperative, can, could, may, might, ought to and must in the main clause.
Example: If you decide to go on a hike, buy a sleeping bag.
1.4. Use the 1st conditional:
1) With these words and phrases:
Example: Unless he becomes a scout, he won’t be able to participate in the outing.
Example: You can join our group as long as you are environmentally friendly.
Example: I’ll join the group in case you don’t mind. 2) With these linking words and expressions:
Example: Even if I am a Scout. I’ll do my best to help other people.
Example: Put up a tent quickly, or else we’ll lose the competition.
Example: The group is delayed at the airport, otherwise it’ll be here.
Example: Suppose you become a Girl Guide. What will you do for this organisation?
1) If you want to introduce time clauses, use time conjunctions: as soon as
as long as
Example: You can stay with us as long as you like.
2) If you want to express the reason for something use the following words/ expressions:
• the reason for
• on account of
• now that
Example: As/since it was my day off I invited them to the zoo.
The reason for recycling is the necessity of environmental protection.
Due to Greenpeace ,many disasters were averted.
3) If you want to say that a situation will continue up to a certain moment use ‘by’
Example: You must bring my book back by 6 o’clock at the latest.
4) If you want to say that something will happen around a certain time or at or before a certain moment use ‘until’
Example: Can you translate the article If I give you a dictionary until Sunday?
You can use my bike until next week end.
5) In the informal style ‘till’ is often used instead of ‘until’
Example: You can stay with us till Monday.
2.2. Words and expressions which introduce clauses of result If you want to introduce a clause of result use the following words and expressions:
• as a result
• so such...that...
• so much /little...that
• as consequence
Example: Factories and plants throw waste into the rivers and lakes and as a result/consequently they become polluted.
2.3. Clauses of reason
If you want to express the reason for something, use clauses of reason which are introduced by the following words/expressions:
• the reason for/why
• because of
• on account of
• due to
• now that
Example: The reason for recycling is the necessity of environmental protection.
Due to Green peace many disasters were averted.
2.4. Clauses of purpose
If you want to express the purpose of an action use clauses of purpose. That is, they explain why someone does something. They are introduced with the following words/phrases:
• in order to/so as to
• so that/in order that
• so that + can/will have present or future reference.
Example: We have invited the members of the eco-club so that we can discuss the ideas of a project.
• so that + could/would have past reference
Example: I strolled through the city so that I could see the sights.
• In negative sentences “in order not to” or “so as not to” are used. Never use “not to” alone.
Example: I wrote down the date of the meeting in order not to / so as not to forget it.
1) If you want to emphasize that one thing depends on another, use ‘If... then’
Example: If she can’t come then we’ll have to go and see her.
2) If you want to say that something may happen, use ‘if which can come at the beginning or the end of a sentence.
Example: I’ll go with you if you agree to wait for a couple of minutes.
3) If you want to say that something definitely happens use ‘when’ .
Example: When it gets dark, I’ll switch on the light.
3.2. 1) If you want to express future possibility, use a modal ‘may’ + verb ‘be’. It is always two words.
Example: Sam may be late today because he is busy at the university.
2) Maybe is not a modal. It is an adverb. It is always one word and it comes at the beginning of the sentence.
Example: Maybe I’ll become a teacher.
3.3. 1) Certain verbs can be followed directly by the infinitive (to + base form of the verb).
Example: I wanted to get a certain experience.
These are some common verbs.
• to afford
• to expect
• to need
• to request
• to agree
• to help
• to offer
• to want
• to ask
• to hope
• to prepare
• to love
• to choose
• to intend
• to promise
• to decide
• to earn
• to refuse
2) Some of these verbs (to agree, to begin, to plan, to refuse, to seem) are immediately followed by an infinitive.
Example: He decided to work at the bank.
3) Some verbs (to advise, to encourage, to order, to tell, to warn) need an object (noun or pronoun) before the infinitive.
Example: My teacher advised me to work in the field of linguistics.
4) Certain adjectives can also be followed by infinitives. Usually these are the adjectives which:
• describe a feeling about the action (afraid, ashamed, amazed, delighted, disappointed, excited, glad, happy).
Example: I was glad to become a student.
• express praise or blame (wrong, right, proud, sorry etc.)
Example: I was wrong to follow in my parents’ footsteps.
• show the order of action (ready, last, first etc.)
Example: Ann was the first to learn the truth.
5) The infinitive is also used after ‘it’s great’.
Example: It’s great to learn everything about your profession.
6) Certain nouns can be followed by the infinitive.
Example: School is over, it’s time to make decisions.
7) To form a negative infinitive use ‘not’ before the infinitive.
Example: My mum told me not to waste time.
3.4. 1) If you want to give a reason use:
a) ‘too’ + adjective + adverb + infinitive
Example: Mary is too young to think about her future career.
b) adjective / adverb + enough + infinitive
Example: Ann is clever enough to understand everything.
‘too’ comes before the adjective or adverb.
‘enough’ comes after the adjective or adverb.
2) If you want to give advice taking into consideration, use ‘had better’ + bare infinitive (without ‘to’).
Example: The bell has gone. He’d better go to the classroom.
3) If you want to focus on options, use ‘would rather + bare infinitive’.
Example: My cousin would rather go to Oxford that to London.
4.1. The Gerund
1. A gerund-base form of verb +'-ing' — is a verb that functions like a noun and can be:
• the subject
Example: Researching is very important for science.
• the object
Example: I enjoy reading science fiction in my leisure time.
There are common verbs followed by the gerund:
4.2. Gerunds with prepositions
1. As gerund (base form of verb + ‘-ing’) acts as a noun, it can follow prepositions. Here is the table of widely used prepositional combinations.
• be famous
• be capable
• be guilty
• be tired
• be fond
• be interested
• keep somebody
• prevent somebody
• look forward
• be opposed
Example: My friends and I are looking forward to becoming students.
4.3. The Gerundial Construction
To express your ideas focusing on subject / object / attribute / adverbial modifier, use gerundial constructions:
useless no good
Example: It’s no use me / my experimenting, let’s leave it as it is.
ü to be for / against somebody/somebody’s doing
Example: Do you mind me / my commenting on this discovery?
S to depend on
to object to
to be aware of
to be used to something
to agree to something
somebody/somebody’s doing something
Example: The success of the project depends on us / our making a contribution.
ü There is Somebody sees
no harm little sense difficulty
in somebody / somebody’s doing something.
Example: I see no difficulty in you / your participating in the scientific conference.
ü Somebody doing something can be used in informal style. To sound more formal, use somebody’s doing something.
4.4. A Gerund or an Infinitive?
1. To express your thoughts, use a gerund or an infinitive after such verbs: to love, to start, to begin. The meaning is not changed.
Example: John started to write.
John started writing.
2) After the verbs: to stop, to forget, to remember, use a gerund or an infinitive but the meanings are different.
Example: She stopped travelling. She didn’t travel any more.
She stopped to travel. She stopped another activity in order to travel.
Paul remembered describing his invention. (First Paul invented something then he remembered that he described his invention.)
Paul remembered to describe his invention.
(First he remembered, then he described his invention.)
We never forget meeting the scientist. (We met the scientist. It was an important meeting that we still remember.)
We forgot to meet the scientist. (We had planned to meet the scientist, but we didn't meet him, because we forgot about our plans.)
Ann regretted upsetting Paul. (She is sorry that she upset him).
Phil regrets to inform Ann that she didn’t get the book.
(Phil is sorry but he has to tell Ann that she didn’t get the book).
I tried reading science fiction but didn’t like it.
(I tried to read science fiction to see if it is interesting, but I don’t like it).
Hopefully, I try to understand this technology.
(I make an effort to understand it).
5.1. Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses
If you want to describe exactly which person or thing you mean, use defining relative clauses. They are introduced with a relative pronoun who / which / that / whose. You can’t remove the clause.
Example: But I never forget about things (what kind?) which I can do at leisure.
Compare: But I never forget about things. (what kind?)
If you do not describe exactly who or what you mean, but give extra information instead use non-defining relative clauses. Begin them with who or which. If you remove the clause, the sentence still makes sense.
Example: I was at first sceptical about dancing, but my friend, who came from Cuba, was raving about it and it was he who persuaded me to go to Rumba club.
Compare: I was at first sceptical about dancing, but my friend (...)was raving about it and it was he who persuaded me to go to Rumba club.
Separate a non-defining relative clause from the rest of the sentence by commas.
5.2. The Infinitive of Purpose
• If you want to describe the purpose or reason for an action, use the infinitive of purpose.
Example: The programme of training is planned to develop intelligence and practical skills.
• If you want to sound more formal, use in order to with the infinitive of purpose.
Example: In order to reach this educational goal, Plast uses such basic principles as free-will membership...
Don’t use the preposition for with the infinitive of purpose.
5.3. Reduced Relative Clauses
• If you want to make a relative clause shorter, use a participle clause.
Participle clauses give more information about a noun in a single sentence.
Example: The study of subcultures often consists of the study of the symbolism which is attached to clothing, music, etc. The study of subcultures often consists of the study of the symbolism attached to clothing, music,etc.
Use the -ed form of the participle if the verb in the original relative clause is passive.
Example: The hippy was a youth subculture that was immortalized by the Beatles. The hippy was a youth subculture immortalized by the Beatles.
Use the -ing form of the participle if the verb in the original relative clause is active and describes an action that is happening now.
Example: There is more and more talk about new cyber trends in youth subcultures that are taking shape these days. There is more and more talk about new cyber trends in youth subcultures taking shape these days.
5.4. First Conditional (phrases, linking words and expressions)
To talk about something that is likely to happen in the future as a result of an action, use the first conditionals:
1) with such words and phrases.
Example: Unless he tells me everything, I’ll wait.
Example: You can join our group as long as you are environmental friendly.
Example: I’ll join the group in case you are not angry with me.
2) With such linking words and expressions:
Example: Even if you are a Scout, you’ll do it for us.
Example: Put up a tent quickly or else we’ll lose the competition.
Example: The group is delayed at the airport, otherwise it’ll be here.
Example: Suppose you become a picnicker. What will you do?
6.1. Can’t Do Without Them?
a) If you want to talk about future actions or situations that are possible but unlikely, use would + do in the main clause and the Past Simple Tense in the if-clause:
If-clause + main clause:
main clause + if-clause:
I would watch this talk-show tonight if I had free time.
b) If you want to give advice, begin your statement with If I were you, ...
Example: If I were you, I would use GPS navigation. It’s crucial for me as a traveller to be able to find my way easily.
6.2. Your Media Way
• If you want to ask for more information, use imbedded questions. They begin with:
- Do you know... ?
- Could you tell me... ?
- I wonder...
- Please, explain...
- I don’t know...
- Have you any idea... ?
Example: Do you know when the telephone was invented?
• If you begin a question like this, the word order is different from a simple question.
• Be careful with do / does / did questions:
• Use if or whether where there is no other question word (what, why etc.)
6.3. Changing the Meaning of Adjectives
• If you want to change the meaning of some adjectives, use the following word building patterns which has a negative meaning or means “lack of something”:
un + adjective: uncomfortable, unfortunately, undiscovered
in + adjective: incorrect incomplete, informal
dis + adjective: displeased, dishonest, disappointing
S If the adjective begins with the sound /p/, use im- to make the negative form.
Example: polite - impolite
S Use ir- before the sound /r/ and il- before the sound /l/.
Example: regular - irregular, logical - illogical
• If you want to use one and the same objects with two or more adjectives, follow the usual order of attributes.
Size / age
Generally so many adjectives are not used with one and the same noun. It usually takes not more than two or three.
Example: a nice big screen; an experienced young computer user.
6.4. Conditionals: Word Order
• Do not normally use will /would / should in an if clause. However, if you want to make a polite request or express insistence, you can use will or would after if.
If you will / would wait a minute, the manager will / would be able to see you. (A polite request)
• If you want to sound more formal, you can omit if and use inversion in first / second / third conditionals.
Examples: Were he more open-minded, he would not refuse to help with housework.
Had there been any chance involved, she would have combined work and motherhood.
• If you want to talk about something which is possible but not very likely to happen, you can also use should after if.
Example: If Mother should decide to return to work, let’s support her decision. (Not very likely to happen)
• If you want to talk about a past event which has effect on the present, use mixed conditionals in which the if clause refers to the past (third conditional) and the main clause refers to the present or future (second conditional).
Example: If my mother had gone to university, she would have a better job now.
• If you want to talk about a past event which was caused by a permanent (present) characteristic, use mixed conditionals in which the if clause refers to the present (second conditional) and the main clause refers to the past (third conditional).
Example: If she were more ambitious, she wouldn’t have become a housewife.
7.1. Mind as a verb
• If you want to say that you are willing to do something, use the verb not mind doing something. In this meaning, the verb mind can be followed by the -ing form.
Example: About 44 percent of the population don’t mind spending time gardening.
• Use the phrases would you mind + ing form, and do you mind + ing form to ask people politely to do things. Would you mind is more polite and more common.
Example: Would you mind opening the window, please?
• When you ask for permission politely, you can use would you mind if I + past or do you mind if I + present.
Examples: Would you mind if I turned on this light?
Do you mind if I sit here?
• If you can use the verb mind to mean ‘take care or be careful of or about something”, use it in the imperative.
Example: Mind your step!
Say I don’t mind, or it doesn’t matter to mean that you don’t feel annoyed or worried by something.
7.2. The conjunction neither ... nor
• If you want to make a negative statement about two people or things at the same time, use the two-part conjunction neither ...nor... .
Example: Interestingly, York’s tiniest street has the city’s longest name - “Whip-ma-whop-ma-gate” - which dates from Saxon times and means “neither one thing nor the other”.
• Neither goes before singular countable nouns.
Example: Neither parent came to meet the teacher.
• Use neither of before pronouns or plural countable nouns which have a determiner (my, his, the) before them.
Example: Neither of us went to the concert.
• Use neither on its own in replies when you are referring to two things that have already been mentioned.
Example: Which would you prefer, tea or coffee? - Neither, thank you, I’ve just had a coffee.
Neither ... nor ... has a negative meaning, so use it with positive verbs.
• If you want to introduce a choice between two things, use either ... or ..., which is the opposite to neither ... nor ....
Example: We can go either by bus or by train.
7.3. Verbs and Expressions with Similar Meanings to Modal Verbs
• Modal verbs don’t have past, perfect or future forms, or participle forms. Use other verbs instead.
Example: We haven’t been able to find suitable accommodation.
• These verbs and expressions have similar meanings to modal verbs: be able to, manage to, have (got) to, need to, be allowed to.
• To talk about the ability to do something on a single occasion in the past, use was/were able to + do, not could.
Example: He didn’t understand, but I was able to explain the problem to him.
• If something was achieved with difficulty, use manage to do.
Example: We managed to get home at last.
• Use have (got) to when an action is necessary because someone else requires it or because of a rule or law. Have to is more formal.
Example: We’ve got to apply for funding in advance.
• To express necessity and lack of necessity, use need to, needn’t, don’t need to, didn’t need to and needn’t have + past participle. Needn’t is more formal.
Examples: We didn’t need to get up early. (=We didn’t get up early because it was not necessary.)
We needn’t have got up early. (=We got up early but it turned out that it was not necessary.)
• Use be allowed to to talk about permission in the past or future.
Example: The museum closes in 5 minutes. I don’t think we will be allowed to come in.
7.4. Articles: Places
• Use zero article with the names of continents and most countries.
Examples: Australia New Zealand Canada
• Use the when you know that there is only one of a particular thing.
Example: the North Pole
• Use the with oceans, seas, rivers, geographical regions.
Examples: the Pacific the Tasman Sea the South Island
• Use the when a phrase or adjective such as first /best / right / wrong / only identifies which place you are talking about.
Example: The beach is the only place to be on a hot summer’s day.