Підручник Англійська мова (9-й рік навчання) - Алла Несвіт - Генеза 2017 рік
Unit 5 Anazing Britain
Lesson 3-4. Old and New Towns of Edinburgh
1. Look at the photos. Do you know where they were taken? What kinds of events do you think are held in the castle?
2. You are going to read a text about Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Use the dictionary to know the meaning of the words from the Vocabulary File.
• a twin city • desirable • a wide range of • to exercise somebody’s wallet • medieval • winding • to be listed • a ghost • a graveyard • a place bustling with something •
3. Read the text about Edinburgh. Put the headings (A-E) into the correct spaces (1-5).
A Special Celebrations
B Festival City
C The King’s Lawyer
D The City with the Past
E City of Castles
Edinburgh: A Colourful City
Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and the twin city of Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. Four hundred and fifty thousand people live there. In fact, the city is one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Europe. It is one of the most desirable places in the world to live and study, with a wide range of theatres, galleries to visit, clubs and shops to exercise your wallet. Although the sky is often grey, Edinburgh itself is a colourful city - it mixes modern and medieval, the traditional and the new. With its stunning Georgian and Victorian architecture, and winding medieval streets, it’s easy to see why Edinburgh has been listed as a World Heritage Site. This is a city that knows how to be both ancient and modern.
When you arrive, the first thing you see is Edinburgh Castle, on a hill, high above the city. Hundreds of millions of years ago, the hills in Edinburgh were volcanoes. Today, the volcanoes are quiet. Edinburgh Castle is Scotland’s most visited attraction. Over one million people visit the castle every year. Part of it is a thousand years old. Edinburgh Castle is not the only castle in Edinburgh. In fact there are many old castles and old houses. There’s also a plenty of open space, with a large number of public parks and green places right in the busy city centre.
It’s not surprising that the old city has hundreds of ghosts. Some of them are famous. One is the ghost of George Mackenzie. People often feel cold and hear strange noises near his grave. Mackenzie was King Charles II’s lawyer, in the seventh century. He wasn’t a good man. He killed a lot of people. People think his unhappy ghost walks in the graveyard of Greyfriars’ Church.
Edinburgh is a great place for a party. It’s famous for its international festivals and unusual local culture. From 29 December - 1 January Edinburgh has a New Year festival called Hogmanay. Four hundred thousand people from all over the world go to the party. There are fireworks, concerts, and a huge street party with dancing in the street!
The capital is bustling with arts, sports and attractions and is famous for playing host to the world’s largest arts festival. Every summer there are jazz, book, cinema festivals and, of course, the famous International and Fringe Theatre Festival. At these festivals you can see everything from circuses to ballets and from comedy shows to Shakespeare plays.
4. Read and complete the sentences.
1. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and the twin city of …. .
2. Edinburgh mixes …. .
3. No wonder that Edinburgh has been listed as …. .
4. It’s not surprising that the old city has …. .
5. Edinburgh is famous for …. .
6. This capital is bustling with …. .
5. Write five questions to the text of Ex. 3, p. 126 and ask your classmates to answer them.
6. a) Work individually. Compare the sentences given below. Choose the sentence, in which -ing form is a subject and read it aloud.
1. Sightseeing is a good way to learn more about the places you visit.
2. We went sightseeing yesterday.
b) Read and choose the correct item to complete the sentences.
1. The -ing form is/isn’t formed from a verb.
2. The verb changes/doesn’t change its meaning.
c) Read the information.
Gerund (- ing forms)
‘Gerunds’ are also called ‘-ing forms’, because they are formed with the verb and -ing: going, breaking, seeing, etc. They have the same meaning as nouns.
We can use -ing forms as subjects.
Learning English is useful for you.
Reading broadens your mind.
We use gerunds (-ing forms) after the verbs: like, love, adore, enjoy, prefer, hate, can’t stand, look forward, keep (on) (= ‘continue’, ‘not to stop’), finish, stop, give up (= ‘stop’, for habits), go, can’t help (= ‘can’t stop myself’), suggest, practise, (not) mind (= ‘(not) dislike’), dislike.
I adore walking around historic sites.
I prefer visiting museums to staying at home.
Sometimes the verbs like, love, adore, prefer, hate can be used with infinitives, but -ing forms are more usual.
I like travelling.
I like to travel in summer.
After begin, start, continue and prefer we can use -ing forms or infinitives with the same meaning.
When did you begin to learn/begin learning English?
I prefer to live/prefer living in the country.
Prepositions + - ing forms
When we have preposition + verb, we must use an -ing form.
The children are tired of going to the same place every summer. I worry about spending too much money.
Thank you for coming.
We use by …-ing and without …-ing to say how people do something. I earn my money by working in a travel agency.
She won’t pass exams without studying.
You can’t live without eating.
After before, after and since, we can use an -ing form or subject + verb.
I usually read the paper before going/I go to work.
I usually watch TV before going/I go to bed.
Bill has changed a lot since getting/he got married.
Sometimes to is a preposition (for example, I look forward to your answer). In this case we must use -ing forms of verbs after to.
I look forward to hearing from you.
(NOT: I look forward to hear from you.)
7. Read the sentences. Complete the sentences with the gerunds.
1. Is … (to travel) your hobby?
2. I’ve always dreamt of …. (to visit) Great Britain.
3. I enjoy …. (to read) books about wonders of the world.
4. I look forward to …. (to hear) from you.
5. I couldn’t help …. (to smile) when they were planning their trip.
6. You cannot visit a museum without …. (to buy) a ticket.
7. My friends don’t mind me …. (to join) them in a tour.
8. Mary can’t stand …. (to go) on long walks.
9. My parents earn their living by …. (to build) houses.
10. Jim has started …. (to work) hard at his English since …. (to enter) the university.
8. Read the following facts about Edinburgh. Then write the sentences into your exercise book and underline the gerunds in them.
1. Edinburgh was voted The Guardian and Observer ‘Favourite UK City’ for six years running.
2. Overseas and UK visitors to Scotland adore sightseeing in Edinburgh.
3. Bookselling is more popular in Edinburgh than in any other city in Britain and, in 2004, it was the first city in the world to be named City of Literature by UNESCO.
4. Film companies enjoy making films in Edinburgh. ‘The Da Vinci Code’ and many other films have been made there.
1. The Cannongate 2,7. The Royal Mile 3. Sir Walter Scott Memorial
4. Our Dynamic Earth Museum 5. Holyrood Palace 6. Greyfriar’s Bobby
10. You’re travelling to Edinburgh tomorrow but you’ll only spend a day in this capital city. You’ve just received an email from your Scottish friend, Keith McGregor, asking you about the time of your arrival. He wants to know what you would like to do when you arrive and he has attached the following brief programme guide to his letter:
Guided Tours in Edinburgh
Our Dynamic Earth Museum
The Royal Mile (a walking tour)
Write an email of 50 words including the following points:
• time of arrival;
• chosen programme;
• reasons why you have chosen that programme.
Begin your email like this: