Підручник Англійська мова (9-й рік навчання) - Алла Несвіт - Генеза 2017 рік

Appendices

A Guide to British and American Culture

A Broadsheet - (in Britain) A newspaper with large pages. The more serious newspapers such as The Guardian, The Independent and The Times are often reffered to as ‘broadsheets’.

Children’s Hour - A BBC radio programme that was broadcast in Britain early every evening from 1922 to 1964. It was very popular in the years before children’s television.

ChildLine - A British charity programme that provides a special telephone service for children to call for advice and help them with their problems. It is aimed especially at children who are being treated violently.

CNN (Cable News Network) - A US television company that broadcasts news and special information programmes all around the world by satellite, 24 hours a day. It was begun in 1980 by Ted Turner and is based in Atlanta, Georgia. It became especially known in 1991 as the main news source for the Gulf War.

Cornwall - The county at the south-west tip of England. It used to produce a lot of tin, but there are now very few tin mines left. Its scenery and mild climate make it popular with tourists. The administrative centre is Truro.

The Edinburgh Festival - A festival of music and drama that has been held in Edinburgh for three weeks every summer since 1947. Many tourists come to see the shows and concerts, including hundreds that are not part of the official Festival. These are known as the Edinburgh Fringe and are now considered as important as the Festival itself because of the many new and exciting ideas they contain.

Hip-hop - A popular culture that developed among young black people in the US in the late 1970s, and is now also found in Europe and elsewhere. It is associated mainly with rap music, as well as breakdancing (fast dancing on the hands and feet, popular especially in the early 1980s), graffiti art (decorative painting on the walls of buildings, etc.) and fashion clothing.

Mohawk - A member of a Native American people who live mostly in New York State and Ontario, Canada. They were part of the Iroquois league, the tradition says that Hiawatha was their leader. They originally lived in New York State in the Mohawk valley along the Mohawk River, and they helped the British during the American revolution. Mohawks are known today as excellent steel workers who help to construct skyscrapers (very tall buildings).

Parks - British towns and cities have at least one municipal park, where people go to relax, lie in the sun, have picnics, walk their dogs and play games. Most US city and town governments also provide parks. They are open to anybody free of charge. The most famous parks in Britain include Hyde Park and Regent’s Park in London. In the US, New York’s Central Park is the best known. Open-air events, such as plays and concerts are sometimes held in these parks.

1. Hyde Park (London) 2. Regent’s Park (London) 3. Central Park in New York

Protecting wild animals

Caring about wild animals is a common middle-class attitude. Many people feed wild birds in the winter. In the US the National Wildlife Federation (NWF) helps people to create their own ‘backyard wildlife habitat’. Some people have bumper stickers on their cars saying “Warning - I brake for animals”.

Reports that a species is endangered (= may become extinct) inspire campaigns to save them. There have been international campaigns to save the whale, the tiger and the rhino. In the US the NWF is fighting to save wolves and buffalo. In Britain there have been attempts to increase the numbers of red squirrels and hedgehogs. More people are concerned about baby seals being clubbed to death than about the killing of alligators because seals are seen as more attractive creatures.

In rural areas people generally have much less romantic ideas about animals. In Britain foxes steal chickens, and in the US bears and wolves kill livestock. Road signs that say “Deer Crossing” are for the driver’s protection not the animal’s.

1. A buffalo 2. A red squirrel 3. A seal 4. An alligator

Relationships

Many British and American people feel closer to their friends than to their family. In the US especially this is often because family members live far apart. It is also because people are able to choose their friends. But in the south of the USA family ties are strong and reunions (social gatherings) may attract 40 or more family members from all over the country.

In Britain many adults live quite near their family and continue to have close relationships with their parents and brothers and sisters. Some rely on family members to help look after their children. People who have moved away from home spend more time with their friends, though they may turn to their family for help in a crisis.

Snowdonia - A national park around the mountain Snowdon in northwest Wales. It is an important tourist centre, famous for its attractive mountain scenery.

Snowdon is a mountain in north-west Wales, in Snowdonia National Park. It is the highest mountain in England and Wales, and has a railway to the top which was built in the 19thcentury and is very popular with tourists.

A Tabloid - A newspaper with pages that are half the size of those of larger newspapers (called broadsheets). Most of Britain’s most popular newspapers are tabloids. These include The Sun, The Mirror, The Express and The Daily Mail. Although some tabloids are serious newspapers, many people talk about tabloid journalism or the tabloid press to refer to a type of a newspaper that contains many articles about sport and famous people, and little serious news, and is often insulting to women and people from other countries. The word tabloid is less widely used in the US, where most of the important national newspapers are of a regular size. The best-known US tabloid, which uses short articles and large photographs, is The New York Daily News.

A Talk Show — 1 A television programme in which people, often ordinary members of the public, appear in front of an audience to talk about a particular topic, or about their lives and problems. The audience are encouraged to ask questions and make comments. Talk shows are often broadcast in the morning or afternoon. 2 A chat show.

The BBC (the British Broadcasting Corporation) - One of the main television and radio broadcasting organizations in Britain, paid for the government since 1927 but free to choose the contents of its programmes. The head of the BBC has the title of ‘director general’.

The Countryside Commission - The British government organization responsible for preserving the countryside in England. It encourages local authorities to provide parks, and sets up and runs national parks and county parks. Scotland and Wales have their own organizations, Scottish Natural Heritage and the Countryside Commission for Wales.

Winfrey Oprah - An African-American entertainer who presents The Oprah Show, the most popular US television chat show. She has won six Emmy awards as ‘Best Host of a Talk Show’ (1986 and 1990-1994). The show began in 1986 and includes ordinary people talking about their personal problems, often in a very emotional way.

A World Heritage Site is a place or structure included on an official list produced by the World Heritage Committee of the United Nations. Places are chosen for the list because they are considered to be ‘of outstanding universal value’, often for historical reasons, and are therefore preserved. There are several in Britain, including Hadrian’s Wall, Stonehenge, the Tower of London and Westminster Abbey. World Heritage Sites in the US include Grand Canyon National Park, Independence Hall in Philadelphia and the Statue of Liberty in New York. The Ukrainian World Heritage Sites are Kyiv-Pecherska Lavra and St. Sophia’s Cathedral in Kyiv, the historic centre of Lviv and beech forests of the Carpathians.

1. The Tower of London 2. St. Sophia Cathedral 3. The Statue of Liberty

UNCOUNTABLE AND COUNTABLE NOUNS

Most nouns in English are countable. This means they can have singular and plural forms:

one sandwich - four sandwiches a child - the children

Common uncountable nouns: advice, furniture, help, homework, information, jewellery, luck, mail, money, music, peace, traffic, weather, work, milk, tea, bread, sugar, flour, coffee, cheese, food, fruit, meat, pepper, rice, salt, soup, water…

Uncountable Nouns

Use

Example

We use uncountable nouns with a singular verb form.

This news is not interesting.

We don’t use the article a or an with them.

I don’t like milk.

They want some sugar with tea.

Uncountable nouns have no plural form.

money some money a lot of money (none) much money a little money

Countable Nouns

Use

Example

Countable nouns have singular and plural forms.

We use them with the articles a and an in the singular form.

a book - books one book - two books some books many books a lot of books a few books

We use them with the definite article the or without an article in the plural form.

There is an orange and some apples on the plate.

We use them with singular and plural verb forms.

Pineapples are very delicious. Mango is a tropical fruit.

A lot of - Many - Much

Only countable nouns can follow a/an, many, a few, these, one, two, etc. We use (not) many with countable nouns in questions and negative sentences.

Only uncountable nouns can follow much, a little.

Both plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns can follow some, any, a lot of.

We say: sugar, some sugar, a lot of sugar (none), much sugar, a little sugar.

A lot of - Many - Much

Countable

Nouns

Uncountable

Nouns

Examples

Positive

A lot of/lots of/ many (formal)

A lot of/lots of/ much (formal)

There are a lot of classrooms in our school. There is a lot of jam in this jar.

Interrogative

many

much

Are there many classrooms in your school? Is there much jam in this jar?

Negative

many

much

There aren’t many old books in our school library.

There isn’t much oil left in the bottle.

A few (=some)/ few

(=not many, not enough)

a little (=some)/ little

(=not much, not enough)

ARTICLES: A/AN - THE

We use a/an to talk about something for the first time.

We use the to talk about something we have mentioned before.

There’s a pen on the desk. The pen is new.

We also use the before:

• names of rivers (the Thames River, the Dnipro River), seas (the Black Sea), oceans (the Atlantic Ocean), and mountain ranges (the Carpathians);

• nationalities (the English);

• names of families (the Smiths).

We don’t use the before:

• proper names (Ann, Dan);

• names of countries (Great Britain);

• names of meals (lunch);

• names of sports/games (tennis).

VERB TENSE FORMS PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

never, seldom, often, frequently, always, usually, rarely, sometimes We use the Present Simple Tense for:

• daily routines;

• repeated actions or habits;

• permanent states.

Positive

Negative

I/You/We/They

work.

I/You/We/They

don’t (do not)

work.

He/She/It

works.

He/She/It

doesn’t (does not)

Question

Answer

Do you work? Does he work?

Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.

Use

Example

Long-term situations.

She lives in Stockholm.

Habits and routines.

How often do you go abroad?

Feelings and opinions.

I don’t like spicy food.

Facts.

It rains a lot in the spring.

Timetables and programmes.

The train arrives at 18.20.

Frequency Adverbs

never, seldom, often, usually, rarely, sometimes, frequently, always

Frequency adverbs go after the verb to be, but before all other verbs:

They are often late. She usually phones me on Sundays.

PAST SIMPLE TENSE

yesterday, last week, last month, last year, in 2000 We use the Past Simple Tense for actions which happened in the past and won’t happen again.

We also use the Past Simple Tense for actions which happened at a specific time in the past.

Positive

Negative

I/You/We/They

answered.

I/You/We/They

didn’t (did not)

answer.

He/She/It

wrote.

He/She/It

write.

Question

Answer

Did he answer?

Yes, he did. / No, he didn’t.

Use

Example

Finished actions and situations in the past.

I lived in Paris from 1980 to 1989. How long ago did you meet her?

The Parkers travelled to the USA last summer.

They didn’t drive a car yesterday.

Regular verbs in the Past Simple Tense end in -ed.

We have to memorize the forms of the irregular verbs. (See Irregular Verbs list on p. 264).

Reading Rules - ed

/t/

/d/

/id/

after voiceless consonants

after vowels and voiced con-

after t, d

except t

sonants except d

watched

answered

decided

noticed

skied

painted

pickled

played

nodded

FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE

tomorrow, next year (week, month), in 2050

We use the Future Simple Tense to express a single or a permanent action in the future:

She will go to the theatre next week. He will have a party tomorrow.

We form the Future Simple by means of the auxiliary verb will and the infinitive of the main verb. Will may be used for all the persons, and shall is sometimes used for the first person singular and plural.

FUTURE: TO BE GOING TO

We use to be going to:

• for plans and intentions;

• for predictions based on what we see or know.

Positive

Negative

I

’m (am)

going to

visit.

I

’m not (am not)

going to

visit.

You/We/

They

’re (are)

read.

You/We/They

aren’t

(are

not)

read.

He/She/It

’s (is)

speak.

He/She/It

isn’t (is not)

speak.

Question

Answer

Is he going to visit his granny? Are they going to read a book?

Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.

Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.

Use

Example

Future plans, intentions, decisions.

I’m going to visit the USA this summer.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

now, at the moment

We use the Present Continuous Tense for:

• actions happening now, at the moment of speaking;

• actions happening around the time of speaking;

• fixed arrangement in the near future.

Positive

Negative

I

’m (am)

writing.

I

’m not (am not)

writing.

You/We/

They

’re (are)

You/We/

They

aren’t (are not)

He/She/It

’s (is)

He/She/It

isn’t (is not)

Question

Answer

Are you writing? Is he writing?

Yes, I am. / No, I am not. Yes, he is. / No, he is not.

Use

Example

Actions happening now.

He is writing a thank-you letter now.

Actions happening around the time of speaking.

I am reading a very interesting book at the moment.

Fixed arrangement in the near future.

We are leaving tomorrow night.

State Verbs

Verbs of Feelings and Thinking

Verbs of Senses

Other Verbs

Like, love, want, prefer, dislike, hate, think, know, believe, understand, forget, remember, mean, realize, recognize.

Hear, see, taste, feel, smell.

Own, have, be, belong, consist (of), contain, exist, include.

State verbs are not normally used in the continuous form. We often use the Present Simple with verbs of sense:

I smell something burning.

State verbs are not normally used in the continuous form. We often use can with verbs of sense: I can smell something burning.

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

from 4 till 5 yesterday, at that moment yesterday, when I came

We use the Past Continuous Tense for:

• an action in progress at a stated time in the past;

• an action which is in progress when another action interrupted it;

• two or more actions happening at the same time in the past.

We use the Past Continuous Tense for the action in progress (longer action) and the Past Simple Tense for the action that interrupted it (shorter action).

Positive

Negative

I/He/She/It

was

working.

I/He/She/It

wasn’t (was not)

working.

You/We/They

were

You/We/They

weren’t (were not)

Question

Answer

Was he working? Were they working?

Yes, he was. / No, he wasn’t.

Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t.

Use

Example

An action in progress when another action happened.

I was doing my homework when the telephone rang.

An action in progress at a specific time in the past.

Sue was writing a composition from 4 till 5 o’clock yesterday.

Two or more actions happening at the same time in the past.

I was writing a letter while my mother was cooking dinner.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

already, just, yet, never, ever, lately, recently, this morning, this evening, this week, this month, this year, today We use the Present Perfect Tense:

• to talk about an action which started in the past and continues up to the present;

• to talk about a past action with a visible result in the present;

• to refer to an experience;

• for an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. The action is more important than the time.

Positive

Negative

I/You/We/

They

’ve

(have)

worked.

I/You/We/

They

haven’t (have not)

worked.

He/She/It

’s

(has)

left.

He/She/It

hasn’t (has not)

left.

Question

Answer

Have you worked? Has it worked?

Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. Yes, it has. / No, it hasn’t.

Use

Example

Situations that began in the past and continue to the present.

She has worked as a teacher for ten years.

Situations and actions in a time up to present.

They have just discussed this question with their relatives.

Past actions with the results in the present.

He’s broken his leg.

PAST PERFECT TENSE

before she came home, by … o’clock yesterday

We use the Past Perfect Tense to say which past action happened first or what time in the past the action had finished up.

We often do not use the Past Perfect Tense, if it is already clear, which action happened first:

He left, I arrived. I arrived before he left.

Positive

Negative

I/You/

We/They

’d (had)

arrived.

I/You/

We/They

hadn’t (had not)

arrived.

He/She/It

left.

He/She/It

left.

Question

Answer

Had they arrived?

Yes, they had. / No, they hadn’t.

Use

Example

A past action which happened before another past action.

He had left when I arrived.

She was nervous, because she had never flown by plane before.

PAST TENSES: VERB CONTRASTS

PAST SIMPLE TENSE AND PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

We use the Past Simple Tense:

• to talk about the specific time in the past:

Builders finished their work yesterday.

John went to Rome last year.

• when the speaker is thinking of an action completed at a time in the past: Paper was invented in China.

Rice was grown in Vietnam last year.

We use the Present Perfect Tense when no specific past time is mentioned or when a connection is made between the past and the present:

I have met that man before. John has already read that book.

Have you ever visited London?

I have never seen a camel.

He hasn’t written the letter yet.

PAST SIMPLE TENSE AND PAST PERFECT TENSE

We use the Past Simple Tense when we talk about the past, and follow the events in the order in which they happened:

I read a book, mended my CD player and ate a cake.

We use the Past Perfect to go back to an earlier time:

I read a book I had got from the library.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

for 2 hours, since 10 o’clock

We use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

• to talk about an action which started in the past and continues up to the present giving emphasis on duration;

• to talk about a past action which has lasted for a period of time and its result is visible in the present.

Positive

Negative

I/You/We

/They

’ve (have)

been

working.

I/You/We/

They

haven’t (have not)

been

working.

He/She/It

’s (has)

He/She/It

hasn’t (has not)

Question

Answer

Have

I/we/you/they

been working?

Yes,

I/you/we/they

have.

No,

haven’t.

Has

he/she/it

Yes,

he/she/it

has.

No,

hasn’t.

Use

Example

To express the actions that began in the past and continue up to the present.

I’ve have been learning English since I was seven years old.

To express the actions that began in the past and have just stopped.

I’ve been riding a bike for two hours.

for and since

Use

Example

for

with a period of time

three days five hours a month ten minutes a long time ages

They have been playing tennis for an hour. Jane has been training for two months. The sprinters have been running for twenty minutes.

He hasn’t been reading the newspapers for a long time.

since

with a point of time

Tuesday 8 August 4 o’clock last summer 2004

I last saw you

I have been learning English since 2000.

THE PASSIVE VOICE

The Active sentences focus on what the person (subject) does, did, or will do. The Passive sentences focus on the object of the action:

My Granny bought vitamins for me. (Active Voice.)

Vitamins were bought for me. (Passive Voice.)

We form the Passive Voice by means of the verb to be and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Note: We do not normally use the Passive Voice in the Present Perfect Continuous or the Past Perfect Continuous.

We use the Passive Voice:

• when we don’t know who does/did/ etc. the action.

My car has been stolen!

• when we are not interested in who does/did/ etc. the action.

The monkeys are fed every day at three.

• when it is obvious who does/did/ etc. the action.

A man was arrested last night in a local park.

• for emphasis, formality and impersonal style.

Passengers will be informed of any delay as soon as possible.

Changing from Active into Passive

When we change the sentence from Active into Passive:

• The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.

• The active verb changes into a passive form.

• The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent.

The agent is not mentioned when:

• it is unknown;

• it is unimportant;

• it is obvious from the context.

Prepositions in the Passive Voice

When we want to say who did the action, we normally use by.

The light bulb was invented by Edison.

When we want to describe (mention) something we used to do an action, we normally use the preposition with.

This rope has been cut with a knife.

Present Simple Passive Voice

We form the Present Simple Passive Voice by means of am/is/are and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Positive

Negative

I

’m

(am)

visited.

I

’m not (am not)

visited.

You/We/They

’re

(are)

You/We/They

aren’t (are not)

He/She/It

’s

(is)

built.

He/She/It

isn’t (is not)

built.

Question

Answer

Am I visited by my friends?

Is it built by builders?

Are they visited by their relatives?

Yes, I am. / No, I’m not (am not). Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t (is not). Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t (are not).

Past Simple Passive Voice

We form the Past Simple Passive Voice by means of was/were and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Positive

Negative

I/He/She/It

was

visited.

built.

I/He/She/It

was not

visited.

built.

You/We/They

were

You/We/They

were not

Question

Answer

Was I visited by my friends?

Was it built by the builders?

Were they visited by their relatives?

Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t (was not).

Yes, it was. / No, it wasn’t (was not).

Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t (were not).

Future Simple Passive Voice

We form the Future Simple Passive Voice by means of shall/will be and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Positive

Negative

I/We

shall (will) be

visited.

built.

I/We

shan’t

(shall not) be won’t

(will not) be

visited.

built.

You/They/

He/

She/It

will be

You/They/

He/She/It

won’t (will not) be

Question

Answer

Shall (Will) I be visited by my friends tomorrow?

Will it be built by the builders? Will they be visited by their relatives?

Yes, I shall. / No, I shan’t (shall not).

Yes, it will. / No, it won’t (will not).

Yes, they will. / No, they won’t (will not).

Use

Example

When the person or thing that will do the action isn’t important, or when we don’t know who will do it.

Coffee will be grown in Brazil.

Present Continuous Passive Voice

We form the Present Continuous Passive Voice by means of am/is/are + being and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Positive

Negative

I

’m

(am)

being

informed.

I

’m not (am not)

being

informed.

You/We/

They

’re

(are)

told.

You/We/

They

aren’t (are not)

told.

He/She/

It

’s

(is)

discussed.

He/She/

It

isn’t (is not)

discussed.

Question

Answer

Am I being informed? Is it being discussed? Are we being told?

Yes, I am. / No, I’m not (am not).

Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t (is not).

Yes, we are. / No, we aren’t (are not).

C o m p a r e:

The great amount of land used for different types of farming is changing. (The Present Continuous Active Voice.)

The great amount of farming land is being changed by people today. (The Present Continuous Passive Voice.)

Past Continuous Passive Voice

We form the Past Continuous Passive Voice by means of was/were + being and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Positive

Negative

I/He/She/

It

was

being

visited.

I/He/She/

It

was

not

being

visited.

You/We/

They

were

invited.

You/We/

They

were

not

invited.

Present Perfect Passive Voice

We form the Present Perfect Passive Voice by means of have/has been and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Positive

Negative

I/You/We/They

have

been

visited.

built.

I/You/We/They

haven’t

been

visited.

built.

He/She/It

has

been

He/She/It

hasn’t

been

Question

Answer

Was he being visited? Were they being invited?

Yes, he was. / No, he wasn’t (was not). Yes, they were. / No, they weren’t (were not).

Question

Answer

Have the museums been visited by my friends the other days?

Has it been built yet?

Yes, they have. / No, they haven’t (have not).

Yes, it has. / No, it hasn’t (has not).

Use

Example

When the person or thing that has done the action isn’t important, or when we don’t know who has done it.

Coffee has been grown in Brazil.

Past Perfect Passive Voice

We form the Past Perfect Passive Voice by means of had been and the third form (Past Participle) of the main verb.

Positive

Negative

I/You/We/

They/

He/She/It

had been

invited.

I/You/We/

They/He/

She/It

hadn’t been (had not been)

invited.

Question

Answer

Had she been invited? Had they been invited?

Yes, she had. / No, she hadn’t (had not). Yes, they had. / No, they hadn’t (had not).

MODAL EXPRESSIONS

To Let Somebody Do Something and To Be Allowed to Do Something

Active Voice

Passive Voice

My parents let me play computer games every day.

I am allowed to play computer games every day.

They don’t let him talk over the telephone for so long.

He is not allowed to talk over the telephone for so long.

Sue let Jim use her pen yesterday.

Jim was allowed to use Sue’s pen yesterday.

We will let them finish writing a composition tomorrow.

They will be allowed to finish their composition tomorrow.

To Make Somebody Do Something

Active Voice

Passive Voice

His mother made me eat a plate of soup.

I was made to eat a plate of soup.

The teacher didn’t make us learn

the poem by heart yesterday.

We weren’t made to learn the poem by heart yesterday.

My mother usually makes me read in summer.

I am usually made to read in summer.

His sister will make him clean the room tomorrow.

He will be made to clean the room tomorrow.

MODALS: ABILITY, PERMISSION, ADVICE, OBLIGATION

We can use modals (can, could, may, must, should) and semi-modals (have to, ought to) to express permission, ability, obligation, advice and criticism.

• have to has a similar meaning to must

• ought to has a similar meaning to should

While modals and ought to have only one form (I should, he should, etc.), have to changes its form depending on person and tense.

She has to go home now. We have to consult a doctor.

We had to consult a doctor yesterday.

Modals are never followed by the full infinitive (with to). Use the bare infinitive.

She could play the guitar when she was three.

Ability

• Use can to talk about ability now or generally.

The doctor can see you now. Terry can speak Arabic.

• Use can to talk about the decisions made now about future ability.

We can go to the concert tomorrow, if you like.

• Use will be able to talk about future ability.

You will be able to take your driving test after a few more lessons.

• Use could to talk about ability in the past.

Tommy could read when he was two years old.

Can cannot be used as an infinitive. Use to be able to:

I’d love to be able to go on a round-the-world cruise.

(NOT: I’ d love to ean go on a round-the-world cruise.)

Permission

• Use can, could or may to ask for and give permission now, for future, or generally. They mean the same thing, but could is more polite than can, and may is more polite than could. Can/Could/May I go on the school trip next week?

• To talk about past permission, we don’t usually use a modal.

I was allowed to go on the school trip.

(NOT: I coald go on the school trip.)

Note: We do use could to talk about past permission in the Reported Speech.

My parents said I could go on the school trip.

Advice

• Use should or ought to to ask for and give advice now, for future, or generally. They have a very similar meaning, but should is much

more common in spoken and written English (both formal and informal) than ought to.

You should/ought to eat less fast food.

Obligation

• We often use must for personal obligation now, in the future, or generally.

I must remember to get my Dad a birthday present.

• We often use have to for external obligation now, in the future, or generally.

I have to study for a test tonight.

• We also use will have to for future obligation.

I’ll have to be more careful in future.

• For personal or external obligation in the past, use had to.

I had to tidy my bedroom last night.

Note: It is very unusual to use must for questions. We usually use have to.

Do I have to be at home by midnight?

You mustn’t eat that! = Don’t eat that!

You don’t have to eat that. = You can eat it if you want to but it isn’t necessary.

Must cannot be used as an infinitive. Use to have to:

I’d hate to have to go to school on Sundays.

(NOT: I’ d hate to must go to school on Sundays.)

When we make deductions (form an opinion based on the evidence), we use different modals to show how sure we are.

• For deductions about the present, the modal is followed by the bare infinitive.

• For deductions about the past, the modal is followed by the perfect infinitive (have + Past Participle).

We use must, can’t and couldn’t for deductions we think are almost certainly correct:

Sharon reads books in English quite often so she must enjoy them.

I haven’t received Amy’s letter, so she can’t/couldn’t have sent it.

We use should and ought to for deductions we think are probably correct:

Liam’s trained very hard, so he should/ought to win the match.

We use could, may and might for deductions we think are possibly correct:

Didn’t Nick call you? He could/may/might have forgotten.

INFINITIVES AND -ING FORMS

Infinitives: to go, to break, to see, etc.

-Ing forms (also called ‘Gerunds’): going, breaking, seeing, etc.

We can use both -ing forms and infinitives as subjects (but -ing forms are more common).

Smoking is bad for you. (More natural than To smoke is bad for you.)

We can use infinitives to say why we do things.

I got up early to catch the 7.15 train.

After some verbs we use infinitives; after others we use -ing forms.

I expect to pass my exams. (NOT: I expect passing…)

I’ll finish studying in June. (NOT: I’ll finish to study…)

We can use infinitives after some adjectives and nouns.

She’s ready to leave. I’m glad to see you. I’ve got work to do.

After prepositions we use -ing forms, not infinitives.

You can’t live without eating. (NOT: — without to eat.)

I usually watch TV before going to bed. (NOT: — before to go to bed.)

Infinitives often have to before them; but not always.

I want to go home, but I can’t go now.

Infinitives: Using to

• We usually put to with infinitives.

I want to go home. (NOT: I want go home.)

I telephoned my sister to say ‘Sorry’.

• But we use infinitives without to after do/does/did in questions and negatives.

Does John speak Russian?

I didn’t understand him.

• We also use infinitives without to after the modal verbs can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must and had better.

I can’t swim. Must you go now? We had better find a hotel.

• We use an infinitive with to to say why we do something.

I turned on the TV to watch the news. Joanna went to Paris to study music.

We make negative infinitives with not (to) + verb.

Try not to forget your keys. The company did not make any money last year.

• After some verbs we use an infinitive with to.

I hope to be an airline pilot. Did Jeremy agree to help you?

After begin, start, continue and prefer we can also use -ing forms with the same meaning.

When did you begin to learn/begin learning karate?

I prefer to live/prefer living in the country.

-ing forms as subjects

We often use -ing forms (also called ‘gerunds’) as subjects - more often than infinitives.

Smoking is bad for you.

Swimming is good exercise.

Travelling takes a lot of my time.

We can put objects after -ing forms.

Learning languages is difficult and takes time.

Verb + -ing forms

After some verbs we use -ing forms. Some of these verbs are: keep (on) (= ‘continue’, ‘not to stop’), finish, stop, give up (= ‘stop’, for habits), go, can’t help (= ‘can’t stop myself’), suggest, practise, enjoy, love, like, (not) mind (= ‘(not) dislike’), dislike, hate.

I can’t help feeling unhappy. Do you mind sharing your room?

After love, like and hate we can also use infinitives with to with the same meaning.

I love singing. = I love to sing.

She hates to cook/cooking on an electric cooker.

Prepositions + -ing forms

When we have preposition + verb, we must use an -ing form.

The children are tired of going to the same place every summer.

I worry about spending too much money.

Thank you for coming.

We use by … + — ing and without … + — ing to say how people do something.

I earn my pocket money by working in a petrol station.

She passed her exams without studying.

After before, after and since, we can use an -ing form or subject + verb.

I usually read the paper before going/I go to work.

Bill has changed a lot since getting/he got married.

Sometimes to is a preposition (for example, I look forward to your answer). In this case we must use -ing forms of verbs after to.

I look forward to hearing you. (NOT: I look forward to hear from you.)

QUESTION TAGS

Question tags are short questions which are used at the end of the sentences. We use question tags if we are not absolutely sure about something and wish someone else to confirm it.

We add question tags to the sentences (negative or affirmative) to ask for confirmation or agreement.

We form question tags by means of the auxiliary verb of the sentence and the personal pronoun (I, he, she, it, etc.) which corresponds to the subject of the sentence.

• If the sentence is affirmative, we use a negative question tag.

You will help me, won’t you?

• If the sentence is negative, we use an affirmative question tag.

You haven’t done your homework, have you?

• If there is a modal verb (can, could, should, etc.) in the sentence, we use the same modal verb to form the question tag.

He can’t swim very well, can he?

• If there is no auxiliary verb in the sentence, we use the auxiliary verb to do. Thus, for a sentence which is in the Present Simple we use do/ does and for a sentence which is in the Past Simple we use did.

He works in an office, doesn’t he?

You didn’t eat my ice cream, did you?

Question Tags (Short Answers)

We give short answers to avoid repetition of the question asked before.

We form positive short answers with:

Yes + personal pronoun + auxiliary verb.

We form negative short answers with:

No + personal pronoun + negative auxiliary verb.

E x a m p l e s:

There’s a room for me in your car, isn’t there? - Yes, there is.

He went to England last summer, didn’t he? - No, he didn’t.

He didn’t go to London last summer, did he? - Yes, he did./No, he didn’t. (Ні, він їздив./Так, він не їздив.)

Auxiliary Verbs in Short Answers

We often use auxiliary verbs in short answers when we don’t want to repeat something:

Does he read books every evening? - Yes, he does.

(= He reads books every evening.)

Do you go to the library on Saturdays? - Yes, I do.

(= I go to the library on Saturdays.)

We also use auxiliary verbs with so and neither:

I play tennis every Sunday. - So do I. (= I play tennis every Sunday, too.) I never read newspapers. - Neither do I. (= I never read newspaper, too.) It is important to remember the word order after so and neither — verb before the subject.

I go in for sports and so do my friends.

Unusual Question Tags

Pay particular attention to these question tags:

• Let’s…, shall we?

Let’s get a pizza, shall we?

• I’m (NOT followed by not) …, aren’t I?

I’m coming with you, aren’t I? (BUT: I’m not coming with you, am I?)

• Don’t …, will you?

Don’t tell Mum, will you?

In the sentences with a negative word like never, no, nobody, etc, we use a positive question tag.

He never tells the truth, does he?

If the subject of the main verb is someone, nobody, etc, we use they in the question tag.

Someone will have to pay for the damage, won’t they?

TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE

We can refer to the future in English by using will, be going to or by using present tenses. Sometimes there is little difference between will and be going to, but at other times we use them in different ways.

Will

• Form

Form will future using will + infinitive without to. The negative of will is won’t. The short form of will in speech and informal writing is ’ll.

What do you think will happen? I’ll tell you later.

There won’t be any lessons tomorrow.

In formal English we also use shall with I and we to refer to the future. This is becoming rare.

• Meaning

Use will to talk generally about future beliefs, opinions, hopes and predictions. There is usually a time expression. Add perhaps, probably or definitely to show how certain or uncertain we are about our predictions.

In the next century, most people will probably live in big cities. Perhaps it’ll rain tomorrow.

Probably and definitely come after will but before won’t.

She’ll probably come with us tonight.

She probably won’t come with us tonight.

Be going to

• Form

Form be going to future with the verb be + going + the infinitive. Tom and Ann are going to travel abroad next year.

• Meaning

1 .Use be going to for plans and intentions. The plan may be in the near future, or more distant.

I’m going to do lots of work this evening.

2. Use be going to for prediction when we can see in the present situation that something is going to happen.

Look out! You’re going to fall down!

Present continuous

• Form

See p. 236: I’m meeting my mother for lunch at one.

• Meaning

Use the present continuous for future to talk about things we have arranged to do. There is usually a time expression.

A: Are you doing anything on Friday evening?

B: Not really. Why?

A: I’m having a party. Would you like to come?

We use will or going to with state verbs. (See p. 236.)

I’ll be back on Friday. / I’m going to be back on Friday.

Will or going to?

We can make predictions with will and going to, and on most occasions either is possible.

I think it’s going to/it’ll probably rain tomorrow.

If there is strong evidence in the present situation, then we generally use going to:

I think it’s going to rain this (looking up at black clouds

afternoon. in the sky)

Going to or present continuous?

We use going to and the present continuous for plans and arrangements, and either is usually possible.

I’m going to have/I’m having a party on Friday.

Going to suggests that the details are not yet finalized - it’s still just a plan.

Ann is going to have another (a plan, with no specific time)

Biology lesson soon.

The present continuous suggests that the arrangement is more fixed, with a time and a place.

Ann is having her Biology lesson (it’s fixed, in her diary) this afternoon.

Other meanings of will and shall

Will and shall have other meanings.

Is that the phone ringing? (a spontaneous decision)

I’ll answer it.

I’ll do the best that I can to help you. (a promise)

Shall I help you? (offer/suggestion)

Future continuous

• Form

Form the future continuous with will + be + the -ing form of the verb. This time tomorrow I’ll be watching my favourite film on TV.

• Meaning

1. Use the future continuous to imagine an activity in progress in the future. We often do this when we compare what we are doing now with what we will be doing in the future. There is nearly always a time expression.

What will you be doing in five years’ time?

2. Use the future continuous to say that we are sure something will happen. We’ll be holding a meeting soon, so we can decide then.

Future perfect

• Form

Form the future perfect with will + have + the past participle.

By the time we get to school, the party will have begun.

• Meaning

Use the future perfect to look back from one point in the future to an earlier event.

We often use by or by the time with the future perfect.

By next week I’ll have finished my project. (The situation has not happened yet, but at a certain time in the future it will happen.)

Present simple

• We often use the present simple to talk about events in the future which are part of a timetable, programme or calendar.

Tom’s plane leaves at 12.00.

Time clauses

In some will sentences there is a time clause, with a time word followed by the present simple. These time words are always followed by the present simple to talk about the future: when, after, before, unless, in case, as soon as, until, by the time, the next time.

When I see her again, I’ll tell her your news.

Let’s run home before it rains.

Take an umbrella, in case it rains.

As soon as we’re ready, we’ll phone you.

We can also use the present perfect with these words to emphasize that an action is complete.

Hand in your paper as soon as you have finished.

Functions using will and shall

When we say that a verb form has a ‘function, we mean that we use it for a purpose like ‘promising’ or ‘suggesting’ rather than to refer to time.

• Promise: I’ll try as hard as I can.

• Refusal: I won’t tell you!

• Threat: Stop doing that, or I’ll tell my dad.

• Decision made at the moment of speaking.

A: ‘Which one do you want?’

B: I’ll take the blue silk one! (in a shop)

• Offer: I’ll give you a lift in my car. Shall I open the window?

• Request: Will you open the door for me?

• Suggestion: Shall we ask him for help?

• Parting remark: I’ll see you tomorrow.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

There are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining. With both types, we use different relative pronouns depending on what we are referring to:

• who for people (and animals when we want to give them a personality);

• which for things (and animals when we don’t want to give them a personality);

• when for times;

• where for places;

• why for reasons;

• whose the possessive of who.

Defining relative clauses give us essential information. We cannot remove the relative clause and still understand the sentence. If we remove the relative clause, the sentence doesn’t make any sense:

The Nature Reserve which I’ve visited attracts many scientists and ecotourists.

With defining relative clauses, we:

• cannot use commas;

• can replace who, which, when and why with that.

Non-defining relative clauses give us extra information. We can remove the relative clause and still understand the sentence:

Ascania Nova, which was Freidrich F. Falz-Fein’s native village, was the place of unique beauty.

With non-defining relative clauses, we:

• must use commas;

• cannot replace the relative pronoun with that;

• cannot leave out the relative pronoun.

CONJUNCTIONS

Determiners and Double Conjunctions:

Both … / Either … or / Neither … nor

We use both, either and neither to talk about two people or things.

Both (one and the other) has a plural noun.

Either (one or the other) has a singular noun.

Neither (not one and not the other) has a singular noun.

We use either … or to talk about two possibilities.

You can either read a book or watch a film.

Either Mary or John can meet him at the station.

We use neither … nor to join together two negative ideas.

You can neither visit your friend nor telephone him. He is not in Kyiv at the moment.

Neither Steve nor Dan watched that film on TV yesterday.

If … / Unless …

When we use the conjunction If …, there are two possibilities.

1. Start with If and use a comma (,).

If the results are positive, the others may imitate it.

2. Put If between the two parts of the sentence. Don’t use a comma then. The others may follow it if the results are positive.

We can use the conjunction Unless to mean ‘If … not’. We use positive form of a verb in this part of a sentence.

You can’t get a cash prize unless you get good results in your tests. (= You can’t get a cash prize if you don’t get good test results.)

If / when / as soon as / till / until

Most tenses are possible in sentences with the conjunctions:

if / when / as soon as / till / until.

If you’re happy, I’m happy. I’ll be happy if you’re happy.

But after if / when / as soon as / till / until, we normally use the Present Simple tense to talk about the future.

If it is sunny tomorrow, we’ll eat in the garden.

PHRASAL VERBS

A phrasal verb is a verb followed by one or two adverbs or prepositions. Here are some examples: get up (вставати), look after (доглядати), look forward to (очікувати па) etc.

It is usually impossible to guess the meaning of phrasal verbs just from knowing the meaning of the verb and the adverb or preposition. For example, ‘to take something up’ means to start doing a particular job or activity. It has nothing to do with taking things.

Many verbs in English are part of several phrasal verbs. The phrasal verbs are shown in dictionaries in alphabetical order after the main verb. Of course, verbs are often used with their formal meanings with adverbs and prepositions, too:

I went into room. (Я увійшов у кімнату.)

He put the book on the shelf. (Він поклав книгу на полицю.)

These are not phrasal verbs.

C o m p a r e :

It’s cold outside. Put on a warm sweater. (Надворі холодно. Одягни теплого светра.)

What made you decide to go into business?(Що спонукало тебе зайнятися бізнесом?)

One phrasal verb can have more than one meaning. Often, the meanings are not related:

Just pick up the phone and ring her! (Просто підніми слухавку та зателефонуй їй!)

She picks up languages really easily. (Вона, справді, швидко вчиться мов.)

The Grammar of Phrasal Verbs

Some phrasal verbs have objects, some do not, and some sometimes have objects and sometimes do not. This is shown in the way the phrasal verb is written in the dictionary. The way the phrasal verb is written also shows you whether the object is a person, a thing, or an action.

Phrasal verbs that need an object are shown like this: check in, get up.

Phrasal verbs that need an object are shown like this: look something up, break something in, break something down.

Phrasal verbs where an object is sometimes used and sometimes not used are shown like this: pack (something) up.

Prepositions following phrasal verbs

Many phrasal verbs are often followed by particular prepositions. These are to be learnt by heart to be used correctly. You can also consult a dictionary.

English Tenses Timeline Chart

This timeline tenses chart provides a handy reference sheet to English tenses and their relationship to one another and the past, present and future. The forms of the verbs are highlighted in bold.





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