Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Л.І. Морська - Астон 2017 рік

UNIT 3. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

LESSON 26

1. Listen to the dialogue and say whether the statements are true or false. Pay attention to the words and phrases in bold. Use the dictionary to help you.

Nick: Hi, Jane!

Jane: Hi, Nick.

Nick: Did you enjoy the film about rockets?

Jane: Yes! It was very interesting and exciting. It’s even difficult to imagine that one time in our history, space travel was the dream of writers and filmmakers.

Nick: Yeah, that’s true. But thanks to Robert Goddard’s liquid-fuel rocket, space travel has become a reality.

Jane: His invention now helps launch not only rockets, but also space probes, space shuttles, and satellites into space.

Nick: Have you understood about the process of launching a rocket into space?

Jane: Actually, not very much... What does it take to launch it into space?

Nick: Space begins about one hundred miles, which is 160 kilometres above the upper edge of Earth’s atmosphere. Rockets need engines that are more powerful than jet engines to launch into space. These powerful engines help the rocket to overcome two strong forces: the Earth’s gravitational pull and air resistance. Rockets with more than one stage could escape the Earth’s atmosphere and journey into space.

Jane: Sorry... but what is a stage?

Nick: A stage is a section of the rocket that contains the engine or set of engines and liquid-fuel. The first stage or bottom of the rocket is much larger than the other stages. The first stage needs to contain enough fuel to lift the entire rocket and its payload.

Jane: Payload??? Ah... What is that?

Nick: The payload or cargo of a rocket may be a satellite with scientific equipment or a space shuttle.

Jane: Oh. It’s very complicated! How can you understand such things?

Nick: I love science and technology! It’s my cup of tea!

1. In the past it was quite easy for people to launch rockets into space.

2. Space probes, space shuttles, satellites are types of rockets.

3. A payload is the first section of a rocket.

4. Nick enjoys reading and learning about scientific discoveries and technological inventions.

5. It’s not easy for Jane to understand the story about rocket launching.

2. Group work. Discuss the following questions.

1. What is science?

2. What is the difference between science and technology?

3. What are some of the greatest technological achievements?

4. What are the advantages of technology?

5. What are the disadvantages of technology?

6. In your opinion, what is the greatest technological invention? Why?

7. What do you think have been the three most important or interesting inventions been since 1850? How about since 1950?

Focus on Grammar Passive Voice Overview

Tense

Active

Passive

Present Simple

Once a year, the university professors organize a scientific conference.

Once a week, a scientific conference is organized by the university professors.

Present Continuous

Right now, Ukrainian engineers are developing a new

airplane.

Right now, a new airplane is being developed by Ukrainian engineers.

Past Simple

Sam repaired the car.

The car was repaired by Sam.

Past Continuous

The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.

The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.

Present Perfect

Many tourists have visited that castle.

That castle has been visited by many tourists.

Past Perfect

George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.

Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.

Future Simple (will)

Someone will finish the work by 5:00 pm.

The work will be finished by 5:00 pm.

Future Simple (be going to)

Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.

A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.

Future Perfect (will)

They will have completed the project before the deadline.

The project will have been completed before the deadline.

Used to

Jerry used to pay the bills.

The bills used to be paid by Jerry.

Future in the Past {would)

I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 pm.

I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 pm.

3. Read the text. Find the sentences in the Passive Voice. Say what tense forms are used. Change the sentences into the Active Voice. Use the dictionary to learn the meaning of the words in bold.

Evolution of the Airplane

Since that fateful day in December of 1903, airplane design has changed dramatically. The Wright Brothers built a biplane with two propellers that were chain-driven by a gasoline motor. Today’s airplanes use shorter wings because they depend less on the lift that is produced by those wings. Our dependence on air travel over the years has forced airplane design to catch up with the times.

Everyday airplanes take off and land at airports around the world. You know you need to go to these huge buildings to get on a plane, but what do you know about them?

All airports vary in size. There are smaller airstrips that may handle only one plane per day. There are also larger airports like O’Hare in Chicago, Illinois, or Heathrow in London. When the sites are chosen for airports, architects and engineers search for areas with extremely level ground. This ground should also be firmed and drained easily. The areas for future runways will need to have very few trees, buildings, and hills. Pilots need as much visibility as possible when landing their planes. The areas around runways should also be cleared of possible smoke and weather that produces low visibility. The birth of the reaction engine for airplanes was due to many scientists throughout the years. When airplanes first flew onto the scene, their motion was produced by propeller-driven engines. Air stream or jet engines used in aircraft were developed by scientists and inventors in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

4. Use the sentences in the Active Voice and then fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in the Passive Voice. The first sentence has already been done.

1. Bob mailed the package. The package was mailed by Bob. 2. Mr. Can delivers our mail. Our mail ___by Mr. Can. 3. The children have eaten the cake. The cake ___ by the children. 4. Linda wrote that letter. The letter ___ by Linda. 5. The jeweller is going to fix my watch. My watch ___ by the jeweller. 6. Ms. Bond will teach our class. Our class ___ by Ms. Bond. 7. That company employs many people. Many people ___ by that company. 8. That company has hired Sue. Sue ___ by that company. 9. The secretary is going to fax the letters. The letters ___ by the secretary. 10. A college student bought my old car. My old car ___ by a college student. 11. Mr. Adams will do the work. The work ___ by Mr. Adams. 12. Mr. Fox washed the windows. The windows ___ by Mr. Fox.

5. Look at the picture and study the words.

Guess who might say the following sentences. Use the dictionary to help you.

1. Excuse me. I’m in seat 24B.

2. We shall be landing in fifteen minutes.

3. Could you please fasten your seatbelt?

4. Please return your seat to the upright position.

5. Please return your tray table to its upright and locked position.

6. Read or listen to the dialogue. Act it out with your partner. Then make up a similar one.

A: Good morning. Can I have your ticket, please?

B: Here you are.

A: Thank you. Would you like smoking or non-smoking?

B: Non-smoking, please.

A: Would you like a window or an aisle seat?

B: An aisle seat, please.

A: Do you have any baggage?

B: Yes, this suitcase and this carry-on bag.

A: Here’s your boarding pass. Have a nice flight.

B: Thank you.

7. Give the words for the following definitions. Use the words in bold from exercises 1 and 3. You may use the dictionary to help you.

1. the frictional force that air exerts against a moving object. As an object moves, this force slows it down

2. a paved strip of ground on a landing field for the landing and takeoff of aircraft

3. one of two or more sections of a rocket that have their own fuel and engine

4. a reusable spacecraft designed to transport people and cargo between earth and space

5. a manufactured object or vehicle intended to orbit the earth, the moon, or another celestial body

6. something one likes or excels in

7. to send through the air, especially with a quick forward motion

8. an engine that produces motion as a result of the rearward discharge of a jet of fluid

9. a machine for converting any of various forms of energy into mechanical force and motion

10. the part of a vehicle’s load, especially an aircraft’s, from which revenue is derived; passengers and cargo

11. the attraction that the earth exerts on an object or that an object exerts on the earth

8. Answer the questions. Use the words from exercise 5.

1. Have you ever travelled by plane? Where to?

2. Do you remember the pilot’s name?

3. What had the flight attendant said before the plane took off?

4. What baggage did you put into the overhead compartment of the plane?

5. Did you notice the sign of “Emergency Exit”? Where was it located?

6. Which class was your seat in: economy, business, or first class?

7. Did you enjoy the flight?





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