Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Л.І. Морська - Астон 2017 рік

UNIT 4. NATURE. THE WEATHER. THE ENVIRONMENT

LESSON 36

1. Read the dialogue. Using the information in the boxes, fill in the table and then practise speaking with your partner as it is given in the model dialogue

A: Do you know what the longest mountain range in the world is?

B: I have no idea. What is it?

A: The Andes is the longest mountain range in the world.

B: How long is it?

A: It’s over 7000 kilometres long. And did you know that it is also the highest mountain range outside of Asia?

B: Wow. That’s amazing.

Name

Size

Amazing fact

The longest mountain range in the world

The largest ocean in the World

The deepest lake in the world

The biggest lake in the world

The largest desert in the world

The hottest desert in the world

The driest desert in the world

The longest river in the world

The widest river in the world

The longest river in Asia

The highest mountain in Africa

The oldest mountains in the world

The highest mountain in the world

The largest island in the world

The largest archipelago in the world

The largest volcano in the world

The Hottest Desert in the World

The hottest desert in the world is the Sahara Desert. In 1922, scientists recorded a record high temperature of 58 °C. Though it’s hot during the day, it sometimes freezes at night.

The Highest Mountain in the World

The highest mountain in the world is Everest. It is 8,848 metres high. It is so high that climbers often die on Everest.

The Widest River in the World

The widest river in the world is the Amazon River. During the wet season, the Amazon can be up to 40 km wide. More water flows down the Amazon than the next 8 largest rivers combined.

The Longest River in Asia

The longest river in Asia is the Yangtze.

It is 6,385 kilometres long. It also has the largest dam in the world called the Three Gorges Dam.

The Largest Volcano in the World

The largest volcano is the world is Mauna Loa in Hawaii. It is about 17,000 metres high from base to summit. Mauna Loa is much larger than Everest but most of Mauna Loa is underwater.

The Longest River in the World

The Nile was believed to be the longest river in the world. It is 6,650 kilometres long. The Nile River gets smaller as it gets near its mouth because of evaporation. Now the longest river is the Amazon River, which is almost 7,000 kilometres long.

The Driest Desert in the World

The Atacama desert is the driest desert in the world. It receives just 1 mm of rain per year. Some places haven’t had any rain in over 100 years.

The Oldest Mountain Range in the World

The oldest mountain range in the world is the Barberton Greenstone in South Africa. The rock in these mountains is about 3.2 billion years old. The rock was formed before there was any animal life on earth.

The Largest Ocean in the World

The largest ocean in the world is the Pacific Ocean. It covers about 170 million square kilometres. It covers about 32% of the surface of the earth.

The Largest Archipelago in the World

The largest archipelago in the world is Indonesia. It has about 17,500 islands. Only about 6,000 islands are inhabited by people.

The Highest Mountain in Africa

The highest mountain in Africa is Kilimanjaro. It is 5,892 metres high. Mt. Kilimanjaro is actually an extinct volcano.

The Largest Island in the World

The largest island in the world is Greenland. Greenland is about 2.2 million km.

The Biggest Lake in the World

The biggest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea. It has a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres. The Caspian Sea is salty, about 1/3 as salty as the seawater.

The Deepest Lake in the World

Lake Baikal in Russia is the deepest lake in the world. It is 1,637 metres deep.

It is also the largest freshwater lake in the world.

The Largest Desert in the World

The largest desert in the world is Antarctica. Antarctica covers about 14 million square kilometres. Although it is cold, it is actually considered a desert because it gets very little precipitation each year.

2. Look at the pictures and study the words.

a) drought

b) earthquake

c) flood

d) forest fire/wildfire

e) hurricane

f) tsunami

g) volcanic eruption

3. Use the words from exercise 2 (a-g) and match the, with the sentences 1-7.

1. It was 6.3 on the Richter scale. 2. The city is covered in ash and mud. There is also a stream of molten lava. 3. “Katrina” is heading for Florida with winds up to 170 miles per hour. 4. The Thames has broken its banks. 5. After years without rain there is no food or water. 6. The high winds are making it very difficult for the emergency services to put it out. 7. A massive undersea earthquake caused a ten-metre-high wave.

4. What do you know about the lost world of Atlantis? Which of the visuals might be Atlantis? Why? Read the text to check your answers.

Atlantis

Around 350 BC Plato described Atlantis as a place that must have been very beautiful. There were palaces, harbours, temples and docks. There were spectacular buildings, fountains that had both hot and cold water, stone walls covered with precious metals and huge statues made of gold. The capital city was built on a hill and surrounded by rings of water, which were joined by tunnels large enough for a ship to sail through. A huge canal connected the outer rings of water to the ocean. On the outskirts of the capital city there were vast fields where farmers grew the city’s food. The people had no warning and the city disappeared in a day and a night!

5. Read the three texts on natural disasters below and complete the table with the signs of disaster.

A. Hurricanes. When the skies turn gloomy and begin to change colours or become very dark with hints of yellows or greens, it is time to seek shelter. The rise in ocean temperatures causes strong upper tropospheric winds to blow, as happened with hurricane Katrina in August 2007. As barometric pressure falls, and temperatures rise and stillness settles over the sea. These are all signs that a hurricane is on its way.

B. Tsunamis. Tsunamis are perhaps the most difficult to prepare for. An earthquake near water may be an indication that a tsunami will shortly follow. In a coastal area where the sea suddenly draws back many survivors report a sucking sound. During the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26th December 2004, the sea withdrew and many people then went onto the exposed sea bed to investigate just before the fatal tsunami struck.

C. Earthquakes. Before the occurrence of an earthquake the subsurface temperature of the earth rises between 5 and 9 degrees Celsius. This causes negative effects on electromagnetic waves of the radio, television and telephone. Before the earthquake, mobile telephones start malfunctioning. 10 to 20 hours before the occurrence of an earthquake, animals become highly disturbed and restless. Domestic animals like cows, dogs, cats struggle against being tied up, and even turn on the owner.

Focus on Grammar Modal Verbs MIGHT

“Might” is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to make suggestions or requests.

Examples:

• Your purse might be in the living room. - possibility

• You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. - suggestion

• Might I borrow your pen? - request

Meaning

Affirmative forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Negative forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Also use:

possibility

1. She might be on the bus. I think her car is having problems.

2. She might have taken the bus. I’m not sure how she got to work.

3. She might take the bus to get home. I don’t think Bill will be able to give her a ride.

1. She might not be on the bus. She might be walking home.

2. She might not have taken the bus. She might have walked home.

3. She might not take the bus. She might get a ride from Bill.

could, may

suggestion

1. NO PRESENT FORM

2. You might have tried the cheese cake.

3. You might try the cheesecake.

1. NO PRESENT FORM

2. PAST FORM UNCOMMON

3. You might not want to eat the cheese cake. It’s very calorific.

could

request

Might I have something to drink?

Might I borrow the stapler?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

NEGATIVE FORMS

UNCOMMON

could, may, can

6. Read the title of the text and look at the picture of Pompeii below. Answer the questions and do the tasks.

1. What might ‘THE UNWELCOME NEIGHBOUR’ refer to?

2. Why do you think scientists believe the eruption might have happened during the day time?

3. Find the modals in the text and explain their meaning.

An Unwelcome Neighbour

After many quiet centuries, Vesuvius awoke at around noon on 24th August AD 79. At different times during the previous months there were usual signs of the forthcoming eruption and so the locals must have known that something terrible was going to happen. It is a scientific assumption that the first eruption must have happened around 1 o’clock as the marketplace was full of dead bodies. Others think that the town’s inhabitants may have been expecting the danger but hadn’t realised it would happen so quickly. From excavations of Pompeii and evidence found, it is obvious that the people can’t have made any preparations to protect themselves from the flowing lava and burning ash. With some planning, many people could have escaped the inferno. The local authorities should have had plans ready for the evacuation of the town but they didn’t pay attention to the danger. What is certain is that it all must have happened so quickly that 2,000 people couldn’t have predicted that day would turn into night in a matter of seconds.

7. Project work.

Search the Internet and find information about the weather in Britain at different times of the year - especially extreme weather. Talk about what you have discovered in class. Make relevant comparisons with Ukrainian weather patterns.





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