Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Л.І. Морська - Астон 2017 рік

UNIT 4. NATURE. THE WEATHER. THE ENVIRONMENT

LESSON 38

1. Listen to the dialogue and write down the modal verbs you hear. Then identify their meaning.

Andy: Hurry up, guys.

James: We’re coming ... Ouch! What was that?

Andy: Oh no! A snake! Did it bite you?

James: Yes, on my foot.

Andy: Poor you! That must hurt!

James: Yes, and it could be really dangerous ...

Andy: Calm down.

James: It might be a poisonous snake, but it can’t be deadly. There aren’t any deadly snakes in Britain.

Andy: I’ll phone the doctor. (on the phone) Hello, my friend’s got a snake bite on his foot. What should we do? ... Sorry, I don’t understand. What do you mean? Are you saying that we should call for an ambulance, or keep on walking? ... Oh, I see! Thanks.

James: What does the doctor think?

Andy: You have to go to hospital. But we don’t have to call an ambulance, so it can’t be too serious.

Focus on Grammar

Modal Verbs

MUST

“Must” is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation. “Must not” can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as “should not” or “ought not” to dissuade rather than prohibit.

Examples: This must be the right address! - certainty

Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. - necessity

You must take some medicine for that cough. - strong recommendation

Jenny, you must not play in the street! - prohibition “Must not” vs. “Do not have to”

“Must not” suggests that you are prohibited from doing something. “Do not have to” suggests that someone is not required to do something.

Examples: You must not eat that. It is forbidden,it is not allowed.

You don’t have to eat that. You can if you want to,but it is not necessary.

Meaning

Affirmative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Also

use:

certainty

1. That must be Jerry. They said he was tall with bright red hair.

2. That must have been the right restaurant. There are no other restaurants on this street.

3. NO FUTURE FORM

1. That must not be Jerry. He is supposed to have red hair.

2. That must not have been the right restaurant. I guess there is another one around here somewhere.

3. NO FUTURE FORM

have to

prohibition

You must not swim in that river. It’s full of crocodiles. You must not forget to take your malaria medication while your are in the tropics. Prohibition usually refers to the near future.

strong recommendation

1. You must take some time off and get some rest.

2. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”

You should have taken some time off last week to get some rest.

3. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”

You should take some time off next week to get some rest.

1. You mustn’t drink so much. It’s not good for your health.

2. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”

You shouldn’t have drunk so much. That caused the accident.

3. SHIFT TO “SHOULD”

You shouldn’t drink at the party. You are going to be the designated driver.

should

necessity

1. You must have a permit to enter the national park.

2. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”

We had to have a permit to enter the park.

3. We must get a permit to enter the park next week.

1. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”

We don’t have to get a permit to enter the national park.

2. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”

We didn’t have to get a permit to enter the national park.

3. SHIFT TO “HAVE TO”

We won’t have to get a permit to enter the national park.

have to

2. Read the dialogue and act it out with your partner.

A: Everyone who works in this factory must observe safety regulations.

B: What are the safety regulations here?

A: For one thing, you must wear an apron because you are working with chemicals.

B: I understand. What else?

A: You must wear ear protectors because the machines make loud noises.

B: That’s okay. I wore an apron and ear protectors in my last job.

3. Work in groups of four. Use the statement below to speak about the future of the Earth.

Model:

A: I believe the biggest danger we face is climate change.

B: I don’t agree. The climate will definitely change, but we will probably survive.

C: I think people will be happier in the future.

D: I agree. In my opinion, the world will be a fairer place than it is today.

I feel optimistic about the future. There is, of course, the risk that

E: I humanity will disappear in some disaster, but I believe that we will evolve into a more intelligent species.

Exam Skill Builder

4. Read the text and choose its best title from those given in the box below.

1. A study of the worst disasters that have ever affected people on the Earth.

2. A description of the threats facing humanity and how probable they are.

3. An essay about how humanity will change in the future.

The End of the World: The Truth or the Myth?

A. During this century the quantity of greenhouse gases will probably double and the average global temperature will rise by at least 2 degrees. That’s a bigger increase than any in the last 1,5 million years. This could completely alter the climate in many regions and lead to disasters such as world food shortages, mass migration, wars for water and other resources.

B. In the last century we have had four major flu epidemics as well as HIV and SARS. There will certainly be another one in the near future. A virus probably won’t wipe out the whole human race. However, in 1918 influenza killed twenty million. A similar epidemic could be even worse today.

C. It hasn’t happened yet, but one day it is almost certain that a terrorist group will get the necessary materials and technology to use weapons of mass destruction. A nuclear, chemical or biological terrorist attack will almost certainly happen in the next thirty years.

D. Over a long period, the risk of dying as a result of a meteor hitting the Earth is about the same as the risk of dying in a plane crash. A huge meteor hits the Earth about once every million years. It will happen again, and when it happens, an enormous cloud of dust will rise into the atmosphere. This will block out sunlight and kill plants. However, the most adaptable species (humans, for example) will probably survive.

E. By 2050 robots will probably be able to think like humans. They will look after us at home like mechanical servants. But they will also carry out more complex tasks. For example, they will be able to work as doctors or teachers. Some people think that the fantasies of science-fiction films will come true. Humans won’t become extinct, but we will join together with advanced robots and make a new species that will live forever.

F. Approximately every 50,000 years there is a volcano eruption. The consequences are terrible and can last for years. It covers the land with ash, and a huge cloud of sulphuric acid circles the Earth. Daytime is like s moonlight night. Ice forms in the tropics. A super-volcano is twelve times more likely than a large meteorite impact.

So, there they are. The future is full of dangers and the world will end one day. However, I really don’t feel too worried. It may be irrational, but I actually feel optimistic. I think it’s going to be very hard to kill off the human race. And I’m quite looking forward to having my robot servant.

5. Study the information about reading strategies and then answer the questions using the given strategies.

In order to read effectively, you need to use different strategies depending on what you are looking for in a text.

Strategy

What do you do?

Skimming: to understand the general idea of a text.

Look at the title, the photos, the introduction and the final paragraph.

Finding the main idea of a paragraph

Read the first sentence which often summarises the main point. Look for the key words.

Scanning: to find specific information

Underline the key words in the questions, find synonyms and similar expressions in the text, and read carefully around the key words (before them and after them).

1. Which happens more often: a very large meteor hits the Earth, or a super-volcano erupts?

2. What will happen after both a meteorite impact and a super-volcano eruption?

3. Which species will probably not die out completely after a large meteorite impact?

4. When will robots’ minds be similar to ours?

5. Why does the writer feel optimistic about the future of humanity?

6. Match the paragraphs A-F of the text in exercise 4 with the pictures.

7. Complete the sentences with must, might or should.

1. Nancy said you didn’t need to buy her anything for her birthday, but I really think you at least get her some flowers or a nice bottle of wine.

2. Debbie said she was really busy this week, but I think she ___ show up at the party if she doesn’t have to work overtime on Friday.

3. Nina said she would come over right after work, so she ___ be here by 6:00.

4. You ___ be kidding! That can’t be true.

5. Dan: Where’s the remote control? I want to change the channel. - Fiona:

I don’t know. It ___ be under the couch. Or, perhaps I took it into the kitchen. I’ll check in there.

6. For most people, learning a language is a challenging undertaking. Experts agree that to make the most of your language learning experience, you ___ practice the language regularly and push yourself to maintain old vocabulary while acquiring new words and expressions.

7. New research suggests that exercise can reduce the chance of heart disease as well as cancer. That’s why I told my father that he ___ start walking once a day.

8. We should invite Sally to come to the picnic on Saturday. We haven’t seen her in weeks, and she ___really enjoy a nice day at the beach.

9. We had better call Tony to see if he’s at home before we go over to his house. He ___ not be there and we don’t want to drive all the way over there for nothing.

10. The book recommends adding fresh soil and using plant food to make your garden flowers grow. Since some people might be allergic to chemicals in artificial plant foods, the book says that you ___ use an organic brand to avoid skin irritations.





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