Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Л.І. Морська - Астон 2017 рік

UNIT 4. NATURE. THE WEATHER. THE ENVIRONMENT

LESSON 39

1. Listen to the dialogue and write down the modal verbs you hear. Then identify their meaning.

A: What’s your son going to do after high school?

B: He might be a plumber.

A: That’s a good job.

B: He might be an electrician.

A: That’s a good field, too.

B: He really can’t decide.

Focus on Grammar

Modal Verbs

SHOULD

“Should” is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation or expectation.

Examples:

• When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. - recommendation

• You should focus more on your family and less on work. - advice

• I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. - obligation

• By now, they should already be in Dubai. - expectation

Meaning

Affirmative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Also use:

recommendation, advice

1. People with high cholesterol should eat low-fat foods.

2. Frank should have eaten low-fat foods. That might have prevented his heart attack.

3. You should really start eating better.

1. Sarah shouldn’t smoke so much. It’s not good for her health.

2. Sarah shouldn’t have smoked so much. That’s what caused her health problems.

3. Sarah shouldn’t smoke when she visits Martha next week. Martha hates when people smoke in her house.

ought to

obligation

I should be at work before 9:00.

We should return the video before the video rental store closes.

«Should» can also express something between recommendation and obligation. «Be supposed to» expresses a similar idea and can easily be used in the past or in negative forms.

NO NEGATIVE FORMS

be suhhosed to

expectation

1. Susan should be in New York by now.

2. Susan should have arrived in New York last week. Let’s call her and see what she is up to.

3. Susan should be in New York by next week. Her new job starts on Monday.

1. Susan shouldn’t be in New York yet.

2. Susan shouldn’t have arrived in New York until yesterday.

3. Susan shouldn’t arrive in New York until next week.

ought to, be supposed to

OUGHT TO

“Ought to” is used to advise or make recommendations. “Ought to” also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. “Ought not” (without “to”) is used to advise against doing something.

Examples:

• You ought to stop smoking. - recommendation

• Jim ought to get the promotion. - It is expected because he deserves it.

• This stock ought to increase in value. - probability

Examples:

• You ought not smoke so much.

• She ought not take such risks while skiing.

• They ought not carry so much cash while travelling.

Meaning

Affirmative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Also

use:

recommendation,

advice

1. Margaret ought to exercise more.

2. Margaret ought to have exercised more so she would be better prepared for the marathon.

3. Margaret ought to come to the fitness centre with us tonight.

1. Margaret ought not exercise too much. It might cause injury.

2. Margaret ought not have run the marathon. She wasn’t in good shape.

3. Margaret ought not stay at home in front of the TV. She should go to the fitness centre with us.

should

assumption,

expectation,

probability

1. She ought to have the package by now.

2. She ought to have received the package yesterday.

3. She ought to receive the package tonight.

&Ought not[ is used primarily to express negative recommendations.

(See above.)

should

NEED

Need is a semi-modal verb because in some ways it is like a modal verb and in other ways like a main verb.

We use need mostly in the negative form to indicate that there is no obligation or necessity to do something:

• You needn’t take off your shoes.

We use needn’t have + -ed form to refer to events which happened but which the speaker considers were unnecessary:

• You needn’t have waited for me.

(You waited for me but it wasn’t necessary.)

• You needn’t have bought so much food.

• There are only three of us staying for the weekend.

(You bought a lot of food but it wasn’t necessary.)

Semi-modal need

Main verb need

Comment

Need it be so dark in here?(formal)

Does it need to be

so dark in here?

In these examples, the meaning is the same for semi-modal need and main verb need + to.

You needn’t mention this to your father.

You don’t need to

mention this to your father.

2. Complete the sentences with must/mustn’t/need/ needn’t in the correct form.

1. You ___ go to the store today. There is plenty of food in the fridge.

2. Your hair is going grey. I think it dyeing.

3. Your dress looks very expensive. It ___ have cost a fortune!

4. You ___ do the ironing. I’ll do it later.

5. Don’t tell me what I can and can’t do. I don’t any advice from you.

6. It’s really important that you do it. You ___ forget about it.

7. The next bus is due to arrive in 15 minutes, so we don’t ___ to hurry.

8. It ___ have snowed last night because the roof is white.

9. People and animals_ eat to live.

10. Tom ___ have hurried to the bus stop. The bus was delayed by twenty minutes.

11. Ilona is a very rich person and she work.

12. Ted won first prize. He ___ be very happy now.

13. - Do I have to clean my room? - No, you ___ .

14. I can’t find my umbrella! I ___ have left it in the school.

15. It’s very cold in this country. I think you’ll ___ a warmer coat.

16. Lilly ___ worry about her exam. She’ll pass it.

Exam Skill Builder

3. Read the title of the text and the introduction paragraph, look at the picture, and say what creature it might be about. Read the text quickly ant check your predictions.

As Intelligent As...?

It looks like an alien, can copy other animals and can change colour, shape and size in a second. Alec Peters investigates a mysterious creature that might be too intelligent for humans to understand.

Ask biologists what the most intelligent creatures on the Earth are, and they’ll probably come up with a fairly similar list: larger mammals such as horses, dogs, dolphins, pigs, the great apes as well as some birds like crows and ravens. But now some scientists believe that one of the most intelligent beings on Earth is in fact the octopus - which doesn’t belong to any of these groups.

Every schoolchild knows that octopuses (or octopi) have eight legs and can shoot ink while trying to escape from enemies. But there are many other unusual things about octopuses. For example, the legs of some octopuses can grow to over nine metres in length and are extremely strong. If an octopus loses a leg, it can grow a new one. It also has three hearts and complex eyes.

Octopuses have extremely soft, flexible bodies and can escape through holes not much bigger than their eyes. There are many biologists who have stories about walking into the laboratory after lunch to find their octopus that had escaped from its aquarium and was now hiding in a teapot or climbing a bookshelf!

However, little was known about octopus intelligence. There are several reasons for this. Firstly, octopuses usually live at the bottom of a river mouths and seas - areas which are not attractive to researchers. Secondly, they are not social animals so it can be difficult to study their interaction with others. Perhaps most importantly, octopus intelligence is not easy for humans to understand. When we observe mammals such as rats or dogs we can often instinctively understand their behaviour. Octopuses, however, seem like aliens.

In the 1950s, the US Air Force sponsored scientists to study the way octopuses use their brains. They hoped that they could use this knowledge to help them build better computers. However, their brains were so complex that the scientists gave up quickly. And even today the octopus brain is a mystery. Octopuses have a very complex nervous system and recent research suggests that they have some of their intelligence inside each arm, which means that each arm can “think” for itself. It also appears that they have good memories, perhaps similar to a cat’s. Some octopuses in laboratories seem to play with objects as if they were toys - a sure sign of intelligence. Others could pick up complicated skills like opening jars.

Perhaps the most striking thing about octopuses is their ability to change their colour and body pattern. They do this to camouflage themselves and also to communicate with others. They can completely change their appearance in less than a second. It can change its skin to look like rocks, sand or plankton.

Some scientists have even suggested that these different patterns and colours are in fact a very sophisticated language - and that each design is a different verb, adjective or noun. But nobody has been able to work out what they might be saying. It seems like the problem isn’t the limitation of the animals... but the limitation of humans!

4. Read the text in exercise 3 again and choose the correct answer.

1. Now some scientists believe that

a. all octopuses are more intelligent than larger mammals.

b. we can add the octopus to the list of most intelligent animals.

c. the octopus isn’t in fact a mammal.

d. we should find a new group for octopuses.

2. An octopus’s eye is

a. something that even schoolchildren know about.

b. rather unusual for a mammal.

c. rather unusual for a creature that lives in the sea.

d. not very complicated.

3. Octopuses are good at escaping because

a. they can change the shape of their body.

b. they choose surprising places to hide in.

c. they have very small eyes.

d. the scientists who study them often go out.

4. One of the reasons that we didn’t know how intelligent octopuses are until recently was that

a. they live in places where researchers don’t like going.

b. they don’t like being observed.

c. they don’t like socializing with humans.

d. they are so different from other animals we know.

5. One thing that suggests that octopuses are intelligent is that

a. they were smarter than US Air Force computers.

b. their brains are similar to cats’.

c. they learn how to do complicated tasks.

d. the octopus brain is a mystery.

6. One of the reasons octopuses often change their appearance is because

a. they want to become less noticeable.

b. they get bored when they are eating for a long time.

c. they are very talkative.

d. they enjoy copying other animals.

5. Find the words in bold in the text in exercise 3 and try do define their meaning. Then match the words with the definitions below.

1. to solve (as a problem) by a process of reasoning or calculation - ___

2. to cease doing or attempting something especially as an admission of defeat - ___

3. to produce especially in dealing with a problem or challenge - ___

4. to acquire by study or experience - ___

6. Complete the table with as many names of living creatures of the given categories as you can.

Mammals

elephants, whales, dolphins, horses, hares,...

Birds

eagles, storks, hens, swallows, ostriches, ...

Fish

sharks, carp, salmon, perch, cod, trout, eel, ...

Insects

beetles, bees, mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, ...

Reptiles

crocodiles, lizards, iguanas,...

7. Project work. Use the internet and other reference material to find the information about some animal. Make sure you find some facts that might be unknown for your classmates, but which might be interesting to find out.

8. Complete the sentences in the exercise 7 (lesson 38) with could, ought to or have to.

9. Read the tongue-twister as quickly as you can.

Whether the weather be fine

or whether the weather be not,

We’ll weather the weather

whether we like it or not.





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