Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Л.І. Морська - Астон 2017 рік

UNIT 4. NATURE. THE WEATHER. THE ENVIRONMENT

LESSON 40

1. Listen to the dialogue and write down the modal verbs you hear. Then identify their meaning.

A: I can’t meet you tomorrow.

B: Why not?

A: I have an appointment.

B: Can you meet me on Tuesday?

A: Not sure. I might have to work.

B: I’ll call you tonight.

Focus on Grammar Modal Verbs CAN

“Can” is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility.

Examples:

• I can ride a horse.

ability

• We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris.

opportunity

• She cannot stay out after 10 PM.

permission

• Can you hand me the stapler?

request

• Any child can grow up to be president.

possibility

Meaning

Affirmative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Also use:

general ability

1. I can speak Chinese.

2. SHIFT TO “COULD”

I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.

3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”

I will be able to speak Chinese by the time I finish my course.

1. I can’t speak Swahili.

2. SHIFT TO “COULD”

I couldn’t speak Swahili.

3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO” I won’t be able to speak Swahili.

be able to

ability during a specific event

1. With a burst of adrenaline, 1. Even with a burst of people can pick up cars. adrenaline, people can’t pick

2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO” up something that heavy. With a sudden burst of 2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO” adrenaline, he was able to lift Even the weight lifter wasn’t the car off the child’s leg. able to lift the car off the

3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO” child’s leg.

With a sudden burst of 3. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO” adrenaline, he will be able to Even three men working lift the car. together won’t be able to lift

the car.

be able to

opportunity

1. I have some free time. I 1. I don’t have any time. I can help her now. can’t help her now.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO” 2. SHIFT TO “BE ABLE TO”

I had some free time I didn’t have time yesterday. yesterday. I was able to help I wasn’t able to help her at her at that time. that time.

3. I’ll have some free time 3. I won’t have any time later. tomorrow. I can help her then. I can’t help her then.

be able to

permission

1. I can drive Susan’s car when 1. I can’t drive Susan’s car she is out of town. when she is out of town.

2. SHIFT TO “BE ALLOWED TO” 2. SHIFT TO “BE ALLOWED TO” I was allowed to drive Susan’s I wasn’t allowed to drive

car while she was out of town Susan’s car while she was last week. out of town last week.

3. I can drive Susan’s car 3. I can’t drive Susan’s car while she is out of town next while she is out of town next week. week.

may

request

Can I have a glass of water? Can’t I have a glass of water? Can you give me a lift to Can’t you give me a lift to school? school?

Requests usually refer to the Requests usually refer to near future. the near future.

could, may

possibility, impossibility

Anyone can become rich and It can’t cost more than a famous if they know the right dollar or two. people. You can’t be 45! I thought Learning a language can be a you were about 18 years old. real challenge. This use is usually a This use is usually a generalization or a generalization or a supposition. supposition.

could

COULD

“Could” is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests.

Examples:

Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city.

possibility

• Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11.

past ability

• You could see a movie or go out to dinner.

suggestion

• Could I use your computer to email my boss?

request

“Could not” vs. “Might not”

“Could not” suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. “Might not” suggests you do not know if something happens. Examples:

• Jack might not have the key.

• Jack could not have the key.

Maybe he does not have the key.

It is impossible that he has the key.

Meaning

Affirmative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Negative Forms 1. = Present 2. = Past 3. = Future

Also

use:

possibility

1. John could be the one who stole the money.

2. John could have been the one who stole the money.

3. John could go to jail for stealing the money.

1. Mary couldn’t be the one who stole the money.

2. Mary couldn’t have been the one who stole the money.

3. Mary couldn’t possibly go to jail for the crime.

might, may

suggestion

1. NO PRESENT FORM

2. You could have spent your vacation in Hawaii.

3. You could spend your vacation in Hawaii.

NO NEGATIVE FORMS

past ability

I could run ten miles in my twenties.

I could speak Chinese when I was a kid.

“Could” cannot be used in positive sentences in which you describe a momentary or one-time ability. Yesterday, I could lift the couch by myself. - Incorrect

I couldn’t run more than a mile in my twenties.

I couldn’t speak Swahili. “Could” can be used in negative sentences in which you describe a momentary or one-time ability. Yesterday, I couldn’t lift the couch by myself. - Correct

be able to

polite, request

Could I have something to drink?

Could I borrow your stapler? Requests usually refer to the near future.

Couldn’t he come with us? Couldn’t you help me with this for just a second?

Requests usually refer to the near future.

can, may, might

WILL

“Will” is used with promises or voluntary actions that take place in the future. This modal verb can also be used to make predictions about the future. Examples:

I promise that I will write you every single day.

promise

• I will make dinner tonight.

voluntary action

• He thinks it will rain tomorrow.

prediction

Meaning

Affirmative Forms

Negative Forms

Also

use:

future

action,

prediction

The marketing director will be replaced by someone from the New York office.

Fred will be there by 8:00.

The marketing director will not be replaced after all.

Fred will not be there. He has a previous obligation.

shall

volunteering

promising

I will take care of everything for you.

I will make the travel arrangements. There’s no need to worry.

I will never forget you.

I will never give up the fight for freedom.

shall

2. Choose the correct item.

1. Rabbits can’t/must fly.

2. You could/mustn’t forget your book. You’ll need it.

3. Last year I must/ had to learn Chinese. It was really difficult.

4. I’ve been learning English for seven years, so I can / have to speak it quite well now.

5. You should/mustn’t try harder in class.

6. My mum can’t/ couldn’t swim when she was a child.

7. You mustn’t/ don’t have to wash your hair every day. Twice a week is enough.

8. We had to / could see the sea from the house where we stayed last summer.

9. She shouldn’t / mustn’t forget her hockey stick today because she’s playing in a match.

10. I have to / can’t study tonight because we are having an important test tomorrow.

11. You can /shouldn’t swim in the lake. It’s very dangerous.

12. My granddad mustn’t/ didn’t have to study Science at school.

3. Work in pairs. Decide if predictions 1-6 are based on opinions (O) or evidence (E). Then complete the sentences with the words from the box below.

am going to/ are going to/ is going to/ might/ probably won’t/ will definitely

1. I think computers ___ become more intelligent than humans. I’m sure of it!

2. Oh my goodness! He ___ die! - No, he isn’t. He’s a hero!

3. Nobody really knows but one day people ___ colonise another planet.

4. Maybe that will happen, but I ___ live to see it.

5. I feel awful. I ___ be sick!

6. Listen to those engines! They ___ explode!

4. Look at the picture and the newspaper headline and answer the questions below.

1. What problems connected with animals are presented here?

2. What kind of animals are in danger of extinction?

3. What is the best way to protect such animals?

4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos?

5. Why are zoos popular places to visit?

“Zoos Are Last Chance For Siberian Tiger”

5. Read the model essay and answer the questions below. Pay attention to underlined words.

1. Does the writer mention your arguments (you expressed while answering the questions from the previous exercise) for or against zoos?

2. Is the writer generally for or against zoos?

3. Do you find his/ her essay convincing?

Although the function of zoos has changed little during the last 250 years, zoos are very controversial today. Many people think they are cruel and have no place in the modern world. It is my own opinion that zoos, although not perfect, do have a useful function.

First of all, zoos are places of education. Zoos can help children to appreciate nature. Furthermore, research into animal behaviour is done in zoos and has increased our knowledge of zoology, genetics and even psychology. Above all, zoos can protect the future of many species of animals. Many species today are in danger of extinction and, thanks to breeding in zoos, many animals have a chance of survival. Indeed there are some animals which now only exist in zoos.

Opponents of zoos say that they are cruel. First of all, zoos cannot create the environment in which animals live and, because of this, animals are bored and depressed. Secondly, animals have frequent contact with human visitors which can be stressful. However, in my opinion, most zoos have improved recently. It is now quite rare to see animals in cages and most zoos try hard to recreate the environments in which different animals live.

In conclusion, although zoos are not a perfect environment for animals, I believe that they have more advantages than disadvantages. In an ideal world, zoos would not be necessary. But as long as man hunts animals for profit and destroys their environments, zoos are essential.

6. Compare the Opinion essay and the For/Against essay. Do the tasks after the table.

Opinion essay

For/ Against essay

Topic

Often includes “Do you agree?”

Often includes: “Give arguments for and against...”

First paragraph

Introduction

Introduction

Second paragraph

Two or three arguments/ examples that support your opinion

Arguments for

Third paragraph

Arguments which are against your own opinion; saying why you disagree with them

Arguments against

Conclusion

A summary of the arguments, saying once again why you think you are right

A summary of the debate; your own opinion at the very end

1. Identify the type of essay in the previous exercise.

2. Find the sentences in the model essay where the writer: a) mentions his/ her own opinion for the first time; b) says why he/ she disagrees with the arguments of his/ her opponents.

3. Look at the following sentences from the model essay and say which argument the writer thinks is the most important. What words or phrases tell you this?

a. First of all,zoos are places of education.

b. Furthermore, research into animal behaviour is done in zoos.

c. Above all, zoos can protect the future of many species of animals.

7. Using the structure of the essay types (exercise 6) and the model essay (exercise 5), write your own essay on the topic “It is wrong to kill animals for their fur. Do you agree?”. Decide which arguments given below are against killing animals for fur. What is your own opinion?

1. It is cruel - animals which are kept for fur have short and unhappy lives.

2. Animal fur is warmer and more attractive than man-made materials.

3. It is unnecessary because we can now make man-made materials very cheaply.

4. Wearing fur is natural - the man has been wearing it for thousands of years.

5. It has no place in the civilised world in the twenty-first century.

6. Some animals that are hunted for fur are endangered species.





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