Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Л.І. Морська - Астон 2017 рік



1. The ABC of Britain. Read the alphabet sentences. Then match the pictures with the appropriate alphabet letter telling the corresponding information about the country.

A is for Albion, the first known name of Great Britain which means the white cliffs of Dover.

B is for bowls, a game in which players roll large black balls at a small white target ball.

C is for Cymbru which refers to Welsh and means ’people of the valleys’.

D is for dome, the Millennium Dome which is the world’s largest dome.

E is for Eisteddfod, a Welsh festival which features storytelling contest.

F is for folklore, a boggart, a household spirit which causes things to disappear and milk to sour.

G is for Gaelic, the language spoken by the Scots.

H is for haggis, a Scottish dish of ground meat, spices, oatmeal, and onions boiled in a sheep’s stomach.

I is for island (Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles).

J is for Jutes, the Germanic tribe that settled in early Great Britain.

K is for kilt, a traditional dress of Scottish men.

L is for lorry, the British word for truck.

M is for moorland ponies, wild ponies that live in the moors of Great Britain.

N is for the nations of Scotland and Wales that are included in Great Britain.

O is for the obelisk in London that is made of red granite and stands about 68 feet high, weighs about 180 tons and is inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs.

P is for Piccadilly Circus, which isn’t actually a circus with clowns and acrobats but a traffic circle.

Q is for the Queen of England.

R is for Robin Hood, the legendary hero that stole from the rich to give to the poor.

S is for Stonehenge, a mysterious arrangement of stones.

T is for the tower of London, a medieval stone fortress where the British Crown jewels are kept.

U is for underground in Britain.

V is for the name of Victoria, which evokes a lot of national pride, for instance the term Victorian England.

W is for Westminster Abbey, a 900 year old church where many famous Britons are buried.

X marks the spot.

Y is for Yorkshire pudding, a breadlike dish served with roast beef.


Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses

Defining clauses

Non-defining clauses

Specify a noun or pronoun in the main clause and are necessary if we want to understand the meaning of a sentence.

I saw the girl who was outside our house.

If we omit the defining clause, it is not clear what girl we are talking about.

Only describe a preceding noun or pronoun (add some extra information about them), but do not specify them.

Ann,whom I admire,is not right in this case.

If we leave them out (whom I admire), the sentences remain grammatically correct.

We do not write them with commas.

They must be written with commas.

They follow after the pronouns who, whose and whom (for persons), which (for things),that (for persons or things).

Do not use that in non-defining relative clauses.

The relative pronoun can be omitted.

That’s the hotel we stayed in last year.

The relative pronoun is never omitted with non-defining relative clauses.

Non-defining relative clauses contain extra information about the noun to which they relate: Example 1 contains information about the River Nile. Example 2 contains information about the modern Olympic champions.

The River Nile, which is over 6,500 kilometres long, is Egypt’s main source of water.

The modern Olympic champions, who compete every four years, have to practise a lot.

Non-defining relative clauses do not tell us which person (who) or thing we are talking about. It is already clear without the relative clause.

Sentences containing non-defining relative clauses remain grammatical and have the meaning even if you remove the non-defining relative clause:

Example 1 - The River Nile is Egypt’s main source of water.

Example 2 - The modern Olympic champions have to practise a lot.

The relative pronoun usually comes immediately after the noun that it relates to: The Eiffel Tower, which was built in 1887, is not far from the Louvre museum.

Non-defining relative clauses are separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.

The relative pronoun which at the beginning of a non-defining relative clause can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of the sentence, rather than to just one word: Chris did really well in his exams,which is quite a surprise.

2. Replace that with who or which in the following sentences.

1. A soldier is someone that works in the army. - A soldier is someone ___ works in the army.

2. A student is a person that goes to school. - A student is a person ___ goes to school.

3. An ostrich is a bird that cannot fly. - An ostrich is a bird_ cannot fly.

4. A cook is someone that makes meals at a restaurant. - A cook is someone ___ makes meals at a restaurant.

5. A tire is a thing that you can find on a wheel. - A tire is a thing you ___ can find on a wheel.

6. A stick is a piece of wood that is long and thin. - A stick is a piece of wood ___ is long and thin.

3. Replace who or which with that if possible.

1. I saw a boy who ran out of your office. - I saw a boy ____ ran out of your office.

2. My neighbour, who is 70 now, is a nice person. - My neighbour, ____ is 70 now, is a nice person.

3. We used my car, which was more comfortable. - We used my car, ___ was more comfortable.

4. Where is the T-shirt which I gave you? - Where is the T-shirt ___ I gave you?

5. This is the girl who I told you about. - This is the girl ___ I told you about.

6. His work, which is quite boring, is important to him. - His work, ___ is quite boring, is important to him.

7. The doll which you want costs 14 pounds. - The doll ___ you want costs 14 pounds.

8. Her sister Jane, who is three years younger, is a bright student. - Her sister Jane, ___ is three years younger, is a bright student.

9. Sam, who we saw at the dance, is going to start a new company. - Sam, ___ we saw at the dance, is going to start a new company.

4. Find relative clauses in exercise 1 and state whether they are defining or non-defining.

5. Read the text about Seven Natural Wonders of Great Britain. Match the paragraphs with the pictures and then show the places you have read about on the geographical map of the UK.

1. Giant’s Causeway, Northern Ireland. Located on the northeast coast of Northern Ireland, this is the most popular tourist attraction in the country. It consists of almost 40,000 columns of basalt, some reaching over 30 feet high, which are crowded together, creating an unusual ensemble.

2. Highlands (Glen Coe), Scotland. This area is one of the most wild and beautiful in all of Scotland. It lies in the valley of the River Coe and is a spectacular landscape of verdant hills and valleys. It is a popular place for hikers and there are many trails which lead into the hills.

3. Lake District, England. This region of northwestern England is a favourite vacationland for many British as well as tourists from other countries. Much of the activity in the area centres around Windermere, one of the region’s many lakes. The area is also associated with William Wordsworth and Beatrix Potter, of literary fame.

4. Loch Ness, Scotland. One of the most popular tourist attractions in all of Scotland, reputed home of Nessie, the Loch Ness Monster. Most people drive around the loch to attempt to spot the legendary creature which has fascinated men, women, and children all over the world.

5. White Cliffs of Dover, England. These chalky white cliffs of calcium carbonate lie on England’s southeastern shore, facing France. They are famous as one of the first images seen by individuals travelling from the mainland to England. The cliffs rise up to 350 feet and dramatically herald one’s arrival in England.

6. Jurassic Coast, Devon & Dorset, England. This 100-mile stretch of coastline in southern England is a World Heritage Site. The rugged coastline features a sea arch at Durdle Door and rises to over 600 feet high in spots.

7. Cheddar Gorge & Caves, Somerset, England. This chasm, almost 400 feet deep, is Britain’s largest. It is noteworthy for both its geology and its history - the oldest complete human skeleton in Great Britain, Cheddar Man, was found in the Cheddar Caves, within the gorge. He was estimated to be 9,000 years old.

6. Complete the text with the correct tense forms (active or passive).

Hadrian’s Wall

In the year 122 AD, the Roman Emperor Hadrian (visit) ___ his provinces in Britain. On his visit, the Roman soldiers (tell) ___ him that Pictish tribes from Britain’s north (attack) ___ them. So Hadrian (give) ___ the order to build a protective wall across one of the narrowest parts of the country. After 6 years of hard work, the Wall (finish) ___ in 128. It (be) ___ 117 kilometres long and about 4 metres high. The Wall (guard) ___ by 15,000 Roman soldiers. Every 8 kilometres there (be) ___ a large fort in which up to 1,000 soldiers (find) ___ shelter. The soldiers (watch) ___ over the frontier to the north and (check) ___ the people who (want) ___ to enter or leave Roman Britain. In order to pass through the Wall, people (must go) ___ to one of the small forts that (serve) ___ as gateways. Those forts (call) ___ milecastles because the distance from one fort to another (be) ___ one Roman mile (about 1,500 metres). Between the milecastles there (be) ___ two turrets from which the soldiers (guard) ___ the Wall. If the Wall (attack) ___ by enemies, the soldiers at the turrets (run) ___ to the nearest milecastle for help or (light) ___ a fire that (can, see) ___ by the soldiers in the milecastle.

In 383 Hadrian’s Wall (abandon) ___ . Today Hadrian’s Wall (be) ___ the most popular tourist attraction in northern England. In 1987, it (become) ____ a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

7. Read the questions and answers. Take turns with your partner to ask and answer the same questions but in a different order.

Frequently Asked Questions about Great Britain

- Why do the English always drink milk with their tea?

The answer is that in the 17th and 18th centuries the china cups tea was served in were so delicate they would crack from the heat of the tea. Milk was added to cool the liquid and stop the cups from cracking. This is why, even today, many English people add milk to their cups BEFORE adding the tea!

- Why do the British drive on the left?

Up to the late 18th century, driving on the left was general in Europe. So why should all milestones and signs be put to the right? In the late 50s people in Britain thought about changing to the right, like in Europe. But they dismissed the thought, because of the costs (steering wheels, signs etc.). Britain is an island, so there was no need to change to the right. And the British kept a little of their «splendid isolation».

- What is the population of Britain?

In 2004 it was 59,834,300

- How many people live in London?

In 2000, London had a population of 7.4 million people. Britain’s second biggest city is Birmingham, with almost 1 million inhabitants.

- What products does Britain export?

Machinery and transport, manufactured goods and chemicals are Britain’s largest export earners. Oil and medicines are also widely exported.

- What are Britain’s national flowers?

The English national flower is the rose. In Scotland the national flower is the thistle, in Wales it is the daffodil. The national flower of Northern Ireland is the shamrock.

- What is the most popular food in Britain?

Curry, although fish and chips are still very popular. At Christmas time, roast turkey is usually served for Christmas dinner.

- What is the origin of the name Big Ben?

Big Ben is actually the name of the bell within the tower at the top of the Houses of Parliament. It was named after Sir Benjamin Hall who was the Chief Commissioner of Works when Big Ben was made in 1856.

- What age do children go to school in Britain?

School starts at the age of 5 (4 in Northern Ireland) and until the age of 16. Many children attend nursery schools (kindergarten) before starting school. Children first attend infants school, then at age 7 they move to junior school and then to secondary school at age 11 (12 in Scotland).

- What is the oldest university in Britain?

The University of Oxford was the first university in Britain and was established in the 12th century.

- Why does the Queen have two birthdays?

The Queen was actually born on the 21st April, but it has long been customary to celebrate the Queen or King’s birthday on a day during the summer. Since 1805, the King or Queen’s ’official’ birthday has been on the second Saturday in June.

- What are the words to the British National Anthem?

The National Anthem originated in a patriotic song first performed in 1745.

The words are:

God save our gracious Queen! Long live our noble Queen!

God save the Queen!

Send her victorious,

Happy and glorious, long to reign over us, God save the Queen!

- What are Britain’s Overseas Territories?

Overseas Territories keep a connection with Britain because the people that live there wish to. They have a lot of responsibility for conducting their own affairs. Governors or commissioners are appointed by the Crown and retain responsibility for external affairs, defence and, usually, internal security and public service. They include: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands, St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Turks & Caicos Islands.

- What is the Commonwealth?

The Commonwealth has 53 members in it, including New Zealand. There are people of many races and religions but they all have a shared heritage, based on English as a common language and similar educational, judicial and legal systems.

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