Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Карпюк О. Д. - Астон 2017 рік

Appendix

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

(Граматичний довідник)

ARTICLES

A/AN — THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

use

example

We use a before a consonant and an before a vowel. But it depends on the pronunciation of the following word, not the spelling.

a cat a uniform a one-day trip

an elephant an interesting story an hour

We use a / an only with singular countable nouns.

a pencil

an orange

We use a / an with jobs.

She's a nurse.

He's an engineer.

We use a / an when we are talking about a person or thing for the first time.

We saw a girl with a dog.

We use the when we talk about it again.

The girl was very little and the dog was big.

We use a in some expressions when it means ‘every'.

once a day (once every day)

twice a year

three times a week, etc.

We use a in some expressions of quantity.

a lot of people a number of pupils

a few questions

We use a in some fixed expressions.

have a cold have a headache take a picture

have (take) a bath /shower sleep like a log go for a walk, etc.

THE — THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

The means ‘you know which one/ones I mean'.

It can be used before any noun, singular or plural.

use

example

We use the when we talk about something that has been mentioned before.

I bought a shirt and a sweater. The shirt is red and the sweater is blue.

We use the when it is clear what we mean.

Open the door! (You can see which one.) Turn on the TV!

We use the with persons or things that are unique (there's only one).

When I was in Rome I saw the Pope. Don't sit in the sun. It's too hot.

We use the with some time expressions.

in the evening in the morning in the afternoon at the weekend

We use the with musical instruments.

Can you play the piano?

We use the with superlatives and ordinal numbers.

She's the fastest runner in our class but today I was the first to finish the race.

We use the with some names.

a) with the names of rivers, seas and oceans

b) with the names of groups of islands and mountain ranges

c) with the names of countries that include a union, a republic or a kingdom

d) with the names of hotels, cinemas, theatres, museums and buildings

e) with family names in the plural

the Amazon the Black Sea

the Pacific Ocean

the Bahamas the Alps

the United States the United Kingdom

the Republic of Croatia

But: Croatia, England, Canada

the Hilton the Broadway Cinema

the National Theatre the Science Museum

the Empire State Building

The Greens are coming to dinner tonight.

We use the in some fixed expresions.

listen to the radio But: watch TV go to the cinema go to the theatre go to the doctor's go to the dentist's call the police

live at the seaside, live in the country on the left, on the right, in the middle, etc.

NO ARTICLE

There are a number of situations when we use no article.

use

example

We use no article with the names of people.

This is Paul Smith.

In general, we use no article with the names of continents, countries and cities.

He's from London.

Brazil is a country in South America.

We use no article with the names of streets, squares, parks and bridges.

Tower Bridge, Hyde Park, Trafalgar Square and Oxford Street are all in London.

We use no article with the names of lakes, islands and mountains in the singular.

Lake Michigan is in the States.

Ben Nevis is a mountain in Scotland.

We use no article with the names of languages, school subjects, sports and games.

Can you speak French? History is my favourite subject. He loves football and chess.

We use no article with the names of the days and months.

I'll see you on Monday. The course ends in June.

We use no article with the names of meals.

Let's have breakfast. What time is dinner? What time is supper?

We use no article in a number of common expressions.

go to school, go to work, go to church go home, at home

go to prison / be in prison (as a prisoner) go to hospital / be in hospital (as a patient) go on holiday go to bed

travel by car / by plane/ by bus/ by train come on foot fall in love, etc.

COUNTABLE — UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Countable nouns are those that can be counted (one apple, two apples, etc.). Uncountable nouns are those that cannot be counted (water, bread, etc.). Uncountable nouns take a singular verb and are not used with a/an.

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example

Groups of uncountable nouns include:

• mass nouns

• subjects of study

• sports

• languages

• diseases

• natural phenomena

• collective nouns

• certain other nouns

milk, sugar, wine, etc.

Physics, History, Geography, etc. football, cricket, tennis Arabic, French, Chinese chickenpox, malaria, measles rain, snow, mist money, furniture, luggage accommodation, anger, luck

SOME / ANY / NO & THEIR COMPOUNDS

Some, any and no are used with uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns:

some water some potatoes.

use

example

Some and its compounds (somebody, someone, something, somewhere, etc.) are normally used in affirmative sentences.

There is some wine left in the bottle.

Some and its compounds are also used in interrogative sentences when we expect a positive answer, for example when we make an offer or request.

Would you like something to drink?

Any and its compounds (anyone, anything, etc.) are usually used in interrogative sentences.

Has anyone seen Jim today?

Not any is used in negative sentences.

There isn’t any petrol in the tank.

Any and its compounds can also be used with negative words such as without, never, rarely.

I have never met anyone like him before.

When any and its compounds are used in affirmative sentences there is a difference in meaning.

You can do anything you like.

(it doesn’t matter what) Anyone could have done that,

(it doesn’t matter who)

No and its compounds can be used instead of not any in negative sentences.

Laura didn't say anything. (= She said nothing)

There wasn’t anybody in the house. (= There was nobody in the house.)

Note: We use a singular verb with compounds of some, any and no.

There is nothing they can do.

A FEW / FEW — A LITTLE / LITTLE

A few and few are used with plural countable nouns. A little and little are used with uncountable nouns.

use

example

A few means ‘not many, but enough'.

We have a few apples.

We can make an apple pie. Few means ‘hardly any, almost none' and can be used with very for emphasis.

There were (very) few people queuing in the bank.

A little means ‘not much, but enough'.

There is a little coffee left — would you like another cup?

Little means ‘hardly any, almost none' and can be used with very for emphasis.

There is (very) little sugar left. I'll go and buy some.

A LOT OF / LOTS OF — MUCH — MANY

use

example

A lot of / lots of are used with both plural countable and uncountable nouns. They are normally used in affirmative sentences. The of is omitted when a lot / lots are not followed by a noun.

There are a lot / lots of oranges in the fridge. I can make some juice.

Much and many are usually used in negative or interrogative sentences. Much is used with uncountable nouns and many is used with plural countable nouns.

There aren't many parks in the centre of the city. Did you spend much money at the supermarket?

How much and how many are used in questions and negations.

How much + uncountable noun — amount How many + countable noun number

How much pepper shall I put in the soup?

How many children do they have?

Too much is used with uncountable nouns.

It has a negative meaning and shows that there is more of something than is wanted or needed.

He couldn't sleep because the children were making too much noise.

Too many is used with plural countable nouns. It has the same negative meaning as too much.

It was very crowded. There were too many people there.

We use many/much/some/any/most/(a) few/(a) little/several/one/two, etc. + of followed by the/that/this/ these/those and

then a noun when talking about a specific group.

Some of the houses in that district are very expensive. (houses in that district)

But: Some houses are very expensive. (houses in general)

PRONOUNS

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS

SUBJECT

OBJECT

(used with a noun}

(used without a noun}

I

me

my book

It's mine.

You

you

your cap

It's yours.

He

him

his room

It's his.

She

her

her room

It's hers.

It

it

its tail

We

us

our house

It's ours.

You

you

your dog

It's yours.

They

them

their car

It's theirs.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS have two forms:

subject form

object form

I have got a book.

Where is Mary? Is she coming? Where is Bruno? He is late. They are lovely.

Give me the book, please. Tell her to come.

We are waiting for him. We love them.

WE USE POSSESSIVE AND ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS to show that something belongs to somebody.

Possessive pronouns are followed by a noun.

Absolute pronouns are used without a noun.

For example:

That isn't my pencil.

Is this your bag?

This can't be their cat.

Mine is here.

My bag is old and yours is new. Theirs is black and white.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

use

example

Singular pronouns end in -self

myself

yourself

himself

herself

itself

The plural forms end in -selves

ourselves

yourselves

themselves

We use reflexive pronouns after the verb when the subject and the object are the same person.

I hurt myself when I fell down.

She made herself a cup of coffee.

Note: We often use reflexive pronouns after: behave, burn, control, cut, defend, enjoy, help, hurt, introduce, kill and teach.

use

example

Reflexive pronouns are also used after a verb + preposition.

She spoke to herself.

He looked at himself in the mirror. Take care of yourself.

She did it by herself. (on her own)

Sometimes we use reflexive pronouns for emphasis.

Prince Charles himself painted the pictures.

COMPARATIVES: ADJECTIVES use: to compare two things, people, etc.

form

example

one-syllable adjectives: usually adjective + -er (+ than)

Drums are louder than violins.

one-syllable adjectives ending in a short vowel followed by a consonant: usually double the last consonant + -er (+ than)

Chillies are hotter than onions.

adjectives ending in -e: usually adjective + -r (+ than)

I think peaches are nicer than apples.

two-syllable adjectives ending in -y. usually change -y to -ier (+ than)

Pete is noisier than Tom.

most two-syllable adjectives and adjectives with three or more syllables: more + adjective (+ than)

The Emperor Nero was more famous than the Emperor Tiberius.

Notes:

• We use as + adjective + as to say that two people or things are the same. Example: He is as tail as his father.

• ‘The film was not as/so interesting as the book' means the same as ‘The book was more interesting than the film'.

• ‘Lemons are not as big as oranges' means the same as ‘Oranges are bigger than lemons'.

SUPERLATIVES: ADJECTIVES

use: to compare three or more things, people, etc.

use

example

one-syllable adjectives: usually the + adjective + -est one-syllable adjectives ending in a short vowel followed by a consonant: usually the + adjective with last consonant doubled + -est

Are drums the loudest musical instrument?

Chillies are the hottest vegetables.

adjectives ending in -e: usually the + adjective + -st two-syllable adjectives ending in -y. the + adjective with -y changed to -iest

I think peaches are the nicest fruit in the world.

Pete is the noisiest boy in the school.

most two-syllable adjectives and adjectives with three or more syllables:

the most + adjective

Nero was the most famous Roman emperor.

IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES: ADJECTIVES

adjective

comparative

superlative

good

better

the best

bad

worse

the worst

far

farther/further

the farthest/furthest

much/many

more

the most

little

less

the least

old

older/elder

the oldest/eldest

COMPARATIVES: ADVERBS

use: to compare two actions, etc

form

example

two-syllable adverbs: usually more + adverb adverbs with the same form as adjectives: adverb + -er

Sue speaks more quietly than

My grandmother lived longer than my grandfather

SUPERLATIVES: ADVERBS

use: to compare three or more actions, etc.

form

example

one-syllable adverbs: usually the most + adverb

adverbs with the same form as adjectives:

the + adverb + -est

Sue speaks the most quietly,

My grandfather lived the longest in our family.

THE VERB: PRESENT SIMPLE

form + I/You like pasta. He/She/It likes pasta. We/You/They like pasta,

- I/You don't like pasta. He/She/It doesn't like pasta. We/You/They don't like pasta.

? Do I/you like pasta? Does he/she/it like pasta? Do we/you/they like pasta? The present simple is used to talk about things which happen or exist all the time, not just at the moment of speaking.

use

example

for repeated actions — often used with

The postman always delivers the letters at 8:00 am.

adverbs of frequency (e.g. always, often, sometimes, never)

for general truths, facts and states

Our bodies contain five litres of blood. She has four dogs. They live in the country.

for timetables and programmes (often

made by someone else, not the speaker)

Lunch is at 1 pm.

for present actions in commentaries or stories

The horse Starlight is in the lead.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

form be + verb + -ing form

+ I am reading. You are reading. He/She/It is reading. We/You/They are reading.

- I am not reading. You are not reading. He/She/It is not reading. We/You/They are not reading.

? Am I reading? Are you reading? Is he/she/it reading? Are we/you/they reading?

use

example

for incomplete actions taking place at the

moment of speaking

for temporary situations in the present

I'm talking on the phone — I'll be finished soon.

It's raining at the moment.

for changes taking place at the present time (sometimes used with more and more)

to express irritation (used with always) for future arrangements (often used with adverbs of time, e.g. tomorrow, this weekend)

The weather is getting hot.

Our teacher is always giving us extra homework!

I'm meeting my friends at 6:00 pm.

STATIVE VERBS

Some verbs are usually used only in the Present Simple, not in the Present Continuous.

use

verbs

example

for talking about the

appear, feel, hear, see,

You seem tired.

senses

seem, smell, sound, taste

That smells wonderful! He sounds annoyed.

for talking about thinking

agree, appear, believe, disagree, forget, imagine, know, prefer; promise, remember; realise, think, recognise, understand like, love, dislike, hate,

He thinks she's happy.

I know what you mean.

for talking about feeling

want, wish

belong, have/have got,

We prefer to walk.

I love Italian paintings.

for talking about possession

own, possess be, contain, deserve,

The coat belongs to that woman.

He has a motorbike.

I own my car.

for situations which stay the same

include, need

The trees are tall. He needs a holiday.

PAST SIMPLE

form regular: verb + -ed

+ l/You/He/She/lt/We/You/They played football.

- l/You/He/She/lt/We/You/They did not play football.

? Did l/you/he/she/it/we/you/they play football?

irregular: e.g. shake/shook, make/made, think/thought

use

example

for repeated actions in the past

We walked in the park every morning.

for short, completed actions at a definite time in the past (sometimes the time is not mentioned but is understood)

We left at 6 pm.

for telling stories in which one thing

She said goodbye, opened the door and left the house.

happened after another

for completed situations in the past

My grandparents lived in Corfu for many years.

Note: Adverbial expressions which we often use with the Past Simple include: at

(four o’clock), on (2 July 2000), last week/month/year, in (1999), yesterday, on (Friday), ago.

PAST CONTINUOUS

form past tense of be + verb + -ing form

+ I was sleeping. You were sleeping. He/She/It was sleeping. We/You/They were sleeping.

- I was not sleeping. You were not sleeping. He/She/It was not sleeping.

We/You/They were not sleeping.

? Was I sleeping? Were you sleeping? Was he/she/it sleeping?

Were we/you/they sleeping?

use

example

for temporary, continuing situations in the

He was standing next to the window.

past

for background information about the

The children were all wearing new clothes.

weather; what people were doing or

wearing

for an action in the past which is

The sun was shining as we drove along the coast.

interrupted by another

PRESENT PERFECT

form have + past participle

+ I/You have read Persuasion. He/She/It has read Persuasion.

We/You/They have read Persuasion.

- I/You have not read Persuasion. He/She/It has not read Persuasion.

We/You/They have not read Persuasion.

? Have I/you read Persuasion? Has he/she/it read Persuasion?

Have we/you/they read Persuasion?

use

example

for recently completed actions

(without a definite time)

for recently completed actions (with just)

for actions in the past which are still

important in the present

for actions or situations which started in

the past and continue up to the present

(often used with since, for)

for past actions which refer to an

unknown, incomplete timean (often used

with never, ever)

with the superlative

I've finished my homework.

He has just washed the car.

He has painted many wonderful pictures.

They have walked to school every day for two years. He has lived in this town since 1980.

Have you ever visited Australia?

He has never been in a plane.

This is the best holiday I've ever had.

PAST PERFECT

form had + past participle

+ I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They had learnt to swim on holiday.

l/You/He/She/lt/We/You/They had not learnt to swim on holiday. ? Had I/you/he/she/it/we/you/they learnt to swim on holiday?

use

example

for a past event which happened before another past event

to emphasise the order in which events occurred

They arrived at the cinema late and found that the film had already begun. We didn't eat dinner until we had cleaned the house.

FUTURE SIMPLE

form will + infinitive without to

+ l/You/He/She/lt/We/You/They will wait.

- l/You/He/She/lt/We/You/They will not wait.

? Will l/you/he/she/it/we/you/they wait?

use

example

for decisions made at the time of

I’ll answer the phone.

speaking

I think it will be a cold winter this year.

for predictions (often used with J believe/

hope/think)

Our school holidays will start in July.

for future facts

We'll meet you outside the cinema at 7:30.

for plans and arrangements

Notes

Shall is often used instead of will with /, especially in the interrogative, e.g. Shall I wait here?

GOING TO

form be + going to + infinitive without to

+ I am going to fall. You are going to fall. He/She/It is going to fall.

We/You/They are going to fall.

- I am not going to fall. You are not going to fall.

He/She/It is not going to fall. We/You/They are not going to fall.

? Am I going to fall? Are you going to fall? Is he/she/it going to fall? Are we/you/they going to fall?

use

example

for intentions and plans made before the

moment of speaking

for predictions based on clear evidence

I'm going to study English next year. That baby is going to fall!

MODALVERBS

form modal + infinitive without ‘to'

Note: Modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, shall, will, should, would, ought to, must, have to

use

example

to talk about possibility

It may be cold in Scotland, so pack a jumper.

to talk about probability

It could rain today.

The plane should arrive about now.

to talk about near certainty

She's won the lottery — she must be excited!

to talk about negative certainty

This can’t be the right road.

to talk about certainty

My birthday will be on a Tuesday this year.

to talk about obligation/necessity

He has to do his homework this evening. I have to write to my parents this week. You ought to/should/must take some exercise.

to talk about lack of obligation/necessity

You don’t have to do the washing up. We don’t have to pay to get into the museum.

to give advice

You shouldn’t stay up so late every night.

to talk about permission

You ought to save a bit more money. Yes, you can go to town this afternoon. You may borrow my bike.

to talk about ability/inability

He can’t do maths.

I could bake a cake if I had the time.

to talk about prohibition

You mustn’t walk on the grass in the park.

FIRST CONDITIONAL

form conditional clause: if + present simple main clause: will + infinitive without ‘to'

use

example

for future events which are likely to happen

If you hurry, you will catch your plane.

THE PASSIVE

form be + past participle

The passive is formed by making the object of the active clause into the subject of the new clause.

use

example

when the persor or thing doing the action is obvious or unimportant

The house was built in a month.

when the person or thing doing the action

Stonehenge was constructed in about 3000 BC.

is not known

to describe how something is made or

Glass is made from sand, soda and limestone.

how it works

Note:

• We use by + person/thing when we want to emphasise who or what did something, e.g.

Hadrian’s Wall was built by the Romans in the first century AD.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

pronoun

use

example

who

whose

which

where

when

why

for people possessive of who for things for places for time for reasons

People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones. Whose bicycle is this?

The book which my brother gave me was really exciting. I saw the house where my mother was born.

That was a time when he travelled a lot.

I don't know why she is so annoyed.

Note:

• Sometimes we can use that instead of which, e.g. The book that my brother gave me is really exciting.

• Commas are used in non-defining relative clauses which give extra or unessential information, e.g. The book, which my brother gave me for my birthday, is really exciting.

• No commas are used in defining relative clauses which give essential information, e.g. This is the book that/which my brother gave me.

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

gerund (-ing form used as noun)

Infinitive with to

Infinitive without to

Swimming is good for you. I enjoy swimming. Common verbs and phrases followed by a gerund -ing form: admit, avoid deny, can’t help, do you mind?, consider, dislike, enjoy, feel like, finish, give up, imagine, mention, practise, risk, suggest

1 want to watch TV this evening.

Common verbs and phrases followed by an infinitive with to: afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, begin*, can’t stand*, care, choose, consent continue, decide, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate*, help, hesitate, hope, intend*, learn, like*, love*, manage, mean, offer, ought, prefer*, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, regret*, remember*, seem, start*, swear, try* want wish

1 would rather play tennis.

Common verbs and phrases followed by an infinitive without to:

can, could, may, might, must, shall, will, would rather

Note: The verbs marked * can be followed by either an infinitive without to or a gerund -ing form, but there may be a change in meaning.

QUESTION TAGS

Question tags often follow sentences in speech and informal writing. We use them when we want to check if something is true.

use

example

This is a regular statement but if we are not sure, we can check by adding a question tag.

We are playing tennis this afternoon, aren’t we?

The meaning of a question tag is: ‘Is it true?' ‘Do you agree?'

form

example

We make the question tag in the same way we make an ordinary question. It consists of an auxiliary + a pronoun. But when the main sentence is positive, the question tag is negative.

She is very nice, isn’t she?

When the main sentence is negative, the question tag is positive.

You don't know the answer, do you?

use

example

If there is only the verb be in the main sentence, we repeat it in the question tag.

But: I’m very late, aren’t I?

The question tag for I’m is aren’t I?

It is a nice day, isn’t it?

Mrs Green wasn't at home, was she?

use

example

If there is a modal auxiliary verb (can, could, must, should, will, would, etc.) in the main sentence, we repeat it in the question tag.

If there is an auxiliary verb (be, have, do) in the main sentence, we repeat it in the question tag.

If there is no auxiliary verb in the main sentence, we use do in the question tag.

You can't understand me, can you? They should be here, shouldn’t they? Peter could help us, couldn’t he?

You won't tell anyone, will you?

She is doing well, isn’t she?

It was raining, wasn’t it?

You haven't seen Jack, have you? Your mum doesn't speak German, does she?

She didn't lose the tickets, did she? You play the piano, don’t you?

Tim gave you this book, didn’t he?

RULES FOR PUNCTUATION Capital Letters

A capital letter is used:

• to begin a sentence.

This is my father.

• for days of the week, months and public holidays.

Sunday, December, Christmas

• for names of people and places.

My teacher’s name is Mary and she’s from Cardiff, Wales.

• for people's titles.

Mr and Mrs Smith; Dr Stevens; Professor Brown; etc.

• for nationalities and languages.

They are Portuguese.

He’s fluent in Spanish and German.

Note: The personal pronoun I is always a capital letter.

Tom and I are going to the park.

Full Stop (.)

A full stop is used:

• to end a sentence that is not a question or an exclamation.

We’re having a great time. There’s so much to do here in Madrid.

Comma (,)

A comma is used:

• to separate words in a list.

We need milk, cheese, butter and orange juice.

• to separate a non-identifying relative clause (i.e. a clause giving extra information which is not essential to the meaning of the main clause) from the main clause. Anna, who is a singer, lives in Moscow.

• after certain linking words/phrases (e.g. in addition to this; for example, however, in conclusion, etc).

In addition to this, Tom is a generous person. '.’

• when if-clauses begin sentences.

If you take her advice, you won’t get lost.

Note: No comma is used, however, when the if-clause follows the main clause.

• to separate question tags from the rest of the sentence.

Ms Jones is your history teacher, isn’t she?

Question Mark (?)

A question mark is used:

• to end a direct question.

What time is it?

Exclamation Mark (!)

An exclamation mark is used:

• to end an exclamatory sentence, i. e. a sentence showing admiration, surprise, joy, anger, etc.

That’s great! What a nice dress\

Quotation Marks (' ' " ")

Quotation marks are used:

• in direct speech to report the exact words someone said.

'We are leaving at 10am,' said John.

"How old are you?" he asked me.

Colon (:)

A colon is used:

• to introduce a list.

There were four of us on the boot: my mother, my father, my cousin Tony and me.

Brackets ()

Brackets are used:

• to separate extra information from the rest of the sentence.

These days, you can buy popular newspapers (i.e. The New York Times, The Observer, etc) almost anywhere in the world.

Apostrophe (')

An apostrophe is used:

• in short forms to show that one or more letters or numbers have been left out.

I'm I= I am) writing to tell you about...

He left for Spain in the summer of '99. (=1999)

• before or after the possessive -s to show ownership or the relationship between people.

Tim's house, my sister's husband (singular noun + 's) my parents' friends (plural noun + ') men's hats (Irregular plural + 's)





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