Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Карпюк О. Д. - Астон 2017 рік




1. Look at the pictures and match them with the names of different teenage groups.

1. computer geeks

2. preps

3. high-flyers

4. emos

5. punk rockers

6. athletes

7. hip hoppers

8. heavy metal fans

2. Read the descriptions of different teenage groups and match them with the right names from Task 1.

□ Looks and fancy clothes are very important for them, and they sometimes spend hours in the bathroom just to get the perfect hairstyle or match the right outfit. You might call them fashion victims, because they love designer labels and always keep up with the latest trends. They don’t generally have problems with school or teachers, but they have no special interests. When it comes to music, they listen to anything played on radio stations and MTV, as long as it’s not too loud. And their favourite hangout? Shopping centres, of course, especially at weekends!

□ They are simply ingenious when it comes to computers. Very few people can actually understand them when they talk about the latest software or new gadgets, which is when they get irritated! They are brilliant at science subjects, especially Maths and Physics, and schoolwork in general is rarely a problem for them. When it comes to clothes, they grab whatever is clean in their room. They are not too picky about music either, but rock, heavy metal or hip hop are among their favourites. They mix well with skaters, since skateboarding is often their favourite pastime. Their favourite hang-outs are computer labs, cyber cafes or any other place with a computer nearby.

□ They are fascinated by African American urban culture, so baggy clothes and baseball caps are their most usual outfit. They don’t consider graffiti vandalism, but an art form, so you can see their drawings on city walls, but sometimes in their notebooks or the school bathrooms, too. Of course, rap and hip hop are their favourite music, but girls frequently prefer R&B, and they are especially fond of hip-hop dance. Most hip hoppers are very good with words and rhymes, and know a lot about politics and global problems, so it’s good to have them on your debate team. They love playing basketball in their free time, so school playgrounds are among their favourite hang-outs. Let’s not forget the clubs, when there is a rap battle!

□ School is the centre of their world, and most of them already have a clear idea about their future career. They are very ambitious and competitive, but also hard-working, so they never forget to do their homework. That’s why other students sometimes call them nerds. They are extremely well-behaved, which is why they are almost always teacher’s pets. They’re not particularly fashion-conscious, but they like neat and casual clothes. They are not picky about popular music, but some of them like to join their parents at concerts of classical music. Although most teenagers find books boring, they really enjoy reading, so libraries are definitely among their favourite hang-outs.

□ Their sports career is as important as school for them, and most of them miss a lot of classes because of preparations for important competitions. That’s why they sometimes have a lot of schoolwork to catch up. At the same time, they do well in exams, but unlike some other students, they are certainly excellent at PE. A jogging suit is their most usual outfit, simply because it is the most comfortable one. It is also quite logical that they spend most of their free time in a gym, but sports events are also among their favourite hang-outs.

3. Work in pairs to answer the following questions about the teenage groups.


Who doesn’t really care about clothes?


Who enjoys dancing?


Who is fashion-conscious?


Who is very responsible about schoolwork?


Who spends a lot of time in a gym?


Who likes drawing graffiti?

4. Work in groups of five.

a) Copy the profile grid below. Each student reads one description again and fills in the profile for a particular teenage group.

Teenage group:

Computer geeks


High flyers

Hip hoppers


Looks and clothes:


Hobbies and interests:


Favourite hang-outs:

b) Speak on the following questions.

✵ Would you join any of these teenage groups?

✵ Which teenage group would you join and why?

5. a) Look up these adjectives in the descriptions of teenage groups in Task 2 and answer the questions below.

picky, ingenious, competitive, fashion-conscious

How would you describe someone…

1. …who cares a lot about what clothes to wear?

2. …who is very clever?

3. …who is hard to please?

4. …who likes success and competition?

b) Work in pairs. Guess what these words mean. Look them up in the descriptions of teenage groups and answer the questions.

an outfit, a hang-out, to keep up with, a teacher’s pet, a gadget, pastime, vandalism, to be fond of

1. What school subjects are you fond of?

2. Do you know anyone who is a teacher’s pet?

3. Do you keep up with the latest fashion trends?

4. What is your favourite hang-out?

5. Can you describe your favourite outfit?

6. Can you think of any examples of vandalism in your school?

7. What is your favourite pastime?

8. Which gadget couldn’t you live without?



The Gerund (Герундій)

Герундій — це неособова форма дієслова, що має властивості дієслова та іменника.

Розрізняють чотири форми герундія:

Forms of the Gerund





being written


having written

having been written

Герундій у реченні може виконувати функції підмета. E.g. Swimming is my hobby.

Герундій у реченні може виконувати функції додатка. E.g. She is fond of singing. She enjoys singing.

1. Read and write about your (your mum’s, your friend’s, etc) hobbies as in the example below.

Nearly everyone has a hobby of some kind: stamp collecting, reading, painting, solving crossword puzzles, bird-watching, knitting, listening to music, growing roses, playing the piano, guitar or accordion, embroidering 1, woodcarving 2, playing chess, dominoes or billiard, collecting postcards, horseback riding, or gardening.


My hobby is picking mushrooms.

My mum’s hobbies are knitting and cooking.

My father’s hobby is collecting coins.

1еmbroidering [ım'broıdәrıη] — вишивання

2woodcarving ['wʊdka:vıη] — різьба по дереву


Герундій вживається після деяких дієслів з прийменниками:

to depend on — залежати від

to rely on — покладатися на

to insist on — наполягати на

to agree to — погоджуватися з

to hear of — чути про

to think of — думати про

to be fond of — захоплюватися

to be sure of — бути впевненим в чомусь

to be pleased at / with — бути задоволеним чимось або кимось

to be surprised at — дивуватися чомусь

to be interested in — цікавитися чимось

to be afraid of — боятися чогось

to look forward to — чекати з нетерпінням

Типова помилка: I look forward to hear from you.

Правильна структура: I look forward to hearing from you.

2. Read and write a few true sentences of what you like and don’t like doing.

My favourite sport is ice-skating. I enjoy dancing to pop music. Skating is also a very good way of keeping fit. What about you? What is your favourite sport? Say what you think about these leisure activities: watching films on TV, dancing, swimming in the river, going out with friends, fishing, cycling, climbing, picking up mushrooms, jogging, boating, skiing, camping, etc. I often go swimming, fishing, sailing and riding. How often do you go skating?

Example: I like getting presents.

I hate getting up early.

My favourite leisure time activity is …

I don’t enjoy…

I (really) like/enjoy/love … (very much)

I (don’t) like …

3. Write out all of the sentences with the gerund form from Task 6 of Lesson 1 (page 8).

4. Fill in the gaps using the gerund or the infinitive.

Mr Brown likes (sit) … at home and (read) … the newspapers in the evening. Joan, his wife, enjoys (read) … novels. Natalie likes (to go) … for a walk in the evening. Alison’s hobby is (listen) … to classical music.

5. Be a polite person and begin the following commands with ’Would you mind…?’

Example: Wait in the hall.

Would you mind waiting in the hall?


Come back later.

9. Read your question again


Sit in the second row.

10. Write what you said on the board.


Open the window.


Close the door.

11. Sit in the next row.


Give this message to Mr Brown.

12. Learn vocabulary on page 5.


Give this book to Alison.

13. Complete exercise 6 on page 23.


Explain it again.

14. Go and sit next to George.


Hold my bag.

6. Answer the questions.

1. What films do you think are worth seeing?

2. Do you enjoy travelling by plane? Why?

3. What do you do after coming home from school?

4. Which do you enjoy more, going to the theatre or going to the cinema?

5. Do you like or dislike travelling long distances by train?

6. When do you expect to stop studying English?

7. What places are worth visiting in your town?

7. Make up one sentence from two. Use the perfect form of the gerund. Explain its use.

Example: I have read this book. I remember.

I remember having read this book.

He entered the room. Nobody noticed him.

Nobody noticed his having entered the room.

1. I have shown him the letter. I am sure.

2. I have given her the magazine. I remember.

3. He has been so rude. He is sorry.

4. We have seen this play. We are sure.

5. She has asked me about it. Nobody noticed this.

8. Work in pairs. Make up your dialogue using the expressions below.

✵ Excuse me for interrupting you.

✵ Do you mind my reading here?

✵ I’m afraid of going there.

✵ I’m looking forward to seeing you.


1. Look at these words and get their meanings.

2. a) Before listening to the ’Top Pop’ radio interview with a young fashion design student write down 5 questions you would ask her.

b) Listen to the interview and match the answers (page 37) to the questions and the reporter’s phrases below.


1. London Fashion Week has just finished and you’ve been named the most promising fashion design student. Why have you come to study fashion design in London?

2. How do these styles differ from each other?

3. I see…

4. But there are also some strange looking guys.

5. So you are saying that there is a strong connection between fashion and music.

6. What do you personally like?

7. What’s your favourite shopping place in London?

8. What fashion advice would you give to our young listeners?

9. Thank you very much. It was nice talking to you.

□ Some young people have money and they spend quite a lot of it on clothes. They like wearing smart clothes, loafers, tight fitting sportswear. They like riding scooters. Their hair is well groomed and they have regular haircuts.

□ But there are more and more people who like wearing comfortable clothes. They are more in touch with the natural world. They think that today’s world revolves too much around money.

□ Well, comfortable clothes … with style.

□ Camden Lock Market. You can get anything you want there — fake Levi’s, leopard print swimsuits, old records, jewellery made from recycled metal. It attracts an amazing mixture of people, so it’s fun just watching them. I often get inspired there.

□ Well, London is the right place to be because it’s famous for its street fashion and a lot of second-hand shops or markets - so young people can buy cheap clothes and create their own style.

□ Yeah, of course. Some young people like dying their hair in bright colours. In big cities they are also connected with punk and rave.

□ Yes. Fashion and music have always been connected. Let’s say heavy metal is associated with leather jackets, long hair, tattoos, powerful motorbikes. While Punk was famous for a lot of strange accessories like chains, safety pins, and of course spiky hair, Rap goes together with baggy clothes.

□ Well, I’d say a person’s style depends on the imagination, not that much on money. I really believe in creating a style that doesn’t cost much. Fashion should be more on the artistic side. Today it is still a big business.

c) Write down the words connected with fashion from the text of the interview.

3. Say if the following statements are true or false.

1. Fashion and music are often connected.

2. Some people dye their hair in strange colours.

3. Camden Lock Market is a place where one can buy second-hand clothes.

4. Ibby believes one can’t look fashionable without spending a lot of money.

5. Rappers like baggy clothes.

4. Choose the right answer.

1. A promising fashion designer is a) a person who keeps promises.

b) a person who will become very successful.

2. Second-hand shops are the ones that

a) are not close to your home.

b) sell clothes that somebody else has already worn.

3. Fashion is a big business. It means

a) that there are a lot of fashion designers in this business.

b) that there is a lot of money in it.

5. a) Before listening remember what you know about British youth.

b) Listen to the information about British traditional youth organizations and complete the sentences below.

1. Different trends like …, … and … appeared in the British society.

2. … is the most famous traditional youth organization.

3. This organization was founded by … in …

4. An organization for girls was founded in … and was called …

5. … was formed to defend interests of students.

6. … and … are religious organizations.

7. … provides hostels for young travellers.

8. … offers a wide choice of sporting and social activities..


1. Do a survey in your class and report its results.

✵ How many students wear a baseball cap (jeans, a T-shirt)?

✵ What colours are popular?

✵ Why do they wear it (them)?

(Because it’s/they’re comfortable/fashionable. Because it/they protect(s) the eyes from sunshine, etc. Because they play baseball, etc)

2. a) Listen to these three people talking about fashion. Name all the items of clothing they mention.

"I like wearing baggy sportswear because I spend a lot of time on my skates. I’m wearing a hooded top and a baseball cap. I usually wear it the other way round. There are some of my friends who like clothes with a label, but I always put sport before fashion. The most important thing is that I feel comfortable in the clothes I wear. I have always wanted to have a leather jacket but I haven’t bought one, because they are rather expensive.»

"I have never been interested in fashion. Clothes are clothes. I hate going shopping so I’m happy with whatever I get from my mum or sister. I really can’t understand why there’s so much fuss about these expensive clothes — I’d rather buy a book or a play station game. I bought one last week and I’m broke now. This tracksuit top I’m wearing now is a birthday present from my sister. I got it last year.»

«Well, I’m wearing a school uniform, as you can see. This is so boring. I choose clothes I want to buy, but I always go shopping with my mum. She’s not always happy with what I pick, so we sometimes argue. She doesn’t always give in. Last year I earned some money babysitting for my neighbours, so I bought a fake fur jacket and a glittery shirt. I wear them when I go to parties. The last thing I got as a present is a choker. My brother said a dog collar would be better.»

b) Match the words with their definitions.



□ shiny



□ choose


give in

□ a little piece of material fixed to an item of clothing with information about it





□ a time when people are very excited about something that is usually not that important

□ stop fighting against somebody or something

c) Insert the words above in the phrases below.

a … evening dress, designer’s …, … a jacket you like, make a … about something, … to someone’s demands

d) Make a presentation about yourself. Mention what you usually wear, your favourite clothes and attitude to fashion.

3. Work in pairs. Speak on the topics.

✵ What kind of music do you like?

✵ What kind of clothes do the stars in your favourite group wear?

4. Look through recent fashion magazines and your family photos. Tell what clothes your family members used to wear during their lifetime.

5. Work in groups. Think of your classmates, friends or neighbours in terms of clothing. Discuss the following questions.

✵ Who of them follows fashion?

✵ What do they wear on different occasions?

✵ Who of them thinks fashion is not very important?

✵ What’s your teachers’ (parents’) attitude towards what you wear on different occasions?

✵ What are the present trends in teenage fashion? Do you care?


1. Write about the cultural meaning of the word ’club’ in English. You may use the scheme below.

2. a) Search for examples of some clubs’ advertisements online. Examine their homepage information.

b) Think about the club you are going to advertise. Design the text of your advertisement.

Take the points below into consideration.

✵ the club title

✵ the activities

✵ the advantages

✵ the invitation for young people to join it


1. Complete the sentences with the words from the box.

computer geek (twice), fascinated, enjoys, fashion-conscious, hip hoppers

1. My best friend is quite … and she always keeps up with the latest trends.

2. I am … by black Americans and their culture.

3. I love new gadgets, but I wouldn’t call myself a … .

4. I don’t like rap music, but I get on well with some … in my school.

5. A … usually doesn’t care about fashion.

6. I always see your friend in the library. I’m sure he … reading and learning a lot.

2. a) Read about Amy. Use the words and expressions from the box to complete her composition on page 44.

Amy is a new student at school. She is sitting in her room and preparing a poster with the title ALL ABOUT ME… for the school yearbook.

feel down, competitive, fashion-conscious, hang-outs


I don’t know where to begin, because I don’t like talking about myself. I don’t fit in any group, especially the popular ones. I’m not … because I don’t think much about clothes. I just wear what’s comfortable, so I guess preps would look down on me. My mum thinks I spend too much time in front of the computer, but I only use it for schoolwork and chatting. Anyway, she always says I should go out more. I love classical music. Whenever I …, I play the piano. I also like dancing, but I have absolutely no talent for it. I guess hip hoppers wouldn’t like to see me in their dance group. And, let’s not forget my reading. I read tons of books, and they are not just for my English class. That’s why libraries are my favourite … . My dad thinks I should do some sports, but I’m simply not much of an athlete. And I hate PE! Other than that, school is not a problem for me, although I’m not ambitious and … like high-flyers. I’m excellent at Chemistry, but History gives me a headache. I never speak up in class, so who would want me on their debate team? I’m such a boring person! Thank God I have Sugar. I always talk to him. I tell him all my secrets, and he’s always there for me. Dogs are great friends, aren’t they?

b) Work in small groups. Discuss the questions below.

✵ Which of the following teenage groups (page 45) does she mention in her composition? Does she have anything in common with them?

✵ What’s her problem?

3. Complete the sentences using the words from the box.

musical, influenced, tongue, hairstyle, youth, express, youth culture, styles, life, decoration

(1)… is a smaller culture that exists within a large one. For example, youth subcultures, centering around such (2)… preferences as rap, heavy-metal, or hip-hop, may spot somewhat particular (3)… of dress, language, and behaviour, while accepting other aspects of the dominant culture. There are many trends in (4)… fashion and styles, too. For example, Graffiti, which became a way of (5)… for some young people. Graffiti style was (6)… by the hip-hop culture that has started in New York in the 60s. Hip-hop with its rapping, breakdancing and graffiti became a way to (7)… anger and humour.

Today young people like to use body modification. Tattoos can be found on everyone from Robbie Williams to Angelina Jolie, and even Princess Anne of England’s daughter has her (8)… pierced. These days most people use body art simply as (9)… . It has become a fashion statement, in the same way that an item of clothing or (10)… might be.

4. Open the brackets using gerunds instead of infinitives.

Example: He postponed (make) … a decision.

He postponed making a decision.

1. I began (read) … a novel yesterday.

2. We had started (write) … the exercise before the teacher came in.

3. It has stopped (rain) … . I hate (go) … out in the rain.

4. My uncle has given up (smoke) … and now prefers (eat) … sweets.

5. I like (come) … to school by bus but I hate (stand) … in the rain and (wait) … for it.

6. I love (eat) … oranges, but I dislike (peel) … them.

7. We enjoyed (see) … you and (hear) … all your news.

5. Transform the sentences using gerunds instead of infinitives.

Example: We continue to study English.

We continue studying English.

1. She has just finished to read an article about the natural resources of Ukraine.

2. My father intends to spend his holidays in the Carpathians.

3. My sister began to work in this beautiful Ukrainian city five years ago.

4. I have just begun to translate the text into Ukrainian.

5. We preferred to go to Kyiv by plane.

6. Read and choose the statements below according to the street styles shown on the right.

Write in the appropriate number.

□ They wear their hair long.

□ They love extravagant dresses and hairstyles.

□ They usually wear untidy clothes.

□ They wear lots of rings, bracelets and bells.

□ They prefer to be free and not to work.

□ They love wearing long robes or dresses and wide trousers.

□ They like to wear their hair long with lots of colour threads in it.

□ They pierce their noses and ears with pins.

□ They wear sandals or walk barefoot (without shoes).

□ They wear old black denim jeans.

□ They have brightly dyed (painted) hair.

□ They carry flowers.

□ They love wearing boots on wooden sole.

□ They show off their independence in wearing silver earrings and sometimes noserings.

□ They are antifashion: they prefered wearing old clothes or making their clothes.

7. a) Do the questionnaire to find out if you are music mad (crazy).

1. How often do you buy new CDs/albums/cassettes?

□ a) once a week

□ b) once a month

□ c) once a year n

□ d)never

2. How often do you go to live concerts?

□ a) once a week

□ b) once a month

□ c) once a year

□ d)never

3. Do you read music magazines?

□ a) often

□ b) regularly

□ c) rarely

□ d)never

4. Do you play a musical instrument?

□ a) Yes, often.

□ b) Yes, regularly.

□ c) Yes, but rarely.

□ d) No, never.

5. Do you sing in a choir or play in a band?

□ a) Yes, often.

□ b) Yes, regularly.

□ c) Yes, but rarely.

□ d) No, never.

6. How often do you listen to music at home?

□ a) often

□ b) regularly

□ c) rarely

□ d) never

7. Do you listen to music outside the home, e.g., on a personal stereo?

□ a) often

□ b) regularly

□ c) rarely

□ d) never

8. Do you listen to music…

□ a) when you are working/studying?

□ b) in the bath?

□ c) on the way to school?

□ d) in bed?


6 points each for every a) answer

4 points each for every b) answer

2 points each for every c) answer

0 points each for every d) answer


If you scored 40 or more, you are completely music mad. You live and breathe for music. You are probably a musician yourself!

If you scored 20-39, you take an active interest in music. You probably choose your friends according to whether they like the same type of music as you do.

If you scored 10-19, then music is not your main leisure interest.

You probably prefer sport or reading, for example.

If you scored 9 or less, you are musically brain dead. You probably don’t know the difference between Mozart and Madonna!

b) Choose one of the topics below and, in groups, make up a questionnaire similar to the above ’Are you Music Mad?’. Use the questionnaire to find out about other mates.

✵ ’Are you TV Mad?’

✵ ’Are you Computer Games Mad?’

✵ ’Are you Video Mad?’

✵ ’Are you Movie Mad?’

Work in groups. Look at the photos and say if it is easy to guess the countries the kids on the photos are from. Explain why.


Young people express themselves, for example, in Weblish, a new shorthand English used in text messaging and in the Internet chat rooms. Weblish is a kind of ’slang’ — idiomatic English which often breaks the rules of correct English.

For example, capital letters are not used. Here is a glossary 1 of some of the key expressions and symbols used in chat rooms.

u — you

thanx — thanks

c — see

cos — because

2 — to

dumbo — stupid

r — are

best — best wishes

b — be

wanna — do you want to

4 — for

just thought — I just thought

nite — night

cheer him — it’ll cheer him up

yup — yes

u bet — you bet (this means a strong ’Yes!’)

9. a) Try to read a message from Kate’s phone (on the right). What is it about?

b) Work in pairs. Use the glossary on page 51 and rewrite the dialogue (page 53) in Weblish. Each of you should write only one part, either Sally’s orAI’s.

1a glossary ['glɒsәri] — глосарій, невеликий словник

Sally: Hey! How are you today?

Al: Great. Thanks. Good to see you here again.

Sally: Me too.

Al: I had a few things to do for school but I will have finished them by Friday.

Sally: Did you do well in that test on Monday?

Al: Yes! I worked like mad on it.

Sally: So what are you doing on Friday night then?

Al: Well, I’ll be going to Linda’s party. Would you like to go? Sally: Yes, of course.

Al: Great! I’ll pick you up at nine at our usual place.

Sally: Thanks. Hey, will you be free to come to the club on Saturday? Al: Sure.

Sally: With me, I hope.

Al: Who else, you stupid? But I’ll visit Mike on the way because he will be operated on in the hospital.

Sally: You don’t say. Do you mean he’ll be really operated on? Ugh!

Al: Yes, he will. That’s right. Not much fun.

Sally: I agree. When will you be going?

Al: Saturday morning. Hey, have you got the latest Kilie CD?

Sally: Yes, I have.

Al: Can you lend it to me because I want to make a copy for Mike to cheer him up.


You may start like this.

Sally: hey, how r u today?

Al: great, thanx, gd 2 c u here again

10. Discuss in groups of three.

a) Do you agree that music, television and movies cross the boundaries? Why?

b) Is a new generation appearing on the world scene? Prove your opinion.

c) Do computers create a new kind of neighbourhood? Why?

d) What are the new ways of learning English?

e) Do teenagers like to be different?

f) What is Weblish? Why did it appear?

11. Read and match the names with the photographs.

□ Phil: I’m a punk. And all punks have crazy hair, you know. I often change the colour. Sometimes it’s pink or green.

□ Leo: The hairdresser shaves it once a week. That’s expensive, but I don’t have to buy shampoo, conditioner or gel.

□ John: I don’t look like a girl. Lots of men have ponytails — look at Bono in U2.

□ Sam: I never go to the hairdresser. I do it myself — I just cut the ends and the fringe 1 in front of a mirror.

□ Robin: It takes hours to do. I like it because it is traditional. African women wear their hair like this.

1a fringe [frındӡ] — чубок, чубчик

12. Discuss with your class why the use of the Internet (especially chatting) can be risky at times. Here are some ideas to help you. Say if you agree or disagree with them.

1. Online friends are not real friends

2. People often lie online. That’s why you can't trust anyone.

3. Internet friendships take teenagers away from real people and friends.

4. Parents should have control over what their teenagers are doing on the net.

5. Teen bloggers are often careless. They say too much about themselves and this makes it possible for weirdos to track them down.

13. Prepare a mini poster about yourself, with the title ALL ABOUT ME…, for the school yearbook.


Step 1. On separate sheets of paper write about your tastes in clothes, subjects you like at school, hobbies and interests, tastes in music, favourite hangouts, or anything else that you think might be interesting for other people to know about you.

Step 2. Find some photographs or draw some pictures.

Step 3. Make a poster using your writings and pictures.

Step 4. Display your poster and comment on it in class.

School Yearbook



1. a) Read the statements and say if they are true or false.

1. Youth cultures are connected with fashion and music tastes.

2. Youth cultures don’t influence the society.

3. Rap fashion is a big business today.

4. Hippies are violent people.

5. Being a punk or a rapper is a silly thing.

b) Read the article and check your answers in task a).


The term ’culture’ can be defined as language, dress, beliefs, manners and tastes in food or music of a particular 2 group.

The concept 3 of youth culture appeared in America in the 1950s and spread to Britain in the 1960s. It was a result of the improvement in Western economics, which meant that teenagers had money to spend.

There was the development of music and fashion industries with the orientation to the youth market. New groups of young people dressed in Italian-style and leather 4 clothes appeared. They were called Mods. But there were young people who were against the materialistic wealth and stressed on spiritual 5 values. They tried to show their protest in wearing unusual clothes, hair dress or in other ways. Thus in the 1960s and 1970s Hippies appeared.

1in italics [l'tælıks] — виділений курсивом

2particular [pә'tıkjʊlә] — окремий

3a concept ['kɒnsept] — поняття

4 leather ['leðә] — шкіряний

5spiritual [spırıtju:әl] — духовний

These young people usually had long hair and wore second-hand clothes. They liked to say, ’Make love, not war.’ Hippies were against the Vietnam War and showed their peaceful feelings in their rock songs. Some of them are still popular — ’Give Peace a Chance’ and ’All You Need is Love’.

In the mid 1970s punk rock appeared. Punks were not peace loving, but full of hate. There was a great unemployment (especially among young people) at that time. Many teenagers blamed 1 the society and in punk movement they expressed their negative feelings. Punks often had brightly coloured hair and wore clothes that could shock people. Later these movements influenced some other aspects of life. For example, Punk became a clothes design style and punk magazines ’fanzines’, fan clubs, posters appeared.

As a large number of teens today watch music videos, these influence their minds. Teens watch cool Rappers, who look and sound unusual and they want a piece of that image.

1to blame [bleım] — звинувачувати

They wear the same clothes, sing violent lyrics and feel very cool.

Rap and hip-hop were born in the ghettoes 1 of New York over 30 years ago. Rap fashion is big business today. The clothes, sometimes very expensive from Prada and Gucci, Ralph Lauren and Polo, express a lack 2 of respect for tradition and authority 3. Rappers wear huge gold necklaces and drive costly cars. There is also a rap language or rather a slang, used by many teens. Such artists as Justin Timberlake and Eminem use it in their songs. Many rap songs make teenagers believe that money is the most important thing in the world.

An analysis of different youth cultures which have appeared and influenced each other helps to make the following conclusions. Here they are.

✵ Youth cultures are formed in reaction to society’s values.

✵ Youth cultures help young people become independent of their families.

✵ They are consumer products sold to the young.

✵ These cultures give young people the opportunity to be something different before they agree and accept society’s values.

✵ Youth cultures enable young people to express themselves by choosing the style that suits them.

✵ The values of a youth culture do not matter 4 — just have to be different from those of the older generation.

1a ghetto ['getәʊ] — резервація, гето

2a lack [Іæк] — нестача; відсутність

3authority [ɔ:'Өɒrıti] — влада

4to matter ['mætә] — мати значення

Are they good or bad? No one can say. But it’s quite clear that youth cultures can bring change to a society and help young people in their search for identity 1.

2. a) Read the article again, copy the chart below and complete it.

Youth group





1950s and 1960s




b) Look through your chart and match the youth groups with the photos 1-4.

3. Discuss the questions in groups.

✵ Why do youth cultures exist?

✵ What are their functions?

✵ What are the youth cultures of today?

4. Choose one of the youth cultures and make a presentation of it. Describe the language, beliefs, manners, tastes in music and clothes of its young representatives 2.

1a search for identity [aı'dentıti] — (тут) пошук шляхів самовираження

2a representative [,reprı'zentәtıv] — представник

My Learning Diary

The topics of this unit are

I find this unit very easy /quite easy /quite difficult / very difficult. (Underline what is true for you)

I think that the most important thing I have learnt is

The most difficult thing for me was

The things that I enjoyed most in the Unit were

The things that I didn’t enjoy were

The ways I used working with the Unit were

My favourite activities / tasks were

The new grammar I have learnt in the Unit is

The best lesson I had in my English class was

The things that are easy to read are

The things that are easy to listen to

The things that are easy to talk about

The things that are easy to write about

The things that are difficult to read about

The things that are difficult to listen to

The things that are difficult to talk about

The things that are difficult to write about

Three things I would like to remember from this unit are because

I would like to improve my pronunciation /spelling / vocabulary / grammar/fluency. (Underline what is true for you.)

The things that I would like to learn are

You have finished the unit. Choose the adjectives that best describe how you feel about it

Are there any things which you don’t understand very well and would like to study again?

After the unit I can:

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