Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Карпюк О. Д. - Астон 2017 рік

Unit 3 WHAT'S YOUR KNOWLEDGE?

• Inventions and Discoveries

• Nature and the Environment

Pre-reading questions

What do you know about the first computer? Why is science so important?

How well do you know Ukrainian inventors and scientists?

What is nature to you?

Do you know the reasons of climate сhang?

In what ways can people improve ecology?

Lesson 1 INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES

LISTENING

1. Read this quotation. Say what Simon Newcomb got wrong? Think of at least 3 reasons why flying is practical.

Simon Newcomb (1835-1909)

2. a) Find the right ending from the box.

1. A person who designs buildings is called...

2. A person who designs engines and machines is called...

3. A person who has invented / designed something that hasn't existed before is called...

4. A person who creates work of arts, paintings and drawings is called...

an inventor.

an artist.

an architect.

an engineer.

b) Look at these names below and say who these people were. What did they have in common?

• The brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright

• Leonardo da Vinci

• Daedalus and Icarus

c) Listen and find the answers to the questions above.

3. Listen again and decide whether these sentences are true or false.

1. Daedalus and Icarus escaped by sea.

2. Daedalus crashed because he flew too close to the coast.

3. Leonardo’s flying machine had wings and pedals.

4. Leonardo launched his machine from Monte Ceceri in Italy.

5. Lilienthal studied the flying of birds.

6. The Wright brothers ran a small car factory.

4. a) Listen about Daedalus and his son again and find the words which mean.

b) Listen about Leonardo da Vinci and match.

1. launch

2. in reverse

3. descriptions

4. pedals

□ parts of a bicycle

□ something that tells you what something is like

□ backwards

□ send into the sky

c) Listen about the brothers Wright and name all the Darts of an aeroplane.

5. Name those who said these sentences.

1. "This horse is still too slow!” — ...

2. "Well done! 47 seconds longer!”

3. "Why do we need wax?” — ...

4. "I’m really glad it has been published!” — ...

5. "Don’t go too close to the sun!” — ...

6. "I’m going to move the wings with pedals!” — ...

6. Complete the following sentences.

1. Daedalus was an artist and inventor who ...

2. Icarus was Daedalus’s son who ...

3. Minos was the king who ...

4. Leonardo was an Italian artist who ...

5. Lilienthal was an inventor and writer who ...

6. The Wright Brothers were the Americans who ...

7. a) Do the quiz in pairs. Match events with years.

FIRSTS QUIZ

b) Listen and check.

c) Choose the words you don’t know.

Ask your friend or teacher what they mean.

flat, topping, a hot-air balloon, to flip, a coin, to weigh

d) Read the stories and insert the past simple of the verbs from the box.

make, wait, buy, eat, open, use, flip, fly

THE FIRST COMPUTER

In 1941 Sir Harold Thomas Flower created the first electronic computer. It was enormous and it filled the whole room. The British secret service ... it for breaking German secret radio messages.

THE FIRST PIZZA RESTAURANT

Ancient Greeks ... a flat bread with many toppings. The very first pizza restaurant was the Antica Pizzeria in Alba, Italy. It ... its doors in 1830 and is still in business today.

THE FIRST MOBILE PHONE

Motorola, we call it "the Brick today, was the first mobile phone It weighed 1 kilo. People ... for hours to buy it. They ... it for 4 000 US dollars.

THE FIRST FLIGHT

People made the first kites in 400 B. C. Leonardo da Vinci ... many drawings of helicopters. In 1783 the French Montgolfier brothers first flew in a hot-air balloon. On 14th December 1903 the Wright brothers from America were ready to fly a plane. Who would be the first?

They ... a coin and Wilbur won. But, he crashed to the ground. The following day it was Orville’s turn. He ... for 12 seconds, at 120 feet (37 metres).

8. Work in pairs to answer the questions.

1. How was the first computer different from a laptop?

2. How heavy is your mobile phone?

3. Do you like pizza? Is it healthy food?

4. Was the first flight long?

5. Did any of the facts surprise you?

9. Work in groups to discuss the following questions.

• Why are these firsts important?

• How did they change people’s lives?

• Which three do you think are the most important?

VOCABULARY

1. Match the sciences with their definitions.

2. Look at the definitions of sciences in Task 1 and say what each of the scientists studies.

a subject or studies

a person who is an expert in the studies

science

scientist

biology

biologist

chemistry

chemist

physics

physicist

botany

botanist

geology

geologist

psychology

psychologist

linguistics

linguist

physiology

physiologist

history

historian

politics

politician

mathematics

mathematician

music

musician

1a substance ['sʌbstәns] — речовина

2to combine [kem'baın] — об’єднувати(ся); сполучати

3. a) Tell about what scientists these people were.

Charles Darwin was a... Isaac Newton was a... Dmitry Mendeleyev was a... Nicola Copernic was an... Ivan Pavlov was a... Michael Faraday was a....

Dmitry Mendeleyev

Michael Faraday

b) Start the sentences with the words from the box.

biology, astronomy, meteorology, linguistics, psychology

1. ... is the study of the way in which language works.

2. ... is the science of the stars. It deals with the Earth, the Moon, the Sun and other planets.

3. ... is the science of mental life which studies human and animal behaviour.

4. ... deals with the scientific observation and study of the phenomena of weather and climate.

5. ... is the science of life. It deals with a great diversity of life forms.

4. Say what subjects belong to the branches of science from the grid.

5. Look at the ‘Word Building’ table and say what suffixes and prefixes are used to change one part of speech to the other. Explain the meanings of made up words using the origins.

Example: A physicist is a person who deals with physics.

6. Look at the word map and try to add some words according to the word groups.

7. Speak of the natural sciences you study at school.

• What does each of them study?

• Which one is your favourite?

• Which one don’t you like?

READING & GRAMMAR

1. a) Read about Serhiy Korolyov and complete the text with the words from the box.

rocket, tested, engineering, scientist, developing, industry, graduated, space, founders, research

Academician Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov, the famous (1)... and designer of spacerocket systems, was born in the city of Zhytomyr in the family of a teacher. From 1927 he worked in the aircraft (2)... . In 1930, without leaving his job, he (3)... from Moscow Bauman Higher Technical School and finished a flying school in Zhytomyr in the same year.

After a meeting with Tsiolkovsky and studying his ideas, Korolyov became a (4)... enthusiast. He was one of the (5)... of modern space-rocket engineering1.

In 1933, when the Group for Studying Jet Propulsion2 was organised, and the first experimental rockets were made and (6)..., Korolyov took part in its work. Afterwards Korolyov devoted himself to (7)... space-rocket engineering.

1engineering [,endӡı'nıәriη] — машинобудування; інженерна майстерність

2Jet Propulsion [prә 'pʌlʃn] — реактивний рух

In 1957 the first Earth satellites in the world were put into orbit with the help of the systems he had designed1 and the far side of the Moon was photographed.

He controlled the spaceships, in which man first flew into (8)... and from which he walked out into space.

Korolyov trained many scientists and engineers who are now leading the work in (9)... institutes and designing office buildings which specialise in the sphere of space-rocket (10)... .

b) Work in pairs to answer the questions.

1. Who is Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov?

2. When did Korolyov graduate from Moscow Bauman Higher Technical School?

3. What connection with aviation did Korolyov have before he became interested in cosmonautics [,kɒzmә'nɔ:tıks]?

4. What was the result of Korolyov’s meeting with Tsiolkovsky?

5. What was done in space research under Korolyov’s control?

1to design [dı'zaın] — (тут) проектувати, конструювати

REMEMBER!

PRESENT PASSIVE

Додаток речення активного стану стає підметом у реченні пасивного стану. У реченні пасивного стану повідомляємо про те, що відбувається із підметом.

Порівняйте:

Hundreds of tourists visit the Science Museum every day. (Active Voice)

The Science Museum is visited by hundreds of tourists every day. (Passive Voice)

2. Complete the following sentences with the right form of the present simple passive (positive or negative) of the verbs in the box.

keep, do, find, organize, consider, invite, use

1. Steam locomotives were used in the past, but they ... today.

2. A lot of experiments ... in Chemistry classes.

3. Science subjects ... to be difficult to understand by many students.

4. Old and precious things ... and looked after in a museum.

5. ‘Science Night’ ... for children and their parents when they ... to spend an evening doing fun science-based activities and then spend the night in the museum among the exhibits.

6. Some amazing inventions and discoveries ... at the Science Museum.

3. a) Do the quiz and find out how much you know about inventions and inventors.

1. The theory of relativity was developed by

a) Isaac Newton.

b) Albert Einstein.

2. The first step on the Moon was taken by

a) Neil Armstrong.

b) Yuri Gagarin.

3. The first bicycle was built in

a) 1839.

b) 1920.

4. The radioactive elements radium and polonium were discovered by

a) Marie Curie.

b) William Rontgen.

5. Television was invented in

a) 1930.

b) 1926.

6. The steam engine was constructed by

a) James Watt.

b) George Stephenson.

7. Hot baths and central heating were first used by

a) the Greeks.

b) the Romans.

8. The first rocket was launched by

a) Robert Goddard in 1926.

b) Enrico Fermi in 1932.

b) Find all the examples of the past passive in the quiz.

c) Read and say what you know about past passive forms.

REMEMBER!

PAST PASSIVE

was/were + the past participle

The theory of relativity was developed by Albert Einstein. Radium and polonium were discovered by Marie Curie.

4. Make right sentences.

The first computer

was

were

in 1848 in Britain. in 1608 in Holland.

developed

in 1884 in Chicago by Archimedes.

The first telescope

made

The first skyscrapers

built

in 1714.

Some laws on volume

discovered

in the city of Babylon in 2200 BC.

The thermometer

invented

The first bridge

constructed

Anaesthetics

used

in surgery for the first time in 1847.

5. Read about the Science Museum and find out:

• which famous inventions and discoveries are displayed in the museum

• what you can do at the museum

• what makes it special

THE SCIENCE MUSEUM -

You don’t like Science? Physics gives you a headache? You’ll definitely change your mind if you go to the Science Museum, which is an amazing place to visit even if you’re not interested in science. It is fascіnating to see so many remarkable inventions which humanity has created. They are wonderfully restored and displayed in chronological order, telling the story of man’s technological and scientific achievements. Steam engines, locomotives, fullsized aeroplanes and helicopters, cars, space shuttles and the earliest and latest computers are included in its various collections, as well as such historic exhibits as Puffing Billy (the oldest steam locomotive), a reconstruction of Crick and Watson’s model of DNA or an Apollo space capsule.

And these are just some of the amazing things which aren’t seen every day. But, what makes this museum so special? Throughout the museum there are many interactive exhibits where you can see for yourself how they work.

to invent

to discover

to create something new

to find, see or learn of something no one knew before

Nobody knows who

Galileo discovered the planet

invented the wheel.

Jupiter ['dӡu:pıtә].

NOT JUST ANOTHER MUSEUM!

For example, there’s a light aeroplane which is fastened to the floor, so you can climb into the pilot’s cabin and see how the tail moves when you move the controls. And for those who think that science is complicated, at the Science Museum you can do experiments, solve scientific problems, and see how it all makes sense. Science and nature documentaries are shown in the IMAX 3D Cinema, some of them in 3-D. No wonder this awesome place is often compared to a theme park about science, which is why it is visited by hundreds of tourists every day, and is especially enjoyed by young people.

THECHNOLOGY

технологія

техніка

People have a special

science and technology,

technology to do this.

agricultural technology;

Our laboratory uses the very latest technology.

a high level of technology

6. Match the words with their definitions.

1. remarkable

2. to fasten

3. humanity

4. an achievement

5. an exhibit

6. a theme park

□ human beings in general

□ something important or successful that you have done

□ something that is shown, especially in a museum

□ amazing, worth remembering

□ an amusement park based on a single subject

□ to make something fixed

7. Read and name some important inventions and discoveries of the 20th and 21st century.

the television set, the personal computer, the fridge, DNA, the washing machine, the heart transplant, the atomic bomb, the automobile, the personal stereo, the mobile phone

a) Work in pairs to answer the following questions.

• In what way have inventions changed our lives?

• Which ones have had the greatest impact on most people around the world?

• Which ones would be the most difficult to live without?

• Which one is the most important for you personally?

• Are there any inventions that are harmful?

• Are there any inventions or discoveries that you would

b) Complete the texts (1-4) with the names of the corresponding inventions and discoveries from Task (a).

1. The structure of_______ was deciphered in 1953, by Francis Crick and James Watson. In 1992, the first map of the human genome was produced in France, which would help scientists to treat some diseases that we inherit from our parents and grandparents.

2. ____ was invented by a Scottish inventor John Logie Baird in 1926, and it was first demonstrated in Selfridges, a department store in London. It was built of old cans, bicycle parts, lenses, string and sealing wax.

3. The first__________ that was made for individual use was called Apple II, and it was launched in 1977 by Apple Computers. It was sealed in a plastic case: it had a keyboard, a video unit and removable floppy discs. It was sold for€ 3800 in today’s money.

4. The world’s first practical four-wheeled _____ that was powered by a gasoline engine was designed and built in 1885 by Karl Benz. But the first cars were mass-produced by Henry Ford, after he introduced his Model T in 1910, which was the first affordable car.

8. Say if the following sentences are true or false.

1. The structure of DNA was discovered in 1992.

2. The television set was first shown in a bookshop.

3. The first personal computer was launched by Microsoft.

4. The first affordable cars were produced in the USA.

9. Complete the following sentences with the past simple passive of the verbs in brackets.

1. The first TV remote controls ... (use) in the 1950s in the USA. One of the early models ... (develop) in 1952, and it ... (call) ‘Lazy Bones’.

2. In 1996 a sheep called ‘Dolly’ ... (clone) by British scientists from a single cell that ... (take) from a six-year-old female sheep.

3. Clothes ... (hand-wash) by rubbing the clothing with rocks in a river, or by using a wash board before the invention of the washing machine.

4. The first affordable cars ... (produce) by Henry Ford.

5. Text messages ... (use) in Asia and Europe before they became popular in the USA in the mid 2000s.

6. The Internet began in 1969 as The Arpanet data network, which ... (establish) by the US Department of Defense and ... (suppose) to link computer networks at several universities and research laboratories in the United States.

SPEAKING

1. a) Match the pictures of the inventions of recent years with their names (1-6).

1. a play station

2. a digital camera

3. a mountain bike

4. roller skates

5. mp3 player

6. a mobile phone

b) Answer the questions.

Which inventions are fun?

Which ones are fashionable?

Do all of them appeal only to young people?

Which of them is the best invention in recent years? Why?

2. Match the beginnings with the endings to make correct sentences.

1. When you listen to your MP3, surf the Internet or use your mobile phone,

2. If you have a pastime of your own choice,

3. Any hobby will change your teen’s life

4. The lives of most teenagers depend on

5. No matter what kind of hobby it is,

6. If you learn English,

□ you can try to create posters of your country for English speaking tourists.

□ you can “unplug” and focus on sports and opportunities in real life.

□ for the better.

□ electricity and batteries.

□ you are plugged in.

□ it gives you a sense of purpose in life.

3. Split up in two groups. Listen to four descriptions of various objects. The group which is the first to guess what is being described wins.

4. a) Guess the objects mentioned below.

1. I was born in the late fifties.

I’m getting more and more popular every year.

I’m plugged in approximately every other day.

I’m the most important item in most people’s lives. Nowadays you can put me in a small pocket.

I hear all your secrets.

2. I was born about 150 years ago.

I don’t run on batteries.

I don’t run on electricity.

I am unplugged, independent and free. I can take you anywhere.

In some cities I have special tracks.

b) Make your own riddle for the class to guess.

Use any noun from this unit. Write in the first person singular.

I am usually... You can see me in... I don't...

5. a) Work in pairs following the tasks in items a) and b).

Task for pupil A. Read the first letter and then answer your partner’s questions.

Task for pupil B. Read the second letter (page 142) and then answer your partner’s questions.

1deaf — глухий

2an acid ['æsıd] — кислота

3an apparatus [,æpe'reıtәs] — апарат, прилад

1mankind [,mæn'kaınd] — людство

2a hand [hænd] — (тут) стрілка годинника

3a shadow clock ['jædeʊ] — сонячний годинник

4to measure ['mеӡә] вимірювати

5an hourglass ['aʊәgla:s] — пісковий годинник

6an egg-timer ['eg:taımә] — годинник для варки яєць

b) Pupil A, ask pupil B about

the invention of the clock and after your partner’s answer circle the right option.

1. When was the first accurate clock designed?

a) in 1657

b) in 1637

c) in 1700

2. When were shadow clocks first used?

a) 3000 years ago

b) 4000 years ago

c) 2000 year ago

3. When were mechanical clocks made?

a) in the 13th century

b) in the 15th century

c) in the 14th century

4. What kind of clocks were used in ancient Egypt?

a) hourglasses

b) water clocks

5. When were sand glasses used?

a) in the Middle Ages

b) after 1700

6. Where were the first wristwatches made?

a) in England and Germany

b) in France and Switzerland

Pupil B, ask pupil A about the invention of the telephone and after your partner’s answer circle the right option.

1. When was the telephone invented?

a) in 1895

b) in 1901

c) in 1875

2. Where was Alexander Bell born?

3. What kind of job was Alexander Bell given when he got to America?

a) a teaching position with blind people

b) a teaching position with deaf people

4. Who was his work financed by?

a) his father

b) his best friend

c) his pupil’s father

5. What were the first words spoken over the telephone?

a) “Hello, Bell speaking. Can I speak to Mr Watson, please?"

b) “Come here, Mr Watson, I want to see you."

6. When was the first communication satellite launched?

a) in 1962

b) in 1958

c) in 1968

6. a) Listen about three scientists. Mark each sentence with ‘T if the statement is true, and with ‘F’ if it is false.

Albert Einstein

Isaac Newton

Galileo Galilei

□ 1. Galileo Galilei made his first scientific discovery at the age of 19.

□ 2. He became Professor of Mathematics at the university when he was 60.

□ 3. As a boy Isaac Newton built a model of a telescope.

□ 4. The sails of the model could turn only when there was a wind.

□ 5. Albert Einstein was very hard-working and attentive at the lessons in school.

□ 6. Einstein is a founder of ‘The Theory of Relativity’.

b) Speak about the life of a scientist who interests you very much. You may use the words:

to put a theory ['Өıәri] into practice

to do the research [rı'sз:tʃ] work

successful [sek'sesfәl]

to get interested in

to graduate from

to study

to experiment

to publish

7. Do a science survey.

In groups, ask each other the questions below.

Write down the answers. Report the results in class.

• Do you like science lessons?

• Which is your favourite scientific subject: biology, chemistry or physics?

• Are you good at Maths?

• Would you like to do more science experiments in school?

• Have you ever used a computer?

• Have you ever bought a science book or magazine?

8. Work in small groups. Discuss the predictions about the future.

a) People will use their TVs to control their lives.

For example, you will be able to do your shopping, use your bank account and control the lights and heating in the house through the TV. B) Robots will do all the boring jobs. c People will have fewer diseases and health problems.

• Do you think it will happen? Why/why not?

• Will it be a good thing or not?

9. a) Comment on the statements and say what moves a man to discover the world.

b) Work in pairs. Make a list of examples to show that you are able to apply the knowledge and skills you got at school in different situations.

What qualities do you think are needed to succeed in a scientific research? Do you think you will be able to carry out a scientific research? If you chose a scientific career, what would you like to become and why?

10. a) Read and find out the main idea of the extract from the poem.

b) Read and discuss in small groups.

• When you think of discoveries, what ideas come to your mind?

• Everywhere you look, there are discoveries to be made.

Each day we learn a little more about the world around us. What discoveries of your own have you made?

WRITING

1. Search for the information about life and work of any famous scientist / inventor you like. Make a biography chart.

2. a) Write about any invention or discovery you like.

b) Prepare to present your story in class with pictures to illustrate the things and ideas you are going to mention about.

1polonium [pә'lәʊniәm] — полоній

2radium ['reıdjәm] — радій

3leukemia [lu:'ki:miә] — лейкемія





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