Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (9-й рік навчання) - Карпюк О. Д. - Астон 2017 рік




1. Choose the correct word to complete the sentences that describe the world today.

1. The population of the world is (growing /becoming) smaller.

2. Our climate is changing. The world is becoming (colder/ warmer). The Arctic ice is melting.

3. (Not everybody / Everybody) has clean water.

There are dry places and polluted rivers.

4. We produce (little / a lot of) rubbish.

5. There (are /aren’t) many endangered animal and plant species.

2. Match each sentence in Task 1 with one prediction about the future of the world below.

□ A lot of people will be thirsty.

□ There will be many more people in the world.

□ They will disappear.

□ Rubbish will pollute the land and the sea.

□ Polar bears won’t have enough space to hunt.

3. Match the words with the pictures.

1. Climate change

2. Rubbish

3. Growing population

4. Pollution

5. Endangered animals and plants

4. Work in groups. Answer each question and then read the text.

Compare your answers with those in the text. Are they similar?

1. Is population growing in all parts of the world?

The world population is growing. Every day 200.000 people are born on our planet. That’s a lot of babies! In the future there will be many more people and they will need more food, water, houses and energy. Most children are born in poor countries. Many of them don’t have enough food and don’t go to school. In some countries in Europe there are not many children and families are becoming smaller. Do you know anybody who has many brothers and sisters?

2. Are people responsible for the climate change that is happening?

Something is happening to our climate. It is getting warmer. Our springs and summers are very hot and there isn’t so much snow in winter. The Arctic ice is melting. Earth’s climate has changed many times. There have been ice ages and warmer periods but now these changes are happening fast. Are we responsible for this? Most scientists (but not all) say yes. We need to stop the global warming.

3. Why do we need water?

Nobody can live without water. Everybody needs it for drinking, cooking and washing. However, for one in five people in the world it is difficult to get clean water. I hope you are somebody who turns off the water in the bathroom and in the kitchen, and doesn’t leave it running for nothing. We must be careful with water. We have to save it. Pessimists say that we won’t have enough water in the future. We will be thirsty!

4. Why do we produce so much rubbish?

Our cars and our factories pollute the air. Many rivers and lakes are also polluted. And on land there is rubbish everywhere. It is ugly to see this, and it is dangerous for wild animals. Do we want a world like that? We go shopping and bring home plastic bags. We want new things all the time. We buy a new mobile phone and throw away the old one. When you throw something away, it doesn’t just disappear. Can we do anything about it?

5. What is the best way to protect endangered animals and plants?

Many plants and animals are in danger. We are destroying the places where they live. The best way to save them is to protect these places. Forest and jungle animals and plants are in danger because we are cutting down trees. It is difficult for animals in the sea because the sea is becoming polluted and there is too much fishing. Polar bears can only hunt on ice, but every year more and more ice disappears. Plants and animals are able to change. It is called evolution. But the evolution is very slow and we are changing our world quickly. Some species will be able to follow the changes. For example, foxes now often come to town to look for rubbish. But many species will disappear.

5. Explain the following headings in newspapers.

6. Look at the charts below and explain the following.

• What is the environment?

7. a) Read the letters and speak on kids’ opinions about saving the Earth.

8. Work in pairs to answer the questions.

• Do you think Jackie is a person who is saving the Earth? Why?

• Which of the three Rs does she remember to follow? How does she reuse things?

• Does Nick follow the three Rs rules? Why doesn’t he help to keep the world healthy?

9. a) Copy the grid on page 152. Read the following explanations and match them with the words from the box.

ecology, pollution, energy, cars, the Earth, rainforest, nuclear testing, garbage, environmental problems, animals in danger

1. It is rubbish, waste or other things we throw away.

2. It is a thick forest in tropical parts of the world, like in Amazon area.

3. It is our planet.

4. We have so many of them, like air, sea, and land pollution, holes in the ozone layer and so on.

5. They are experiments with nuclear weapons (like bombs).

6. It is the process of making our environment dirty and unhealthy for living.

7. It can come from nuclear, electrical, solar or wind power.

8. It is a very big problem of our time. If we don’t protect them, they will disappear forever.

9. A great deal of pollution comes from the fumes (gases) they give off. We should walk or use bikes instead, whenever we can.

10. It is the science that studies the relations of plants, animals and people to each other and to their environment.

The first letters of the words give you a name of a very important international organisation which works to protect the environment.

b) How many definitions can you learn by heart in two minutes? Say them to your group.




1. Here are some questions from the quiz.

How many can you answer?

1. □ Name at least two examples of a climate change.

2. □ Name at least two types of renewable energy.

3. □ What is the greenhouse effect?

4. □ Which of these gases is not a greenhouse gas: carbon dioxide, methane or oxygen?

5. □ Complete the three Rs that are important for the future of our planet: reduce, reuse and ...

6. □ Name at least two consequences of global warming.

2. a) Listen to the quiz and put the questions in the right order.

b) Listen once again and write the answers in your notebook.

3. a) Listen about the environment protection programme and explain what a ‘green school’ is.

b) In pairs, answer the questions.

1. What is Dee West?

2. Where does she work?

3. How long has she worked there?

4. What is her responsibility?

5. How many children attend the Green Schools?

6. What do they learn at school?

7. Why do you think they call them ‘Green Schools’?

8. What kind of things can be recycled?

9. How do American children protect trees?

10. How can you help to protect the environment?

4. Examine the scheme and explain what way one can keep the three Rs rules.

• Buy recycled and recyclable items when purchasing new products.

• This bag is not a toy — keep it away from children.

• This bag is reusable.

• This bag is recyclable.

• This bag can be reused and it is recyclable.

• Do not litter after use.


This logo indicates the item is made from recycled materials.

This logo indicates that the item can be recycled.

5. Read the tips and report what they want you to do. Work in pairs.

a) Put glass bottles to a bottle bank.

b) Don’t buy products in plastic containers (use bottles, boxes, bags).

c) Take paper bags into shops.

d) Don’t throw away plastic bags. Make sure you use them more than once.

e) Collect and recycle newspapers.

f) Don’t replace a notebook until it is completely filled out.

g) Don’t take baths. Take quick showers.

h) Don’t leave the water running while brushing your teeth.

i) Give away old clothes to someone who may need them.

j) Walk, use your bike or public transport instead of a car.

k) Don’t leave the light on when you leave the room.

l) Plant trees and flowers.

Example: They ask me to take glass bottles to a bottle bank.

They ask me not to buy products in plastic containers.

Report on all the hints.

6. a) Listen to the conversation between Lovro and his sister Dora and say what they are arguing about.

b) Match at least five words on the left with the words on the right. Copy them in your notebook.




the heating








our planet


turn up


the light on




a dishwasher




a bath









c) Listen to the conversation between Lovro and his sister again and tick the pairs of words from Task (a) that Lovro mentions.

7. a) Finish the sentences. If necessary, listen again.

1. Dora doesn’t turn off the tap while brushing ...

2. She leaves the light ...

3. She never puts bottles ...

4. She always brings a lot of ...

5. She always takes ...

6. She always has ...

7. She always keeps the TV ...

8. She turns up ...

b) Give some warnings1 to Dora. Use the examples:

If you don’t turn off the tap while brushing your teeth you’ll waste too much water.

If you don’t switch off the light when you’re not in the room, you won’t save energy.

1warning ['wɔ:nıη,] — застереження, попередження



Умовні речення 1-ro типу (Conditional І)

У цьому типі речень виражається умова, за якої може відбутись реальна дія у майбутньому.

Вживаємо if + present simple + will або won’t.

If people pollute the seas and the air they will become ill.

умова головне речення

if clause main clause

present simple future simple

If we don’t kill animals we’ll give them a chance to survive. Або

We’ll give animals a chance to survive if we don’t kill them.

Після IF ми не вживаємо WILL (future simple)

If it will start raining... = WRONG!

If it starts raining... = RIGHT

1. Match.


If we pollute the air with our cars and factories

□ there won’t be so much pollution in the air.


If people throw rubbish from their cities into the oceans

□ they will kill animals and plants and they’ll disappear forever.


If people get around on foot, by bike or by boat

□ you’ll have to wear a mask.


If farmers cut down thousands of trees that are in the tropical rainforests

□ we’ll have serious health problems for thousands of people all over the world.


If the air is not clean

□ they will kill millions of fish.

2. Remember about Dora and answer the questions with the words in brackets.

1. What will Dora save if she turns off the tap while brushing her teeth? (water resources on the Earth)

2. What will Dora do if she keeps the TV on standby? (save electricity)

3. What will Dora help to do if she always puts the plastic bottles in the bottle bank? (recycle)

4. What will Dora do if she doesn’t turn up the heating all the time (reduce the use of energy)

5. What will Dora do if she uses her knowledge on ecology in practice? (save our planet)

3. Fill in the gaps with the right tenses of the verbs in brackets.

1. If we ... (to have) enough water, we ... (to be) thirsty.

2. More species ... (to survive) if we ... (to protect) nature.

3. We ... (to reduce) the use of natural resources if we ... (to recycle) old and used things.

4. Clean water... (not; to be) a problem if people ... (to stop) throwing rubbish into the seas and rivers.

5. Many animals and plants ... (not; to be) in danger if we ... (to stop) killing the animals and (not; to cut down) the trees.

4. Complete the sentences.

1. If you don’t litter...

2. If we reuse things ...

3. If people clean up after picnics ...

4. If people recycle old magazines and books ...

5. If you turn off the lights when you leave a room ...


1. Read and guess the meanings of these opinions.

2. a) Read the definitions and guess the meanings of the words in bold. When a plant or animal is gone forever, we say it is extinct. The natural habitat is a place where an animal or a plant is normally found.

Endangered species are groups of plants or animals that are in danger of becoming extinct.

b) Guess the problems and make sentences.

3. In small groups, do the tasks below.

a) Imagine that you’re a member of a team that is working to save 8 endangered species below. Look over the list carefully and then number the animals in the order in which you would try to save them, from 1 (the most important species to save) to 8 (the least important).

b) Discuss the questions.

1. What basis did you decide your ranking on: usefulness to humans? beauty? size? species that live in your country?

2. Why are most people more interested in saving larger and more beautiful animals than smaller and less beautiful ones?

4. Read the information and agree or disagr with the statements below.

1. It is important to recycle old paper.

2. Forests are not terribly important for us.

3. Ocean and sea life are in danger.

4. Oil spills are a great source of pollution.

5. Not very many species are in danger of becoming extinct.

6. We still have enough space for garbage.

7. It is environmentally friendly to produce glass from recycled glass.

5. a) Get some information and answer the questions.

Do you know this holiday? Do you think this holiday is for all people all over the world?

There are over 300 nature centres in British cities and more than 30 in London. Children go there with their teachers to study and enjoy nature. There are a lot of environment groups in Britain: Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace, London Wildlife Trust, etc. These activities are suggested by Liverpool Ecology Group.

b) Speak on the activities above. Say which ones you would like to take part in. Explain why.

6. Imagine the situation and answer the question. Work in pairs.

In London Zoo there is a problem now. It is very expensive to keep animals. The animals are given to those who can take care of them.

• What animal would you adopt? Why?

7. a) Say how you think everyone can show his/her concern with the cleanliness and beauty of the place where he/she lives.

You may use the following:

• plant greenery;

• protect trees in parks and yards;

• take care of;

• preserve a healthy and clean environment;

• keep the greenery fresh;

• not to pollute with;

• keep clean;

• collect rubbish.

b) Speak on your contribution.

What do you do to keep your city clean?

A cause is what produces an effect, which makes a thing happen.

A reason is a fact which is put forward as a motive or an explanation in order to justify some conclusion.

8. a) Work in groups.

Sum up the ecological problems and mention their reasons.



b) Play an Ecology Problems Game. Make a list of practical ways to help our planet. Use the words mentioned in the box below.


1. We shouldn’t leave the lights on and waste electricity.

2. We should always write on both sides of the paper to save it.


the sea













c) Speak on your suggestions of the ways out.

The winner will be the group whose list is the longest.

Ways out:

9. a) Learn how to introduce suggestions.

Let’s ...

We could ...

For a start we could ...

Do you think we should ...

Why don’t we ...

Do you think we might ...

We might ...

It might be an idea to ...

b) Read the following reactions to suggestions.

Divide them into 3 groups: positive, negative and neutral.

Why not? That’s a good idea!

I suppose you’re right. Now you’re talking.

What good would that do? Do you really think that would work?

c) Work in small groups. Use the expressions above in a discussion about an environmental issue you are interested in.



Ukraine is famous for its beautiful nature. There are many picturesque places in the Carpathians and Polissia. Hares and deer, wolves and foxes are part of a wildlife of these areas. There are more than 3,000 lakes with lots of fish (like the Shatsk lakes) in the north-west.

The wolf is the largest member of the dog family. It is one of the most valuable predators. Wolves live in thick forests but their natural habitat is shrinking. The wolf is a negative figure in many fairy tales. The main causes of their dying out are: illegal shooting, killing on roads and a lack of food.

The white stork is considered to bring good luck in many European countries. However, their number is getting smaller. In many Ukrainian villages storks fly freely around. Life has shown that with the help of local inhabitants it is possible to preserve the habitats of the stork.

1. Choose animals which are endangered species in Ukraine and write your action plan to protect them.

1. Read about the animals to get information about their lifestyles.

2. Find a map of Ukraine and identify the habitats.

3. Make a leaflet saying that all these animals show the signs of preserved nature.

4. Look for other similar clubs and societies on the Interent. Make contact.

5. See their action plan. Exchange information. Be proactive.

6. Write your action plan with steps which can help to protect these animals.

2. Write a letter to your friend. Share your opinions about the protection of nature. Write about your school recycling drives and other things that you and your classmates do to make the world a better place. Ask about the activities he/she takes part in at school.


1. Complete the sentences using ‘discover’, ‘discovery’ or ‘invent’, ‘invention’ in the right form.

1. Writing was probably the most revolutionary of all human ... .

2. The 15th-17th centuries were the time of great geographic ... .

3. Who ... the computer?

4. Penicillin was ... by Alexander Fleming.

5. In what country was money first …?

6. When did they .oil in the North Sea?

7. The ... of the atom meant the beginning of a new era in physics.

8. Australia was ... for Europeans by James Cook.

9. The mobile telephone is a wonderful ... .

2. Put a name to each of these sciences.

a) ... is the study of things that occur naturally such as heat, light, sound, electricity, magnetism, etc.

b) ... is the science of living things.

c) ... is the science dealing with measurements, numbers and quantities.

d) ... is the scientific study of the Earth through its rocks, soil1, etc.

e) ... is the scientific planning of a machine, road, bridge, etc.

f) ... is the scientific study of the planets, stars, the Sun, etc of outer space.

g) ... is the science that deals with the nature of substances and the ways in which they act on, or combine with each other.

h) ... is the scientific study of plants.

i) ... is the scientific study of animals.

j) ... is the branch of biology that deals with the study of microorganisms.

1soil [sɔıl] — грунт, земля

3. Match the inventions and discoveries with the people and dates and write sentences about inventions/discoveries using the Passive Voice.

Example: radium / discover

Radium was discovered by Marie Curie in 1911.

1. the first calculating machine / invent

2. electric current / discover

3. a petrol-driven car / build

4. the law of gravitation / discover

5. the electric light bulb / invent

Thomas Edison in 1879

Charles Babbage in 1812

Michael Faraday in 1825

Isaac Newton in 1665

Karl Benz in 1885

4. a) Before listening think about Eugene Paton and say what you have heard of him. Guess if the statements below are true or false.

a) Eugene Paton was born in Moscow in 1870.

b) His father was Russian Consul in Nice, France.

c) Paton graduated from Dresden Medical Institute and later became a famous surgeon.

d) Eugene Paton graduated from St Petersburg University and then had a project of the Dresden railway station.

e) He got a degree of a railway engineer at Dresden Polytechnical Institute.

f) Paton was a founder of bridge-building.

g) At the age of 60 he took up the electric welding.

h) He headed the construction of the first wooden bridge in Kyiv.

i) The bridge is 2000 metres long.

j) The name of Paton has been given to the bridge and to the Research Institute in St Petersburg.

b) Look through the Word List and listen to the biography of Eugene Paton. Check your answers.


an award [ә'wɔ:d] — нагорода

a consul ['kɒnsl] — консул

a degree [dı'gri:] — ступінь

Nice [ni:s] — м. Ніцца

a title ['taıtl] — титул

to award [ә'wɔ:d] — нагороджувати

electric welding — електрозварювання

boltless — без болтів

honourable [ɒnәrәbl] почесний

Soviet — радянський

c) Listen to the biography of Paton again and answer the questions.

a) Where was Eugene Paton born?

b) What higher educational institutions did he study in?

c) What project did he have to his credit when he became a student of St Petersburg University?

d) What institution did he found?

e) How old was Eugene Paton when he headed the design and construction of the first boltless bridge in Kyiv?

f) Why did Eugene Paton change his profession when he was 60?

5. Work in groups. Discuss the following questions.

a) What discoveries in the history of mankind do you regard as the most important?

b) What inventions in the history of mankind do you regard as the most important?

c) Which of the centuries in your opinion saw the greatest inventions and discoveries?

d) What things can you describe as wonders of modern science? And why are they such?

e) Can you remember any outstanding names of well-known scientists, explorers, inventors and discoverers in Ukraine, Western Europe and the USA?

f) How do you understand the terms ‘high technology’ and ‘new technology’? Do they describe absolutely the same thing?

g) What makes the work of a scientist important? Give an example.

h) Would you like to become a scientist? If you would, what field of research would you choose?

6. Write out the eco-friendly words into your notebook.

Cars, coal, air pollution, planting trees, alternative energy, light pollution, going vegetarian, solar energy, wind power generators, nuclear power plants, smog, noise pollution, factories, joining the Eco-movement, taking part in anti-fur protests, joining animal rights campaigns, riding a bike, riding a motorbike.

7. Match the words with their definitions.

1. to pollute

2. to reduce

3. to cause

4. waste

5. poison

6. environment

a surroundings, circumstances, influences

b substance causing death or harm if taken by a living thing

c no longer of use

d to make happen

e to make smaller in size

f to make dirty

8. Complete the sentences with the appropriate modal verbs.

1. We ... recycle things to get rid of garbage.

2. One ton of recycled paper ... save 17 trees.

3. People ... protect all the forests as they are keys to our survival.

4. We ... be interested in saving more animals.

5. People ... kill the African elephant for its tusks.

6. Eco-friendly people ... keep the environment clean.

7. You ... turn up the heating all the time to reduce the use of energy.

have to, must, shouldn’t, can, should, could, mustn’t

9. Speak in groups about the environmental problems in our country. What can you say about the environmental problems in Ukraine?

10. Discuss in groups how you treat the environment.

Is it ours? Do we have the right to destroy it?

What have we been doing to it?

Have we been making it better or worse?

What are the results of that?

11. Think about the environmental situation in your town or place. Make notes and prepare your speech. Present your speech in class.

12. Make the ‘Earth Day Poster’. Work in groups.


Step 1

Discuss your ideas about how ecological education for people of different age groups can be organised. How can ecological education be organised at school?

Step 2

Devise a questionnaire to interview school teachers (members of the school administration, your schoolmates) in order to find out their views on the importance of environmental protection.

Step 3

Interview your schoolmates and your teachers to collect suggestions on what practical steps the school can take in order to make the school environment clean, tidy and pleasant.

Step 4

Discuss the suggestions made by the interviewees.

Decide which of them can be effectively realised.

Step 5

Design and produce posters to be placed in the school building which call upon the students to treat their environment with respect and care.

Step 6

Arrange a display of the posters and select the best.


1. Listen and read the text.

Put the number of each paragraph next to the appropriate headline below.

□ His Childhood

□ The Atomic Bomb

□ An ‘Einstein’

□ Life in Germany

□ A Young Scientist

□ Einstein as a Person

□ The End of His Life


1. If someone calls you an ‘Einstein’ ['aınstaın], consider it a compliment. It means that you are compared to one of the greatest minds of the twentieth century. Actually, many people believe that he was one of the most intelligent people ever born. He had the IQ (intelligence quotient) of a genius.

2. Albert Einstein was not only a genius but also a gentle man. He loved music, children and sailing. He wore his shoes without socks and he rarely had a haircut. He is called a genius because many of his scientific discoveries were far ahead of their time. He is remembered as a gentle person because he believed that all nations should live without war. He often spoke for peace.

3. Albert was born in Ulm, Germany. He was an unusual child. He seemed to be very slow and dreamy and his parents were worried about him. He started to talk later than most children did. As a schoolboy, he thought a long time before answering questions. But he was far from being stupid. He learned mathematics and loved to use it in thinking about science.

4. He studied physics in Switzerland where he got his first job. In his spare time, he wrote out some of his original ideas on physics. In 1905 he published an article on his special theory of relativity. It caused a sensation among scientists. In the article he said that the basic qualities of objects (mass, length and time) changed when they moved at high speeds, closer to the speed of light.

5. In 1914 Einstein moved to Germany. He got a teaching job at the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. Four months later, Germany went to war. World War I started. Einstein made himself very unpopular because he was against the war.

In 1921 he got the Nobel Prize in physics. He became very famous, almost like a movie star. His picture was in many newspapers but he was a shy man and didn’t like the publicity much. However, when Hitler came to power in Germany, Einstein decided to speak for peace. He said it was wrong for one person to kill another and that all men should refuse to be soldiers. Hitler didn’t like any of his beliefs. There was another problem. Einstein was Jewish and Hitler hated Jews.

Einstein’s life was in danger and that was why he and his wife moved to the United States.

6. During World War II Einstein was worried that German scientists, controlled by Hitler, would create the atomic bomb which would help Germany win the war. Even though Einstein never took any part in the creation of the bomb, it was partly his ideas that helped scientists make it. He knew very well how dangerous such a bomb would be.

Close to the end of World War II American scientists developed the bomb first. When Einstein found out about it he wrote to the American President asking him not to use the bomb because it was very, very dangerous. It made him very sad when the bomb was actually dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945. He wrote once: “Science is a powerful instrument. How it is used depends on man himself, not on the instrument. A knife is useful for the lives of human beings, but it can also be used to kill.”

7. After World War II Einstein continued to work both for science and for peace. In 1955, he died in his sleep at the age of seventy-six.

2. Answer the following questions.

a) Who was Albert Einstein?

b) Where was he born?

c) Where did he live for a long time?

d) What is he famous for?

e) What did he get for his work?

f) What made him very sad?

g) What does it mean when someone calls you an ‘Einstein’?

h) What does IQ stand for?

3. In pairs, follow the order of the headlines in Task 1 to ask and answer about Albert Einstein.

4. Look at the text and find the words for:

kind, not violent — g...

an extremely clever person — g...

free time — s... t...

a piece of writing — a...

make something happen — c...

great interest or surprise — s...

a person of Hebrew religion — j...

be involved in something — t... p...

5. Write down the questions to which the following statements are the answers.


In Ulm, Germany.


Because he was against the war.


Because he was a slow, dreamy boy.


In 1921.


Physics in Switzerland.


Because his life was in danger.


He was very worried.


His article on the theory of relativity.


To tell American President.


He was very sad.


To Germany.


He was 76.

6. Role-play the interview in pairs. One of you is a person who knows Einstein and the other is a reporter.

My Learning Diary

The topics of this unit are

I find this unit very easy /quite easy /quite difficult / very difficult. (Underline what is true for you)

I think that the most important thing I have learnt is

The most difficult thing for me was

The things that I enjoyed most in the Unit were

The things that I didn’t enjoy were

The ways I used working with the Unit were

My favourite activities / tasks were

The new grammar I have learnt in the Unit is

The best lesson I had in my English class was

The things that are easy to read are

The things that are easy to listen to

The things that are easy to talk about

The things that are easy to write about

The things that are difficult to read about

The things that are difficult to listen to

The things that are difficult to talk about

The things that are difficult to write about

Three things I would like to remember from this unit are because

I would like to improve my pronunciation /spelling / vocabulary / grammar/fluency. (Underline what is true for you.)

The things that I would like to learn are

You have finished the unit. Choose the adjectives that best describe how you feel about it

Are there any things which you don’t understand very well and would like to study again?

After the unit I can:

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