Підручник Англійська мова 9 клас (5-й рік навчання) - Т. І. Бондар - Методика Паблішинг 2017 рік


G 1 Used to, didn't use to

We use ‘used to'for something that happened regularly in the past but no longer happens.

• Ben used to travel a lot in his job but now, since his promotion, he doesn't.

• I used to walk to school but now I take the bus.

We also use it for something that was true but no longer is.

• There used to be a cinema in the town but now there isn’t.

• She used to have really long hair but she’s had it all cut off.

• I didn't use to like him but now I do.

‘Used to do1 is different from ‘to be used to doing’ and ‘to get used to doing’.


The negative of used to is most commonly didn't use to.

It didn't use to be so crowded in the shops as it is nowadays.

In very formal styles, we can use the negative form used not to:

She used not to live as poorly as she does now.


The most common form of question is auxiliary did + use to.

I think we met once, a couple of years ago. Did you use to work with Kevin Harris?

G 2 get, make, let, have





We express the idea of somebody else to do something. We require something to be done by somebody else (by a third person).

Get + somebody +to do

Make is used to force somebody else to do something. We require something to be done by using power, influence or authority.

Make + somebody +do

We use let to allow somebody to do something. We give apermission to somebody to do something.

Let + somebody +do

We use this structure to talk about having something done by a third person.

Have + somebody +do

Mary had the nurse check her temperature



I get my sister to help me.

I must get my sister to help me.

Do you get your sister to help you? Did you get your sister to help you? I will get my sister to help me.

She gets her sister to help her.

I got my sister to help me.

I have got my sister to help me.

I can get my sister to help me.

I am going to get my sister to help me.

I should get my sister to help me.

She never lets me drive her car.

Will you please let me use your camera?

Did your father let you come with us?

She has just let the kids play in the garden.

I can let you go to the cinema if you do your homework.

I may let you borrow my bike, but you must promise to bring it tomorrow.

and to use more tenses and modals is possible.

and to use more English tenses and modals is possible.



His father made him clean the car.

My mother makes me cook at weekends.

A police officer can make us stop.

You should make your son clean his own room.

The Commander has made soldiers get up early.

Did the teacher make you do your homework?

I think she will make you stay here all day.

and to use more tenses and modals is possible.

Mary had the nurse check her temperature.

I must have the mechanic check my car.

We’ve had a web designer make our website.

I have the cleaners wash the floor every day.

She will have Taner paint the house.

Please, have your secretary fax me the letter.

There is a difference between get and have. To get someone to do something suggests that you talked to the person and convinced him to do something. To have someone do something simply states that you arranged for someone to do something, whether or not that person did it voluntarily.

Get have make

‘Have’ can be followed by passive or active verb forms

Active Form

Passive form

Have + somebody + do (verb l) + something

Have + something + done (verb 3) + (by someone)

In active form, we use somebody and base form of the verb (verb 1) after the verb ‘have’.

In passive form, we use something and past participle of the verb (verb 3) after the verb ‘have’.

Mary had the nurse check her temperature.

Mary had her temperature checked by the nurse.

I must have the mechanic check my car.

I must have my car checked by the mechanic.

We’ve had a web designer make our website.

We’ve had our website made by a web designer.

I have the cleaners wash the floor every day.

I have the floor cleaned by the cleaners every day.

She will have Tom paint the house.

She will have the house painted by Tom.

Please have your secretary fax me the letter.

Please have the letter faxed me by your secretary.

G 3 The future

The 'will'-future

We use ‘will-future' to talk about things that are certain to happen in the future; to say what we think will happen in the future; to express our decision to do something while we are speaking - something that we didn't plan. We form “will- future' with the help of the long form will or short form -'ll and the bare infinitive of the main verb (without particle to).

In general questions we put will before the subject. In special questions we put first Special question word * will. In short answers we use will or won't.

Time expressions: I'm afraid, probably, maybe, I'm sure, I think, I promise, I hope, I know.

Affirmative statements

I'm sure we’ll live out of town.

I promise I’ll work harder next year.

I think a garden will mean more work.

I know our team will win.


I promise I won’t be late.

I’m afraid she won’t pass her exam.

I’m tired. - OK. We won’t walk.

I’m hungry. - Ok, we won’t stay long.


What will happen?

What will we do tomorrow?

Will we live out of town?

Will we rehearse our play?

-Yes, we will. / No, we won't.

-Yes, we will. / No, we won't.

Shall is used with I and We in questions, suggestions and offers. Shall I help you with your bags?

What will /won’t happen if

We use the present simple form in if-sentences (clauses) and future in the main sentences (clauses). This means that the event in the main clause only takes place if the condition in the if-dause is fulfilled.


If -sentence (clause) - Present

Result clause - Future

If we meet in the street,

we will run just for fun.


If -sentence (clause) - Present

Result clause - Future

If we don’t meet in the street,

we won’t run just for fun.

Yes/ no questions

Result clause - Future

If -sentence (clause) - Present

Will he come to our western square

dance evening

if he has time?

Short answers



Yes, he will.

No, he won’t.

Listen to the poem “If” by Rudyard Kipling

If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you, If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too;

If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or being lied about, don't deal in lies, Or being hated, don't give way to hating And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise:

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings — nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you, If all men count with you, but none too much;

If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, And—which is more—you'll be a Man, my son!

G 4 After / Before / When

Such words as before, after, when, or while may be added to a clause to express that a second activity occurs earlier than, later than or at the same time as the activity in the main clause. If the verb in the main clause is present tense, the verb in clause following the preposition is also present.

Кelate the timing of two activities



after, before, when, while + CLAUSE

We watch a movie

after he arrives, (later than) habit

We make popcorn

before he arrives, (earlier than)

We make popcorn

while he drives here, (ongoing- same time activities)

We sit down

when he arrives, (at that moment)

We go out to dinner

as soon as the movie ends, (immediately following)

Such words as before, after, when, or while may also be added to a clause with a future tense verb expression will or (be) going to. However, the verb in the clause remains in the present tense form.



We will watch a movie

We are going to make popcorn

We will be making popcorn

We will sit down

We will go out to dinner

We will go out to dinner

We won’t start eating

We will pay our bill

We will have had a good time


after, before, when, while + CLAUSE after he arrives. *(will arrive) (later than)

before he arrives, (earlier than) while he is driving here, (ongoing- same time activities) when he arrives, (at that moment) as soon as the movie ends.

(immediately following) once the movie ends, (immediately following) until everyone receives food.

(immediately following) as dinner ends, (in the last moments of the first activity.)

by the time the evening ends, (in the time before) (future perfect).

G 5 Talking about the future

When we know about the future we normally use the present tense.

• For something scheduled or arranged, use the simple present

We have a lesson next Monday.

The train arrives at 6.30 in the morning.

The holidays start next week.

It is my birthday tomorrow.

• For plans or arrangements, use the present progressive

I’m playing football tomorrow. They are coming to see us tomorrow.

We’re having a party at Christmas.

We use (be) going to:

• To talk about plans and intentions:

I’m going to drive to work today.

They are going to move to Manchester.

• When we can see that something is likely to happen: Be careful! You are going to fall.

Look at those black clouds. I think it’s going to rain.

We use will to talk about the future:

• When we make predictions:

It will be a nice day tomorrow.

I think Brazil will win the World Cup. I'm sure you will enjoy the film.

• To make offers and promises:

I'll see you tomorrow.

We'll send you an email.

• To mean want to or be willing to:

I hope you will come to my party. George says he will help us.

• To talk about offers and promises: Tim will be at the meeting.

Mary will help with the cooking.

We often use verbs like would like, plan, want, mean, hope, expect to talk about the future:

What are you going to do next year? I’d like to go to University.

We plan to go to France for our holidays.

George wants to buy a new car.

G 6 The present perfect active

We use the present perfect to talk about past experiences in our lives. It is not important when they happened. Or we use it for actions which have recently finished and their results are visible in the present. Look at the pictures of Tom in his room. In picture 1 on the left he is renovating his room. In picture 2 you see the room clean and tidy. He has just renovated his room. To show the result we use the present perfect.

I am painting the wall.

I have painted the walls.

I have put the books on the shelf.

I have cleaned the window.

I have broken the bed.

My hair has gone pink.

We form the present perfect with the auxiliary verb have/has and the past participle. We form the past participle of regular verbs by adding -ed to the verb, e.g. clean - cleaned, study-studied. We form the past participle of irregular verbs differently, e.g. give-given. The time expressions include: just, already, never. They go between the verb have/has and the past participle.

Remember: we use has with he, she, it

He has just washed his hair.

He has jusе broken his bed.

He has already put his clothes in the

He has already put books on the shelf, wardrobe.

He has never painted the walls before. He has never renovated his room before.

Use already, just and never and remember them forever.


for most verbs we add -ed

washed, asked

for verbs ending in -e, we add -d

for verbs ending in consonant +y, we change

type -typed, decide -decided

this to -ied

study-studied, carry-carried

for stressed short vowel between two consonants we double the final consonant +ed

stop - stopped

The present perfect: Questions and short answers

We form questions by putting have or has before the subject pronoun. The typical signal words for questions in the present perfect are ever and yet. In short answers we only use Ves or No, the subject pronoun and have or has. We do not repeat the whole question.

Have we told you about the show yet?

-Yes, I have. /No, I haven’t.

Has she ever surfed the Internet?

-Yes, she has. /No, she hasn't.

We use already mostly in statements and yet in questions and negatives, for example: Have we told about the show yet? - Yes, you have already told us about it. But we haven't seen it yet.

The present perfect: Negation

We form negations by putting not between have or has and the past participle. Usually we use short forms. We place yet at the end of the sentence.

You haven’t answered my question.

The shop hasn’t closed yet.

They haven't read our letter yet.

The present perfect: Special questions

We form questions with question words by putting what, why, where, who at the beginning of the sentence. Have or has follow directly after question words.

What has Terry done to his hair?

- It’s not his hair, it’s only a wig. Where have you put my bag?

- On the table.

Why have you changed your hair?

- Because I didn’t like it.

Who has ever been to England?

- I have.

Where have you bought this magnet?

- In the store over there.

What have you done to your camera?

- I have left it somewhere.

Why has Nadiia cooked stuffed peppers?

- To treat her guests.

Who has ever been to Chyhyryn?

- I have.

Present perfect or simple past

Simple past

Present perfect

1 finished work an hour ago.

Time expressions: yesterday, in summer/ June/ 2013/ ago/ last week/month/year,

I've finished my work.

Time expressions: ever, never, just, yet, already, this week/month/year

G 7 The Past Perfect

[had + past participle]


• You had studied English before you moved to New York.

• Had you studied English before you moved to New York?

• You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

Complete list of Past Perfect Forms

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past

The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.


• I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Australia.

• Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.

• Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?

• She only understood the movie because she had read the book.

• Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.

• We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.

• A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2015?

B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With state verbs and some non-continuous uses of mixed verbs, we use the past perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.


• We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.

• By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.

• They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

Although the above use of past perfect is normally limited to state verbs and non-continuous uses of mixed verbs, the words 'live', 'work' 'teach', and 'study' are sometimes used in this way even though they are action verbs.

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect

Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.


• She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 2013 before she moved in with them in 2015.


If the past perfect action did occur at a specific time, the simple past can be used instead of the past perfect when 'before' or 'after' is used in the sentence. The words 'before' and 'after' actually tell you what happens first, so the past perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.


• She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 2013 before she moved in with them in 2015.

• She visited her Japanese relatives once in 2013 before she moved in with them in 2015.


If the past perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, past perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here past perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, simple past cannot be used.


• She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct

• She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct


'just' is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before now, e.g.


• The train had just left when I arrived at the station.

• She had just left the room when the police arrived.

• I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.

G 8 Modal verbs The modal verbs 'can/can't, must/mustn't, needn't'

Modal verbs are different from main verbs. We use can/cant to talk about the ability and possibility in the present; must to express necessity, duty or obligation; mustn't shows that it is important NOT to do something = it's FORBIDDEN; needn't explains that it is not necessary to do something; need is used as a modal verb mainly in questions and negations.

They have the same forms in all persons. They come before the subject in questions and take 'not' after them in negations. They take the infinitive without 'to' after them.

Affirmative statements and negations

I can swim

I can run

but I can’t dive.

but I can’t speak Spanish.

You must be careful

You must remember to phone the

but you needn’t worry.

doctor but you needn’t stay in bed.

I must attend the meeting.

You must attend the meeting.

(I have decided - duty, obligation).

(It is necessary).

I must study hard to pass exams.

You must study hard to pass exams.

(It’s my duty).

(It’s necessary).

You mustn’t swim when

You mustn’t take sweets from

the red flag is flying.

people you don’t know.

You mustn’t feed the animals.

You mustn’t take dogs to the restaurant.

(It’s forbidden to feed the animals)

(It’s prohibited to take dogs into the restaurant).

You don’t need to have a visa to visit

I needn’t do maths today. There will be no

Australia if you are Australian.

lesson tomorrow.

You don’t need to do the shopping.

You needn’t do the shopping. I’ll do it later.

I’ll do it later. (It is not necessary)

(It is not necessary).


Can you swim very fast?

Can I use this mobile phone in the UK?

Can’t we run around in a swimsuit?

Can’t you surf the Internet?

Who can’t swim?

Who can’t use the Google maps?

Need I talk to the teacher today?

Need I fill in an application form today?

Test yourself

Complete the sentences. Use ‘can/can't, must, mustn't, needn't'.

We ... escape! We ... go through the trees. We ... take the helicopter. We ... get across the river but we ... swim. We ... take the boat. We ... wait. We ... hurry up!

G 9 Modal verbs The modal verbs ‘may' ‘may not, 'should', ‘shouldn't, 'shall'

We use may to express possibility = it's possible, it's likely / perhaps, may not to refuse permission, May...? to ask permission when we do not know the other person well (it is rather formal and not used very often in modern spoken English); should and shouldn't to give advice or to talk about what we think is right or wrong; shall to make offers and suggestions and to ask for advice, suggestion or instruction.

- Shall I? Shall we...? What shall we?

You should means something like I think it is a good idea for you to do it. You shouldn't means something like I think it is a bad idea for you to do it.

You look pale. I think you should eat more vegetables.

You shouldn’t be so selfish.

You shouldn’t be so rude.

Tip! We do not use shouldn't where there isn't any obligation at all. Instead we use don't have to or don't need to, needn't.

Affirmative statements

It may rain later today. (It is possible)

Pete may come with us. (It is possible)

You should take it easy.

She should go to bed early.

We should go somewhere exciting for our holiday.


I may not have time to do it today.

(it is possible)

You shouldn’t get angry.

He shouldn’t work so much.


May I borrow your pen? (You do not know the other person well)

May we think about it? (at a formal meeting)

May I go now? (asking a teacher)

Should we tell her the truth?

What should I do?

Shouldn’t we try to finish it now?

Shall I help you choose Sam's present? (offer)

Shall we go to the football match tonight? (suggestion).

Where shall we go tonight? (asking for suggestion)

What shall we do? (asking for advice)


Can, may, must, should, need, shall and their negative forms can't, may not, mustn't, shouldn't and needn't are modal auxiliaries.

You always use them with the infinitive of a main verb.

There is no 'to' between the auxiliary and the main verb.

The present tense forms have no s in the 3rd person singular (except need - He needs).

The modal verbs ‘must’, ‘mustn’t’, ‘needn’t’, ‘should’ and ‘shouldn’t’

• You must eat fruits every day. It’s healthy.

• He mustn't eat chips. They're unhealthy.

• We needn't go jogging every day. Every second day is OK.

• You should drink more.

• They shouldn’t think about the future very often.

• Must we go on a diet? - No, you needn’t.

• What needn’t we do today?

• You must read this book. It’s fantastic.

• You mustn’t park here. It’s not allowed.

• You needn’t buy any paint. I have enough.

• You should look for a better job.

• You shouldn’t spend so much money.

• Must we take part in the meeting? - No, you needn’t.

• Do you need to go to the dentist?

I needn't stay home from school, but I mustn't do sports

Test yourself

a) Read the notices on the tree. Now write what you 'must' or 'mustn’t' do.

b) Complete the sentences. Use 'must'/'mustn't, 'can' or 'needn't'.

1. You ... bring sandwiches with you.

2. You ... buy some in the Jungle Café.

3. You ... worry about the weather.

It’s always warm.

4. You ... be afraid of the animals but you ... go too near them.

Grammar in songs

What's the key to learning English well?

Is it determination and persistence?

Or is it something that people are just born with?

We think it's neither of those things.

The key is to make learning English fun through the right tools and habits.

And one of the best tools is sitting right there all along, right inside your smartphone.

If you haven’t already been doing it, it’s not too late to start - to learn English through songs and music.

G 10 Relative clauses

1. We use relative clauses to identify or give additional information about nouns or indefinite pronouns as someone, somebody, something, another, and others), e.g. I know the woman who lives there. (The relative clause identifies the woman we are talking about), e.g. Kyiv is the city which attracts tourists. (The relative clause gives additional information about the city). Someone who has a lot of friends is lucky. (The relative clause directly follows the noun or pronoun which it is identifying or describing).

2. Sentences with relative clause can be seen as a combination of two sentences, e.g. I have a friend. + He loves to shop. = I have a friend who loves to shop.

We use who or that for people e.g. I have a friend who lives in Kyiv. Which or that are used for places or things, e.g. New York is the city which never sleeps. Whose + noun is used for people's possessions e.g. He is the man whose dog barks all day.

1 sentence

| main clause

| defining relative clause

For people :

who /that


For thigs:



Cricket is a game Where are the tennis balls

which/that which/that

is very popular in Britain, but not in Ukraine, were on this chair only a minute ago?



The man



can see in the picture is a famous American football star.

The man


can see in the picture is a famous American football star.

Is that the equipment


cricket players


Is that the equipment

cricket players



A defining relative clause gives you important information about a noun.

You use the relative pronoun who for people and the relative pronoun which for things. You can use that for people and things.

When the relative pronoun is the object of the relative clause, you can leave it out. A relative clause without a relative pronoun is a contact clause.

When people or things belong together, you can use the relative pronoun whose.

If the verb in a defining relative clause has a preposition (play with, talk to), put the preposition after the verb.

G 11 as...as, not as...as

We use as + adjective / adverb + as to make comparisons when the things we are comparing are equal in some way.

Simile is a figure of speech that compares two things, showing similarities between two different things. We can find simile examples in our daily speech.

We often hear comments like “John is as stow as a snail". Using similes attracts the attention and appeals directly to the senses of listeners or readers, e.g. The world's biggest bull is as big as a small elephant

We use not as... as to make comparisons between things which aren't equal: It’s not as heavy as I thought it would be, actually.

They didn't read as well as they usually do.

We can modify not as... as by using not quite as or not nearly as:

The second race was not quite as easy as the first one. {The second race was easy but the first one was easier.)

These new shoes are not nearly as comfortable as my old ones. (My old shoes are a lot more comfortable than these new shoes.)

We can also use not so... as. Not so... as is less common than not as... as:

The cycling was good but not so hard as the cross country skiing we did.

As ... as + possibility

We often use expressions of possibility or ability after as ... as: Can you come as soon as possible? Go to as many places as you can. We got here as fast as we could.

When we want to make comparisons referring to quantity, we use as much as with uncountable nouns and as many as with plural nouns: Greg makes as much money as Mick but not as much as Neil.

There weren't as many people there as I expected.

Too and enough

Too and enough indicate degree. They are used with adjectives.

Too means more than what is needed. He is too old to play football with the kids.

He has too many friends.

She has got too much patience

Enough means sufficient.

Dave is intelligent enough to do the right thing. You’re not working fast enough.

I don’t have enough time.

G 12 So + adjective (so difficult), so + adverb (so slowly)

We often use so when we mean ‘to such a great extent’. With this meaning, so is a degree adverb that modifies adjectives and other adverbs.

Using that camera is easy. Why is she making it so difficult?

I’m sorry I'm walking so slowly. I’ve hurt my ankle.

It doesn't always work out so well.

We often use so with that.

He’s so lazy that he never helps out with the housework.

It was so dark (that) we could hardly see.


We don’t use so before an adjective + a noun (attributive adjective). We use such. She emailed us such lovely pictures of her and Enzo.

Not:... so lovely pictures ...

We use such not so to modify noun phrases.

She is such a hard-working colleague.

Not:... so a hard-working colleague.

It’s taken them such a long time to send the travel brochures.

Not:... so a long time ...

So much and so many

We use so before much, many, little and few.

There were so many people on the beach it was difficult to get into the sea.

There are so few people who know what it is like in our country for other people from different cultures.

You've eaten so little and I've eaten so much!

We use so much, not so, before comparatives.

I feel so much better after I’ve been for a run in the park.

Not: I feel so better...

My house is so much colder than yours.

We can use such (as a determiner) before a noun phrase to add emphasis.

We visited such fascinating places on our trip through central Asia.

She has such lovely hair.

She lived in such loneliness, (formal)

We use such before the indefinite article, a/an:

We had such an awful meal at that restaurant!

Not: We had a such awful meal...

Such... that

We can use a that-clause after a noun phrase with such.

He is such a bad-tempered person that no one can work with him for long.

It was such a long and difficult exam that I was completely exhausted at the end.

G 13 Present Perfect Progressive

The present perfect progressive expresses an action that recently stopped or is still going on. It puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action.

Form of Present Perfect Progressive


I have been speaking.

He has been speaking.


I have not been speaking.

He has not been speaking.


Have I been speaking?

Has he been speaking?

I / you / we / they he / she / it

Exceptions in Spelling

Exceptions in spelling when adding ing

final e is dropped (but: ee is not changed)

after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled

I as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English) final ie becomes y


come - coming (but: agree - agreeing)

sit - sitting travel - travelling lie - lying

Use of Present Perfect Progressive

• puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result) Example: She has been writing for two hours.

• action that recently stopped or is still going on Example: I have been living here since 2001.

• finished action that influenced the present Example: I have been working all afternoon.

Signal Words of Present Perfect Progressive

• all day, for 4 years, since 2015, how long?, the whole week

G 14 From active to passive

We use the passive when the person who carries out the action is unknown or unimportant. We use the passive when the action itself is more important than the person who carries it out, as in the news, formal writing, and instructions.

To change a sentence from the active into the passive, we need to put the object in the first place and make it the subject in the passive sentence. e.g. Millions of people read the websites. The websites are read by millions of people.

The passive forms are


Past participle (V3)



Simple Present

am, is are



Simple Past

was, were



Present perfect

have been, has been




Verbs like give, offer, promise, send, show, bring, tell, teach, promise, buy, write, award, sell, grant etc. can have two objects: They gave her a CD.

If you want to stress who is given or offered something, you can use the personal passive: She was given a CD.

If a 'thing' (the CD) becomes the subject of the passive sentence, the person is put at the end of the passive sentence with the preposition to: The CD was given to her.

However, it is more usual for passive sentences to begin with the person.

Passive 1 (personal passive)

Passive 2

Everyone was sent a brochure with a lot of useful information.

The people were given all the


A brochure with a lot of useful information was sent to everyone in the group.

All the information was given to the people who had come to the casting.

G 15 The agent with the passive voice

The agent is the person or thing that performs the action and is the subject of the active sentence. In most passive sentences, the agent is not mentioned. If it is mentioned, however, it is usually preceded by the preposition by.

The pigeons were dispersed by a tourist walking past. (A tourist walking past dispersed the pigeons.)

He was hit by a falling branch while walking in the woods. (A falling branch hit him while he was walking in the woods.)

The instrument is an object that is not the doer of the action but something that the doer uses in performing the action. If it is mentioned in the passive sentence, it is preceded by the preposition with:

The crowds were dispersed with tear gas. (The police dispersed the crowds with tear gas.)

He was hit with a branch while walking in the woods. (Someone hit him with a branch while he was walking in the woods.)

(In the two passive sentences above, the agent is not mentioned. In the first sentence the identity of the agent is obvious, while in the second one it is unknown.)

With is also often used with the verbs fill, crowd, cram and pack:

The bottle was filled with sugar free coke.

The hall was crowded with people waiting for the mayor.

Our room is crammed with furniture.

The preposition in is often used with cover:

When I looked out the window in the morning, I saw that the streets were covered in snow.

G 16 Large numbers

We don't normally write numbers with words, but it's possible to do this - and of course this will show how we say the numbers.

In writing large numbers, American English uses a comma (,) to separate thousands, millions, etc. American English also uses a hyphen

( -) to separate 'tens' words (twenty, fifty, etc.) and 'ones' words (one, three, six, etc.)

Group 1




one thousand eleven


twenty-one thousand eleven


seven hundred twenty-one thousand eleven

Group 2




one million two hundred fifty-six thousand seven hundred twenty-one


thirty-one million two hundred fifty-six thousand seven hundred twenty-one


six hundred thirty-one million two hundred fifty-six thousand seven hundred twenty-one

Group 3




one billion four hundred ninety-two million six hundred thirty-eight thousand five hundred twenty-six


forty-one billion four hundred ninety-two million six hundred thirty-eight thousand five hundred twenty-six nine hundred forty-one billion four hundred ninety-two


million six hundred thirty-eight thousand five hundred twenty-six

G17 Reflexive pronouns

The reflexive pronouns are:

Singular: myself - yourself - himself - herself - itself

Plural: ourselves - yourselves - themselves

We use a reflexive pronoun:

• As a direct object when the object is the same as the subject of the verb:

I am teaching myself to play the piano.

Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.

• We can use a reflexive pronoun as direct object with most transitive verbs, but these are the most common:

amuse • blame • cut • dry • enjoy • help • hurt • introduce • kill • prepare • satisfy • teach

We do not use a reflexive pronoun after verbs which describe things people usually do for themselves, such as wash, shave, dress:

He washed [himself] in cold water.

He always shaved [himself] before going out in the evening.

Michael dressed [himself] and got ready for the party.

• We only use reflexives with these verbs for emphasis:

He dressed himself in spite of his injuries.

She's old enough to wash herself.

• Some verbs change their meaning slightly when they have a reflexive pronoun as direct object:

Would you like to help yourself to another drink?

= Would you like to take another drink.

He busied himself in the kitchen.

= He worked busily in the kitchen.

• As indirect object when the indirect object is the same as the subject of the verb:

Would you like to pour yourself a drink.

• As the object of a preposition when the object refers to the subject of the clause:

They had to cook for themselves.

He was feeling very sorry for himself.

I'm hungry. I'll make myself

something to eat

Can you see yourself

in the photo, Mel?

Poor Jake. He's hurt himself

at football.

Amy only thinks of herself. Look at that cat. It's washing itself.

We've taught ourselves

how to cook.

Why can't you behave yourselves?

The two girls are looking at themselves

in a video.

Shall I call Charlie for you, Amy?

Can you help me with this exercise? Hey, this is a cool song!

Mel's dress looks nice.

Do you think Dad should help us? We won't be there tomorrow.

Did Jake tell you about Amy's and Mel's party?

No, thank you. I can call him myself.

Why don't you try to do it yourself? Yes, my brother wrote it himself. Imagine. She made it herself.

I think we can build the wall ourselves. You'll have to make lunch yourselves.

No, they told us themselves.

G18 Nouns, Possessives nouns

A noun is a word that names a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. All nouns can be further classified as proper or common.

Common Nouns

Common nouns are words used to name general items rather than specific ones e.g. a living room, a book, trousers, a jumper.

You broke my favorite mug.

I really want a new pair of jeans.

Proper Nouns

Proper nouns have two distinct features: They name specific one-of- a-kind items, and they begin with capital letters, no matter where they occur within a sentence.

I can’t believe you broke my Snoopy mug.

I really want to buy a new pair of Levis.

Countable Nouns are nouns which we can count. They have singular and plural forms. We usually form the plural by adding - s

irregular plurals

man - men, woman - women, foot - feet, tooth - teeth mouse - mice,

child - children, goose - geese

the same form in

some kinds of animals and fish: sheep, deer, trout, cod,

the singular and


the plural

some nouns ending in -s: crossroads, means, series, species, works

Uncountable Nouns are nouns which we cannot count. They don’t have different plural forms. Uncountable nouns include:

many types of food: flour, yoghurt, butter, meat, cheese, rise, buckwheat, etc. liquids: coffee, lemonade, oil, water, etc.

materials: wood, plastic, silver, glass, etc.

abstract nouns: knowledge, beauty, justice, freedom, education, love, etc.

others research, luggage, hair, weather, advice, news, information, money, fun, equipment, litter, rubbish, trash, behavior, etc.

Countable nouns

Verbs can take singular or plural verbs

Articles always go with a/an/the/ my, etc.

can be used alone or with some/any/many/few/ a few, a lot of/ lots of in the plural.

Uncountable nouns

always take singular verbs do not go with a/an/one/two, etc. can be used alone or with some/any/much/little/ a little/ a lot of / lots of /the! in the plural.

Note: we use a/an, one/two, etc. with uncountable nouns such as coffee, tea, soda, juice, etc. when we order something in a restaurant, café, snack bar.

e.g. We’ll have three oranges, please.

Rules for possessive nouns

We add an apostrophe + s to most singular nouns and to plural nouns

‘s that do not end in s, e.g. kitten’s toy, Sam’s cake, Emma's interview, women’s rights, men's trousers

, We add an apostrophe only to plural nouns that already end in s, e.g. companies' workers, horses’ stalls, countries’ capitals

G19 The comparison of adjectives

One syllable adjectives small - smaller - (the) smallest nice - nicer - (the) nicest big - bigger - (the) biggest

Two syllable adjectives ending with - y healthy - healthier - (the) healthiest tasty - tastier - (the) tastiest

Two and more syllable adjectives boring - more boring - (the) most boring difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult

long - longer - (the) longest wise - wiser - (the) wisest fat - fatter - (the) fattest

happy - happier - (the) happiest hungry - hungrier - (the) hungriest

famous - more famous - (the) most famous careful - more careful - (the) most careful

He’s older than my brother.

I think French is as difficult as English.

Sweden is bigger than Britain.

Helen earns as much money as Colin.

good and bad are irregular and you must learn them.

good - better - (the) best

bad - worse - (the) worst

Test yourself

a) Compare the weather. Use 'good', 'better', 'best'. Today the weather is good in France.

It's ... in Ireland and it's ... in Italy.

b) Now compare the weather in London, Berlin and New York.

Test yourself

Look at all the clothes and compare diem.

Example: The brown sweatshirt is very old. The green sweatshirt is newer than ... .Go on, please!

G 20 The definite and indefinite article

We use the indefinite article with singular countable nouns when we talk about them in general e.g. I want to buy a dress.

With the verbs to be and have (got) - Mary has a dog. It's a German Shepherd. We use no article or the definite article 'the' with abstract nouns.

No article

Life is too short.

lime goes very quickly.

With by + means of transport:

I usually go to work by bus.

We can go to Windsor by train.

With the names of meals

Rhona often cooks lunch herself.

We sometimes watch TV after tea.

We use the definite article ‘the’


I’m reading a book about the life of Francis Drake.

I’ll always remember the time we spent together.

I saw her on the bus yesterday.

The train to Windsor leaves at 11.35.

The lunch we had at that restaurant was nice.

I enjoyed the tea on Shirin's birthday.

We omit the definite article ‘the’ before

with the names of the rivers, e.g. the Dnipro

with the names of the seas, e.g. the Sea of Azov

with the names of the oceans, e.g. the Atlantic

with the names of the mountain ranges, e.g. the Carpathians

but: individual mountains, e.g. Hoverla

with the names of the groups of islands, e.g. the Bahamas

but: individual islands, e.g. Tahiti

with the names of the channels , e.g. the English Channel

with the names of the straits, e.g. the Strait of Dover

with the names of musical instruments and dances, e.g. the piano, the tango

with the names of the families, e.g. the Smiths

with the names of nationalities ending in -sh,

but: other plural nationalists

-ch, -ese, e.g.

are used with or without the,

the French, the Scottish, the Welsh, the

e.g. Americans, Ukrainians,


the Greek

with tides, e.g. the King, the Prince ofWales,

but: no article before titles

the Queen

with proper names, e.g.

with the words morning, afternoon, evening

Queen Victoria

but: at night, at midnight,

We use the definite article ‘the’

at noon, by day/night, at 4 o’clock

We omit the definite article

with the words, e.g. beach, cinema, city, coast,

‘the’ before but: not before man

countryside, earth, ground, jungle, radio, pub,


seaside, sky, station, shop, theatre, village, weather, world

The + adjective refer to a group of people usually with the adjectives, e.g. poor, rich, sick, homeless, disabled, young, old, blind, deaf

but: the Fourth of July, the Cherry Festival, the

Holidays, e.g. Christmas,

Jazz Festival.

Christmas Eve, New Year's

Day, New Year’s, New Year's Eve,

proper nouns, e.g. Ukraine, Europe

the names of sports and games, e.g. football, rugby, athletics

activities, e.g. swimming

days and months, e.g. Sunday, January colors, e.g. red, white

but: when the name of the language is followed languages, e.g. English

by the word ‘language’ the English language but: when the name of the countries include

the names of the countries,

words such as state, kingdom, republic (the

e.g. Ukraine, France,

United Kingdom)


or the Netherlands, the Lebanon, the Sudan,

cities, e.g. Kyiv, London, Paris

but. the Mall, the London Road, the High Street, the Strand

streets, e.g. Shevchenko Street squares, e.g. Trafalgar Square

but: the Bridge of Sights, the Humber Bridge

bridges, e.g. Tower Bridge

parks, e.g. Hyde Park railway stations, e.g. Victoria station lakes, e.g. Lake Geneva continents, e.g. Africa

but: the John E Kennedy International

airports, e.g., Heathrow Airport,



Newspapers, e.g. The New York Times,

but: magazines, e.g. Newsweek,

The Washington Post.


G 21 Verbs and adjectives

be, seem, feel, stay

become, get

look, smell, sound, taste

The Asian food looked

Rhona was a little shy at

Some bands have



become famous in

It smelled good and tasted



Everything seemed so strange to her. But soon she

I'm getting tired of

Some of the names

felt better.

this music.

sounded unusual.

And she stayed calm when they all started to speak Punjabi.

Test yourself

Which or who? Fill in the right word.

1. The award ... looks like someone’s uncle is called an ‘Oscar’.

2. The people ... pose on the red carpet before the ceremony are stars.

3. The first award ... MTV gave for music videos was a statue of an astronaut.

So long, Farewell!

Your Year 9 journey is over! Summer is the great time to continue having fun with English. Keep reading books, listening to music and singing along, and watching your favorite English movies. Don't forget that practice makes perfect.

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